Publications by authors named "J Alejandro Rauh-Hain"

129 Publications

Outcomes of the First Pregnancy After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 06;137(6):1109-1118

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, the Department of Health Services Research, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, and the Department of Breast Medical Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas; and the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of the first pregnancy after fertility-sparing surgery in patients treated for early-stage ovarian cancer.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of women aged 18-45 years with a history of stage IA or IC ovarian cancer reported to the California Cancer Registry for the years 2000-2012. These data were linked to the 2000-2012 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development birth and discharge data sets to ascertain oncologic characteristics and obstetric outcomes. We included in the case group ovarian cancer patients who conceived at least 3 months after fertility-sparing surgery. The primary outcome was preterm birth, and only the first pregnancy after cancer diagnosis was considered. Secondary outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, neonatal morbidity (respiratory support within 72 hours after birth, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, seizures, infection, meconium aspiration syndrome, birth trauma, and intracranial or subgaleal hemorrhage), and severe maternal morbidity as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Propensity scores were used to match women in a 1:2 ratio for the case group and the control group. Wald statistics and logistic regressions were used to evaluate outcomes.

Results: A total of 153 patients who conceived after fertility-sparing surgery were matched to 306 women in a control group. Histologic types included epithelial (55%), germ-cell (37%), and sex-cord stromal (7%). Treatment for ovarian cancer was not associated with preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation (13.7% vs 11.4%; odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% CI 0.69-2.20), SGA neonates (birth weight less than the 10th percentile: 11.8% vs 12.7%; OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.50-1.66), severe maternal morbidity (2.6% vs 1.3%; OR 2.03, 95% CI 0.50-8.25), or neonatal morbidity (both 5.9% OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.44-2.28).

Conclusion: Patients who conceived at least 3 months after surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer did not have an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141030PMC
June 2021

Private Equity Investments In Health Care: An Overview Of Hospital And Health System Leveraged Buyouts, 2003-17.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2021 05;40(5):719-726

Vivian Ho is the James A. Baker III Institute Chair in Health Economics at Rice University and a professor in the Department of Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine.

Private equity firms have increased their participation in the US health care system, raising questions about incentive alignment and downstream effects on patients. However, there is a lack of systematic characterization of private equity acquisition of short-term acute care hospitals. We present an overview of the scope of private equity-backed hospital acquisitions over the course of 2003-17, comparing the financial and operational differences between those hospitals and hospitals that remained unacquired through 2017. A total of 42 private equity deals occurred, involving 282 unique hospitals across 36 states. In unadjusted analyses, hospitals that were acquired had larger bed sizes, more discharges, and more full-time-equivalent staff positions in 2003 relative to nonacquired hospitals; private equity-acquired hospitals also had higher charge-to-cost ratios and higher operating margins, and this gap widened during our study period. These findings motivate evaluations by policy makers and researchers on the impact, if any, of private equity acquisition on health care access, spending, and risk-adjusted outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01535DOI Listing
May 2021

Timing of surgery in patients with partial response or stable disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jun 16;161(3):660-667. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The ideal number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) cycles prior to interval tumor-reductive surgery (iTRS) for advanced ovarian cancer is poorly defined. We sought to assess survival stratified by number of NACT cycles and residual disease following iTRS in patients with advanced ovarian cancer with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) following 3-4 cycles of NACT.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with advanced high-grade ovarian cancer (diagnosed 2/1/2013 to 2/1/2018) who received at least 3 cycles of NACT and iTRS and had a PR or SD. The population was divided into four groups based on the number of NACT cycles prior to iTRS and residual disease status after (CGR [complete gross residual] or incomplete resection [any amount of residual disease]): 1) 3-4 NACT cycles/CGR, 2) 3-4 NACT cycles/incomplete resection, 3) > 4 cycles/CGR, and 4) >4 cycles/incomplete resection. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using a Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator and modeled using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results: The cohort consisted of 265 patients with advanced high-grade ovarian cancer with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. Most were White (87%), had serous histology (89%), and stage IV disease (57%), with an overall CGR rate of 81%. In a multivariable analysis receipt of >4 NACT cycles was not associated with worse PFS or OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.74-1.42; aHR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.73-1.72 respectively) than was receipt of 3-4 cycles. Any amount of residual disease was associated with worse PFS and OS regardless of the number of NACT cycles (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.09-2.22; aHR 2.38, 95% CI 1.52-3.72 respectively).

