Publications by authors named "Jürgen Schymeinsky"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of a miniaturized 96-Transwell air-liquid interface human small airway epithelial model.

Sci Rep 2020 08 3;10(1):13022. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Drug Discovery Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.

In order to overcome the challenges associated with a limited number of airway epithelial cells that can be obtained from clinical sampling and their restrained capacity to divide ex vivo, miniaturization of respiratory drug discovery assays is of pivotal importance. Thus, a 96-well microplate system was developed where primary human small airway epithelial (hSAE) cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI). After four weeks of ALI culture, a pseudostratified epithelium containing basal, club, goblet and ciliated cells was produced. The 96-well ALI cultures displayed a cellular composition, ciliary beating frequency, and intercellular tight junctions similar to 24-well conditions. A novel custom-made device for 96-parallelized transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) measurements, together with dextran permeability measurements, confirmed that the 96-well culture developed a tight barrier function during ALI differentiation. 96-well hSAE cultures were responsive to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, the miniaturized cellular model system enables the recapitulation of a physiologically responsive, differentiated small airway epithelium, and a robotic integration provides a medium throughput approach towards pharmaceutical drug discovery, for instance, in respect of fibrotic distal airway/lung diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69948-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400554PMC
August 2020

Intermittent exposure to whole cigarette smoke alters the differentiation of primary small airway epithelial cells in the air-liquid interface culture.

Sci Rep 2020 04 10;10(1):6257. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Immunology & Respiratory Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.

Cigarette smoke (CS) is the leading risk factor to develop COPD. Therefore, the pathologic effects of whole CS on the differentiation of primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were investigated, using cells from three healthy donors and three COPD patients, cultured under ALI (air-liquid interface) conditions. The analysis of the epithelial physiology demonstrated that CS impaired barrier formation and reduced cilia beat activity. Although, COPD-derived ALI cultures preserved some features known from COPD patients, CS-induced effects were similarly pronounced in ALI cultures from patients compared to healthy controls. RNA sequencing analyses revealed the deregulation of marker genes for basal and secretory cells upon CS exposure. The comparison between gene signatures obtained from the in vitro model (CS vs. air) with a published data set from human epithelial brushes (smoker vs. non-smoker) revealed a high degree of similarity between deregulated genes and pathways induced by CS. Taken together, whole cigarette smoke alters the differentiation of small airway basal cells in vitro. The established model showed a good translatability to the situation in vivo. Thus, the model can help to identify and test novel therapeutic approaches to restore the impaired epithelial repair mechanisms in COPD, which is still a high medical need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63345-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148343PMC
April 2020

RNAi screening identifies a mechanosensitive ROCK-JAK2-STAT3 network central to myofibroblast activation.

J Cell Sci 2018 05 15;131(10). Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Myofibroblasts play key roles in wound healing and pathological fibrosis. Here, we used an RNAi screen to characterize myofibroblast regulatory genes, using a high-content imaging approach to quantify α-smooth muscle actin stress fibers in cultured human fibroblasts. Screen hits were validated on physiological compliance hydrogels, and selected hits tested in primary fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our RNAi screen led to the identification of STAT3 as an essential mediator of myofibroblast activation and function. Strikingly, we found that STAT3 phosphorylation, while responsive to exogenous ligands on both soft and stiff matrices, is innately active on a stiff matrix in a ligand/receptor-independent, but ROCK- and JAK2-dependent fashion. These results demonstrate how a cytokine-inducible signal can become persistently activated by pathological matrix stiffening. Consistent with a pivotal role for this pathway in driving persistent fibrosis, a STAT3 inhibitor attenuated murine pulmonary fibrosis when administered in a therapeutic fashion after bleomycin injury. Our results identify novel genes essential for the myofibroblast phenotype, and point to STAT3 as an important target in pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.209932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031327PMC
May 2018

ATP is stored in lamellar bodies to activate vesicular P2X in an autocrine fashion upon exocytosis.

