Publications by authors named "J Alyce Bradbury"

684 Publications

Natural Products in the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases: Lessons Learned from the 20th KAST Frontier Scientists Workshop.

Nutrients 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The incidence of metabolic and chronic diseases including cancer, obesity, inflammation-related diseases sharply increased in the 21st century. Major underlying causes for these diseases are inflammation and oxidative stress. Accordingly, natural products and their bioactive components are obvious therapeutic agents for these diseases, given their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Research in this area has been significantly expanded to include chemical identification of these compounds using advanced analytical techniques, determining their mechanism of action, food fortification and supplement development, and enhancing their bioavailability and bioactivity using nanotechnology. These timely topics were discussed at the 20th Frontier Scientists Workshop sponsored by the Korean Academy of Science and Technology, held at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 23 November 2019. Scientists from South Korea and the U.S. shared their recent research under the overarching theme of Bioactive Compounds, Nanoparticles, and Disease Prevention. This review summarizes presentations at the workshop to provide current knowledge of the role of natural products in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061881DOI Listing
May 2021

Proposing the VetCompass clinical grading tool for heat-related illness in dogs.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6828. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pathobiology and Population Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, Herts, UK.

Heat-related illness is a potentially fatal condition in dogs. Rapid and accurate recognition of the severity can improve clinical management in affected dogs and lead to better outcomes. This study explored retrospective VetCompass veterinary clinical records to investigate the clinical signs recorded for dogs presenting with heat-related illness to primary-care veterinary practice from 2016 to 2018. The relative risk of death associated with these clinical signs was reported and used to develop a novel clinical grading tool. From the clinical records of 856 heat-related illness events, the most frequently recorded clinical signs were respiratory changes (68.73%) and lethargy (47.79%). The clinical signs with the highest relative risk of death were neurological dysfunction, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and bleeding disorders. The novel VetCompass Clinical Grading Tool for Heat-Related Illness in dogs defines three grades: mild (altered respiration, lethargy), moderate (gastrointestinal signs, a single seizure, episodic collapse) and severe (neurological dysfunction, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, bleeding disorders). This novel grading tool offers a simple, evidence-based device to improve recognition of heat-related illness in dogs and promote improved decision-making for earlier interventions such as cooling and hospitalisation. This could improve outcomes and protect the welfare of dogs in the face of rising global temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86235-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994647PMC
March 2021

A cross-sectional survey of the readiness of consumers to adopt an environmentally sustainable diet.

Nutr J 2020 12 9;19(1):138. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Faculty of Health and Social Care, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.

Background: The current food system is responsible for significant environmental damage therefore, encouraging consumers to adopt an environmentally sustainable diet is a key public health challenge. Dietary guidelines have been developed that outline recommendations for purchasing and consuming food in an environmentally sustainable manner, but they have not yet been incorporated in UK national dietary guidelines.

Methods: Via an online survey of UK adults, we evaluated consumers' perceptions of the environmental benefit of various sustainable diet recommendations, their readiness to adopt these behaviours using the stage of change construct of the Transtheoretical Model, the factors that influenced their food choices, and their current consumption of plant- and animal-based sources of protein. Additionally, we investigated how demographic characteristics and food choice motives were associated with perceived environmental benefit of and readiness to adopt these sustainable diet recommendations.

Results: The survey was completed by 442 participants (66% female, 80% aged 25-54 years, 85% with higher education). The majority of participants considered the recommendations to 'reduce consumption of air-freighted foods' (79%), 'reduce food waste' (75%), and 'buy locally grown produce' (78%) to have a high environmental benefit, whereas a smaller proportion of participants perceived 'prioritise plant-based proteins' (42%) and 'choose organic produce' (27%) to have a high environmental benefit. Differences in perceptions and readiness to adopt sustainable dietary behaviours were observed between demographic groups, with women significantly more likely than men to be in action/maintenance (A/M) stages of change for prioritising plant proteins (OR 0.54), and younger participants more likely to be in pre-contemplation/contemplation (PC/C) stages of change for 'choose organic produce' (OR 2.03) and 'choose sustainable fish' (OR 2.45). Health, cost, environmental sustainability and taste were the most commonly reported food choice motives. Reporting environmental sustainability as a food choice motive was associated with readiness to adopt sustainable diet recommendations.

Conclusions: We found that consumers in the UK are engaged with some aspects of sustainable diets but remain resistant to others. The results of this study indicate that acceptable dietary guidelines could be developed to address environmental sustainability. Several behaviours were identified that consumers were willing to adopt, but there were barriers preventing them, highlighting that policy action is required to enable behaviour change to occur. Differences between demographic groups highlight potential targets for future campaigns promoting sustainable diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00644-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727219PMC
December 2020

Lrp1 Regulation of Pulmonary Function. Follow-Up of Human GWAS in Mice.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 03;64(3):368-378

Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory.

Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 270 loci associated with pulmonary function; however, follow-up studies to determine causal genes at these loci are few. SNPs in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) are associated with human pulmonary function in GWASs. Using murine models, we investigated the effect of genetic disruption of the gene in smooth muscle cells on pulmonary function in naive animals and after exposure to bacterial LPS or house dust mite extract. Disruption of in smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in tissue resistance, elastance, and tissue elastance at baseline. Furthermore, disruption of in smooth muscle increases airway responsiveness as measured by increased total lung resistance and airway resistance after methacholine. Immune cell counts in BAL fluid were increased in animals with disruption. The difference in airway responsiveness by genotype observed in naive animals was not observed after LPS or house dust mite extract exposure. To further explore the mechanisms contributing to changes in pulmonary function, we identified several ligands dysregulated with disruption in smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that dysregulation of LRP1 in smooth muscle cells affects baseline pulmonary function and airway responsiveness and helps establish as the causal gene at this GWAS locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2019-0444OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909338PMC
March 2021

Probiotics for pain of osteoarthritis; An N-of-1 trial of individual effects.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Nov 29;54:102548. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of probiotics in osteoarthritic pain for one individual.

Methods: The study was an N-of-1 trial design, divided into 3 blocks of 10 weeks. Each block included one pair of randomized interventions (AB), separated by a washout period. The trial took place in a private naturopathic practice in Sydney, Australia. The participant was a 67 year old female with osteoarthritis in her lower back and right ankle. The active intervention was two daily capsules that contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis. The placebo was an identical capsule that did not contain probiotics. The primary outcome was daily pain scores, measured by the participant on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included patient preference (of intervention), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis (CDSA) and rescue medication usage. A dependent t-test analysed mean pain scores for the last week of each intervention across the three blocks of the study.

Results: The probiotic intervention was associated with lower pain scores and was the preferred intervention chosen by the participant. The mean pain score on the VAS was 4.9 ± 2.2 in the placebo condition compared to 4.0 ± 1.7 in the probiotic condition (t(20) = 2.2, p =  0.04, difference = 0.9, 95 % CI [0.04, 1.77]).

Conclusions: The reduction in pain scores associated with the probiotic intervention was small but clinically significant for this patient. A holistic view of the patient focusing on digestive integrity and function may be crucial for clinical applications of interventions such as probiotics. N-of-1 trial designs allow for the measurement of a holistic approach to an individual, which is aligned with naturopathic practice. Further trials are required to generate data to enable reliable estimation of population effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102548DOI Listing
November 2020