Conclusions: Residual disease was associated with worse survival outcomes regardless of the number of NACT cycles in patients with PR or SD after NACT for advanced high-grade ovarian cancer. These data suggest that the ability to achieve CGR should take precedence in decision-making regarding the timing of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.04.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165031PMC
June 2021

Factors associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, United States of America.

Objectives: To evaluate the factors associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and the ability to undergo interval tumor reductive surgery (iTRS) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review from April 2013 to March 2019 of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer triaged to NACT based on our standard triage algorithm. Clinicopathologic and treatment data were analyzed for factors associated with response to NACT, outcomes at iTRS, and their impact on progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: 562 patients met inclusion criteria and triaged to NACT following laparoscopy (n = 132) or without laparoscopy (n = 430). 413 patients underwent iTRS (74%). Factors that correlated with a patient reaching iTRS included increasing age (p < 0.001), higher Charlson comorbidity index (p < 0.001), ECOG status 2 or 3 (<0.001), and laparoscopic assessment (<0.001). Patients with CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS had higher rates of complete gross resection (88% vs. 65%, p < 0.001) and improved PFS (16.8 vs. 12.7 months, p < 0.001). Patients receiving dose-dense paclitaxel (76% vs. 60%, p = 0.004) and CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS (85% vs. 66%, p < 0.001) had higher rates of complete radiographic response. On multivariate analysis, germline BRCA 1/2 mutation (p = 0.001), iTRS vs. no surgery (R0, p < 0.001; ≤1 cm, p < 0.001; >1 cm, p < 0.001), dose-dense chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS (p = 0.001) were independent significant factors affecting PFS.

Conclusions: Normalization of CA-125 at the time of iTRS following NACT may serve as a surrogate marker for prognosis in this high-risk population. Our NACT cohort experienced improved response rates and PFS with dose-dense therapy compared to conventional dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia in patients receiving poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jun 15;161(3):653-659. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical trials demonstrated that PARPi (poly [adenosine diphosphate-ribose]-ADP polymerase inhibitor) therapy is effective in solid tumors. However, long term effects such as therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) are poorly described. We sought to quantify whether PARPi therapy is associated with the development of MDS/AML.

Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched (inception to January 6, 2020) and phase 2 and 3 clinical trials that randomized patients with solid tumors to a PARPi or control therapy were included. The PRISMA guidelines were used to extract data independently by multiple authors. We extracted person-time and number of cases of MDS/AML in the PARPi and control arms of each study and pooled results with a random-effects Poisson regression model. The pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MDS/AML among patients randomized to PARPi therapy was compared to those randomized to a control.

Results: We identified 14 studies that included 5739 patients. Accounting for intra-study clustering, the risk of MDS/AML was similar in patients who were randomly assigned to receive PARPi compared to controls (IRR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-2.26). In the front-line setting, PARPi therapy was associated with developing MDS/AML (IRR 5.43, 95% CI 1.51-19.60). Among patients treated for recurrence, however, the risk of MDS/AML appeared to be similar among patients randomized to PARPi or control treatment. Among studies that included only patients with a BRCA mutation, the risk of MDS/AML was similar in both treatment groups (IRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.45-1.53), but PARPi therapy was associated with MDS/AML in studies with an unrestricted population (IRR 2.43, 95% CI 1.17-5.06).

Conclusion: The pooled overall effect was not statistically significant. However, treatment with PARPi was associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence of MDS/AML among patients receiving front-line cancer therapy and those with limited prior exposure to chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164998PMC
June 2021