J Gen Physiol 2018 02 27;150(2):277-291. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Institute of General Physiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

Vesicular P2X receptors are known to facilitate secretion and activation of pulmonary surfactant in the alveoli of the lungs. P2X receptors are expressed in the membrane of lamellar bodies (LBs), large secretory lysosomes that store lung surfactant in alveolar type II epithelial cells, and become inserted into the plasma membrane after exocytosis. Subsequent activation of P2X receptors by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) results in local fusion-activated cation entry (FACE), facilitating fusion pore dilation, surfactant secretion, and surfactant activation. Despite the importance of ATP in the alveoli, and hence lung function, the origin of ATP in the alveoli is still elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that ATP is stored within LBs themselves at a concentration of ∼1.9 mM. ATP is loaded into LBs by the vesicular nucleotide transporter but does not activate P2X receptors because of the low intraluminal pH (5.5). However, the rise in intravesicular pH after opening of the exocytic fusion pore results in immediate activation of vesicular P2X by vesicular ATP. Our data suggest a new model in which agonist (ATP) and receptor (P2X) are located in the same intracellular compartment (LB), protected from premature degradation (ATP) and activation (P2X), and ideally placed to ensure coordinated and timely receptor activation as soon as fusion occurs to facilitate surfactant secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201711870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806682PMC
February 2018

Opposing effects of in vitro differentiated macrophages sub-type on epithelial wound healing.

PLoS One 2017 1;12(9):e0184386. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Immunology & Respiratory Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.

Inappropriate repair responses to pulmonary epithelial injury have been linked to perturbation of epithelial barrier function and airway remodelling in a number of respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We developed an in vitro mechanical scratch injury model in air-liquid interface differentiated primary human small airway epithelial cells that recapitulates many of the characteristics observed during epithelial wound injury in both human tissue and small animal models. Wound closure was initially associated with de-differentiation of the differentiated apical cells and rapid migration into the wound site, followed by proliferation of apical cells behind the wound edge, together with increases in FAK expression, fibronectin and reduction in PAI-1 which collectively facilitate cell motility and extracellular matrix deposition. Macrophages are intimately involved in wound repair so we sought to investigate the role of macrophage sub-types on this process in a novel primary human co-culture model. M1 macrophages promoted FAK expression and both M1 and M2 macrophages promoted epithelial de-differentiation. Interestingly, M2a macrophages inhibited both proliferation and fibronectin expression, possibly via the retinoic acid pathway, whereas M2b and M2c macrophages prevented fibronectin deposition, possibly via MMP expression. Collectively these data highlight the complex nature of epithelial wound closure, the differential impact of macrophage sub-types on this process, and the heterogenic and non-delineated function of these macrophages.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184386PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5581193PMC
October 2017

Targeted downregulation of platelet CLEC-2 occurs through Syk-independent internalization.

Blood 2015 Jun 20;125(26):4069-77. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Department of Experimental Biomedicine, University Hospital of Würzburg and Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany;

Platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury is not only essential for hemostasis, but may also cause acute ischemic disease states such as myocardial infarction or stroke. The hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing C-type lectinlike receptor 2 (CLEC-2) mediates powerful platelet activation through a Src- and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation cascade. Thereby, CLEC-2 not only contributes to thrombus formation and stabilization but also plays a central role in blood-lymphatic vessel development, tumor metastasis, and prevention of inflammatory bleeding, making it a potential pharmacologic target to modulate these processes. We have previously shown that injection of the anti-CLEC-2 antibody, INU1, results in virtually complete immunodepletion of platelet CLEC-2 in mice, which is, however, preceded by a severe transient thrombocytopenia thereby limiting its potential therapeutic use. The mechanisms underlying this targeted CLEC-2 downregulation have remained elusive. Here, we show that INU1-induced CLEC-2 immunodepletion occurs through Src-family kinase-dependent receptor internalization in vitro and in vivo, presumably followed by intracellular degradation. In mice with platelet-specific Syk deficiency, INU1-induced CLEC-2 internalization/degradation was fully preserved whereas the associated thrombocytopenia was largely prevented. These results show for the first time that CLEC-2 can be downregulated from the platelet surface through internalization in vitro and in vivo and that this can be mechanistically uncoupled from the associated antibody-induced thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-11-611905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4598192PMC
June 2015

The absence of mrp4 has no effect on the recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils into the lung after LPS, cigarette smoke or allergen challenge.

PLoS One 2013 22;8(4):e61193. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Respiratory Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach a.d. Riss, Germany.

