Publications by authors named "J Bradley Elder"

1,515 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Infantile hemangioma affecting the iris.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Dermatology, The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

An infant girl developed a hemangioma affecting her left iris concurrently with diffuse cutaneous infantile hemangiomas from day 2 of life. Intraocular hemangiomas are rarely reported and are usually associated with neonatal hemangiomatosis, the presence of which indicates a high risk for visceral lesions. This striking case highlights the unusual clinical presentation of iris hemangioma and demonstrates the importance of conducting visceral screening when faced with these lesions. Oral propranolol was commenced and resulted in rapid improvement of all lesions without complication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14833DOI Listing
October 2021

A high-resolution HLA reference panel capturing global population diversity enables multi-ancestry fine-mapping in HIV host response.

Nat Genet 2021 Oct 5;53(10):1504-1516. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Fine-mapping to plausible causal variation may be more effective in multi-ancestry cohorts, particularly in the MHC, which has population-specific structure. To enable such studies, we constructed a large (n = 21,546) HLA reference panel spanning five global populations based on whole-genome sequences. Despite population-specific long-range haplotypes, we demonstrated accurate imputation at G-group resolution (94.2%, 93.7%, 97.8% and 93.7% in admixed African (AA), East Asian (EAS), European (EUR) and Latino (LAT) populations). Applying HLA imputation to genome-wide association study data for HIV-1 viral load in three populations (EUR, AA and LAT), we obviated effects of previously reported associations from population-specific HIV studies and discovered a novel association at position 156 in HLA-B. We pinpointed the MHC association to three amino acid positions (97, 67 and 156) marking three consecutive pockets (C, B and D) within the HLA-B peptide-binding groove, explaining 12.9% of trait variance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00935-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Ice hockey spectators use contextual cues to guide predictive eye movements.

Curr Biol 2021 Aug;31(16):R991-R992

Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (CMBB), Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Eye movements are an integral part of human visual perception. They allow us to have a small foveal region with exquisite acuity and at the same time a large visual field. For a long time, eye movements were regarded as machine-like behaviors in response to visual stimulation, but over the past few decades it has been convincingly shown that expectations, intended actions, rewards and many other cognitive factors can have profound effects on the way we move our eyes. In order to be useful, our oculomotor system must minimize delay with respect to the dynamic events in the visual scene. The ability to do so has been demonstrated in situations where we are in control of these events, for example when we are making a sandwich or tea, and when we are active participants, for example when hitting a cricket ball. But what about scenes with complex dynamics that we do not control or directly take part in, like a hockey game we are watching as a spectator? A semantic influence on gaze fixation location during viewing of tennis videos has been suggested before. Here we use carefully annotated hockey videos to show that the brain is indeed able to exploit the semantic context of the game to anticipate the continuous motion of the puck, leading to eye movements that are fundamentally different than when following exactly the same motion without any context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.06.087DOI Listing
August 2021

Intraoperative 3 T MRI is more correlative to residual disease extent than early postoperative MRI.

J Neurooncol 2021 Sep 20;154(3):345-351. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Purpose: Extent of resection of low grade glioma (LGG) is an important prognostic variable, and may influence decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in certain patient populations. Immediate postoperative magnetic resonance image (MRI) is the mainstay for assessing residual tumor. However, previous studies have suggested that early postoperative MRI fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) (within 48 h) may overestimate residual tumor volume in LGG. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) without subsequent resection may more accurately assess residual tumor. Consistency in MRI techniques and utilization of higher magnet strengths may further improve both comparisons between MRI studies performed at different time points as well as the specificity of MRI findings to identify residual tumor. To evaluate the utility of 3 T iMRI in the imaging of LGG, we volumetrically analyzed intraoperative, early, and late (~ 3 months after surgery) postoperative MRIs after resection of LGG.

Methods: A total of 32 patients with LGG were assessed retrospectively. Residual tumor was defined as hyperintense T2 signal on FLAIR. Volumetric assessment was performed with intraoperative, early, and late postoperative FLAIR via TeraRecon iNtuition.

Results: Perilesional FLAIR parenchymal abnormality volumes were significantly different comparing intraoperative and early postoperative MRI (2.17 ± 0.45 cm vs. 5.47 ± 1.07 cm, respectively (p = 0.0002)). A significant difference of perilesional FLAIR parenchymal abnormality volumes was also found comparing early and late postoperative MRI (5.47 ± 1.07 cm vs. 3.22 ± 0.64 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001)). There was no significant difference between intraoperative and late postoperative Perilesional FLAIR parenchymal abnormality volumes.

Conclusions: Intraoperative 3 T MRI without further resection appears to better reflect the volume of residual tumor in LGG compared with early postoperative 3 T MRI. Early postoperative MRI may overestimate residual tumor. As such, intraoperative MRI performed after completion of tumor resection may be more useful for making decisions regarding adjuvant therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-021-03833-4DOI Listing
September 2021

An Update on Gene Therapy Approaches for Parkinson's Disease: Restoration of Dopaminergic Function.

J Parkinsons Dis 2021;11(s2):S173-S182

Department of Neurological Surgery, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

At present there is a significant unmet need for clinically available treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to stably restore balance to dopamine network function, leaving patients with inadequate management of symptoms as the disease progresses. Gene therapy is an attractive approach to impart a durable effect on neuronal function through introduction of genetic material to reestablish dopamine levels and/or functionally recover dopaminergic signaling by improving neuronal health. Ongoing clinical gene therapy trials in PD are focused on enzymatic enhancement of dopamine production and/or the restoration of the nigrostriatal pathway to improve dopaminergic network function. In this review, we discuss data from current gene therapy trials for PD and recent advances in study design and surgical approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-212724DOI Listing
January 2021
-->