The multidrug resistance protein 4 (Mrp4) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is capable of exporting the second messenger cAMP from cells, a process that might regulate cAMP-mediated anti-inflammatory processes. However, using LPS- or cigarette smoke (CS)-inflammation models, we found that neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were similar in Mrp4(-/-) and Mrp4(+/+) mice treated with LPS or CS. Similarly, neutrophil numbers were not reduced in the BALF of LPS-challenged wt mice after treatment with 10 or 30 mg/kg of the Mrp1/4 inhibitor MK571. The absence of Mrp4 also had no impact on the influx of eosinophils or IL-4 and IL-5 levels in the BALF after OVA airway challenge in mice sensitized with OVA/alum. LPS-induced cytokine release in whole blood ex vivo was also not affected by the absence of Mrp4. These data clearly suggest that Mrp4 deficiency alone is not sufficient to reduce inflammatory processes in vivo. We hypothesized that in combination with PDE4 inhibitors, used at suboptimal concentrations, the anti-inflammatory effect would be more pronounced. However, LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into the lung was no different between Mrp4(-/-) and Mrp4(+/+) mice treated with 3 mg/kg Roflumilast. Finally, the single and combined administration of 10 and 30 mg/kg MK571 and the specific breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitor KO143 showed no reduction of LPS-induced TNFα release into the BALF compared to vehicle treated control animals. Similarly, LPS-induced TNFα release in murine whole blood of Mrp4(+/+) or Mrp4(-/-) mice was not reduced by KO143 (1, 10 µM). Thus, BCRP seems not to be able to compensate for the absence or inhibition of Mrp4 in the used models. Taken together, our data suggest that Mrp4 is not essential for the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung after LPS or CS exposure or of eosinophils after allergen exposure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632556PMC
November 2013

Midkine acts as proangiogenic cytokine in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012 Aug 15;303(4):H429-38. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

The cytokine midkine (MK) promotes tumor growth mainly by inducing angiogenesis. Here, we identified the source of MK in the vascular system under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated the relevance of MK during ischemia of normal tissue. Hypoxia increased MK protein expression in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) compared with normoxia. Immunoelectron microscopy showed elevated cell surface expression of MK in PMN and monocytes during hypoxia. However, only HUVEC released significant amounts of soluble MK during hypoxia compared with normoxia (301 ± 81 pg/ml vs. 158 ± 45 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Exogenous MK induced neovascularization in a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay compared with negative control as measured by counting the number of branching points per visual field (1,074 ± 54 vs. 211 ± 70; P < 0.05). In a hind limb ischemia model, the angiogenic response was almost completely absent in MK-deficient mice, whereas control animals showed a profound angiogenic response measured as proliferating endothelial cells per visual field (45 ± 30 vs. 169 ± 34; P < 0.01). These unanticipated results identified endothelial cells as the source of soluble MK in the vascular system during hypoxia and defined MK as a pivotal player of angiogenesis during ischemia in nonmalignant tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00934.2011DOI Listing
August 2012

The mammalian actin-binding protein 1 is critical for spreading and intraluminal crawling of neutrophils under flow conditions.

J Immunol 2012 May 26;188(9):4590-601. Epub 2012 Mar 26.

Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Recently, the mammalian actin-binding protein 1 (mAbp1; Hip-55, SH3P7, debrin-like protein) was identified as a novel component of the β(2) integrin-mediated signaling cascade during complement-mediated phagocytosis and firm adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) under physiological shear stress conditions. In this study, we found that the genetic ablation of mAbp1 severely compromised not only the induction of adhesion, but also subsequent spreading of leukocytes to the endothelium as assessed by intravital microscopy of inflamed vessels of the cremaster muscle of mice. In vitro studies using murine PMN confirmed that mAbp1 was required for β(2) integrin-mediated spreading under shear stress conditions, whereas mAbp1 was dispensable for spreading under static conditions. Upon β(2) integrin-mediated adhesion and chemotactic migration of human neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, mAbp1 was enriched at the leading edge of the polarized cell. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that mAbp1 formed propagating waves toward the front of the lamellipodium, which are characteristic for dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Accordingly, binding of mAbp1 to actin was increased upon β(2) integrin-mediated adhesion, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. However, chemotactic migration under static conditions was unaffected in the absence of mAbp1. In contrast, the downregulation of mAbp1 by RNA interference technique in neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells or the genetic ablation of mAbp1 in leukocytes led to defective migration under flow conditions in vitro and in inflamed cremaster muscle venules in the situation in vivo. In conclusion, mAbp1 is of fundamental importance for spreading and migration under shear stress conditions, which are critical prerequisites for efficient PMN extravasation during inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100878DOI Listing
May 2012

The mammalian actin-binding protein 1 (mAbp1): a novel molecular player in leukocyte biology.

Trends Cell Biol 2011 Apr 12;21(4):247-55. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

Walter Brendel Centre for Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

The transmittance of force from the actin cytoskeleton via integrins to extracellular ligands is essential for multiple aspects of leukocyte function. In addition, integrins must be efficiently linked to the cytoskeleton in order to resist external forces that act on the cell. Recently, the mammalian actin-binding protein 1 (mAbp1) was identified as a novel adaptor involved in linking adhesion molecules of the β(2) integrin family to the actin cytoskeleton, indicating that this protein might have a fundamental impact on leukocyte functions that are associated explicitly with force transmittance; namely, intraluminal adhesion and phagocytosis. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular and cellular functions of mAbp1 with a focus on its impact in leukocyte biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2010.12.001DOI Listing
April 2011

RAGE and ICAM-1 cooperate in mediating leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation in vivo.

Blood 2010 Aug 20;116(5):841-9. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

Section of Neonatal Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) contributes to the inflammatory response in many acute and chronic diseases. In this context, RAGE has been identified as a ligand for the beta(2)-integrin Mac-1 under static in vitro conditions. Because intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 also binds beta(2)-integrins, we studied RAGE(-/-), Icam1(-/-), and RAGE(-/-) Icam1(-/-) mice to define the relative contribution of each ligand for leukocyte adhesion in vivo. We show that trauma-induced leukocyte adhesion in cremaster muscle venules is strongly dependent on RAGE and ICAM-1 acting together in an overlapping fashion. Additional in vivo experiments in chimeric mice lacking endothelium-expressed RAGE and ICAM-1 located the adhesion defect to the endothelial compartment. Using microflow chambers coated with P-selectin, CXCL1, and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) demonstrated that sRAGE supports leukocyte adhesion under flow conditions in a Mac-1- but not LFA-1-dependent fashion. A static adhesion assay revealed that wild-type and RAGE(-/-) neutrophil adhesion and spreading were similar on immobilized sRAGE or fibrinogen. These observations indicate a crucial role of endothelium-expressed RAGE as Mac-1 ligand and uncover RAGE and ICAM-1 as a new set of functionally linked adhesion molecules, which closely cooperate in mediating leukocyte adhesion during the acute trauma-induced inflammatory response in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-09-244293DOI Listing
August 2010

A fundamental role of mAbp1 in neutrophils: impact on beta(2) integrin-mediated phagocytosis and adhesion in vivo.

Blood 2009 Nov 28;114(19):4209-20. Epub 2009 Jul 28.

Walter Brendel Centre for Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, D-80336 Munich, Germany.

The mammalian actin-binding protein 1 (mAbp1, Hip-55, SH3P7) is phosphorylated by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk that has a fundamental effect for several beta(2) integrin (CD11/CD18)-mediated neutrophil functions. Live cell imaging showed a dynamic enrichment of enhanced green fluorescence protein-tagged mAbp1 at the phagocytic cup of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells during beta(2) integrin-mediated phagocytosis of serum-opsonized Escherichia coli. The genetic absence of Syk or its pharmacologic inhibition using piceatannol abrogated the proper localization of mAbp1 at the phagocytic cup. The genetic absence or down-regulation of mAbp1 using the RNA interference technique significantly compromised beta(2) integrin-mediated phagocytosis of serum-opsonized E coli or Salmonella typhimurium in vitro as well as clearance of S typhimurium infection in vivo. Moreover, the genetic absence of mAbp1 almost completely abrogated firm neutrophil adhesion under physiologic shear stress conditions in vitro as well as leukocyte adhesion and extravasation in inflamed cremaster muscle venules of mice treated with tumor-necrosis factor alpha. Functional analysis showed that the down-regulation of mAbp1 diminished the number of beta(2) integrin clusters in the high-affinity conformation under flow conditions. These unanticipated results define mAbp1 as a novel molecular player in integrin biology that is critical for phagocytosis and firm neutrophil adhesion under flow conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-02-206169DOI Listing
November 2009

Wound healing defect of Vav3-/- mice due to impaired {beta}2-integrin-dependent macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils.

Blood 2009 May 15;113(21):5266-76. Epub 2009 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology and Allergic Diseases, University of Ulm, Germany.

Vav proteins are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors implicated in leukocyte functions by relaying signals from immune response receptors and integrins to Rho-GTPases. We here provide first evidence for a role of Vav3 for beta(2)-integrins-mediated macrophage functions during wound healing. Vav3(-/-) and Vav1(-/-)/Vav3(-/-) mice revealed significantly delayed healing of full-thickness excisional wounds. Furthermore, Vav3(-/-) bone marrow chimeras showed an identical healing defect, suggesting that Vav3 deficiency in leukocytes, but not in other cells, is causal for the impaired wound healing. Vav3 was required for the phagocytotic cup formation preceding macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy revealed Vav3 activation and colocalization with beta(2)-integrins at the macrophage membrane upon adhesion to ICAM-1. Moreover, local injection of Vav3(-/-) or beta(2)-integrin(CD18)(-/-) macrophages into wound margins failed to restore the healing defect of Vav3(-/-) mice, suggesting Vav3 to control the beta(2)-integrin-dependent formation of a functional phagocytic synapse. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causal for their reduced release of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), for decreased myofibroblasts differentiation and myofibroblast-driven wound contraction. TGF-beta(1) deficiency in Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causally responsible for the healing defect, as local injection of either Vav3-competent macrophages or recombinant TGF-beta(1) into wounds of Vav3(-/-) mice fully rescued the delayed wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-07-166702DOI Listing
May 2009

Spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is critical for sustained leukocyte adhesion during inflammation in vivo.

BMC Immunol 2007 Nov 28;8:31. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Children's Hospital, Neonatal Unit, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: During inflammation, beta2-integrins mediate leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium accompanied by the activation of the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk.

Results: We investigated leukocyte adhesion and rolling in cremaster muscle venules before and during stimulation with fMLP using mice with a Syk-/- hematopoietic system. In unstimulated venules, Syk-/- leukocytes adhered less efficiently than control leukocytes while rolling was similar between Syk-/- and control leukocytes. During fMLP-superfusion, control mice showed significantly increased adhesion accompanied by reduced rolling. For Syk-/- leukocytes, an increase in adhesion with a concomitant decrease in rolling was only observed during the first three minutes during fMLP stimulation, but not at later time points. We also investigated leukocyte spreading against the vessel wall during fMLP stimulation and found a significant impairment of spreading for Syk-/- leukocytes. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that the adhesion and spreading defect seen in Syk-/- chimeric mice was due to compromised beta2-integrin-mediated outside-in signaling.

Conclusion: We provide substantial evidence for an important role of Syk in mediating beta2-integrin dependent outside-in signaling leading to sustained leukocyte adhesion and spreading during the inflammatory response in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-8-31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2217554PMC
November 2007

Syk-mediated translocation of PI3Kdelta to the leading edge controls lamellipodium formation and migration of leukocytes.

PLoS One 2007 Nov 7;2(11):e1132. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk is mainly expressed in the hematopoietic system and plays an essential role in beta(2) integrin-mediated leukocyte activation. To elucidate the signaling pathway downstream of Syk during beta2 integrin (CD11/CD18)-mediated migration and extravasation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), we generated neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 (dHL-60) cells expressing a fluorescently tagged Syk mutant lacking the tyrosine residue at the position 323 (Syk-Tyr323) that is known to be required for the binding of the regulatory subunit p85 of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) class I(A). Syk-Tyr323 was found to be critical for the enrichment of the catalytic subunit p110delta of PI3K class I(A) as well as for the generation of PI3K products at the leading edge of the majority of polarized cells. In accordance, the translocation of PI3K p110delta to the leading edge was diminished in Syk deficient murine PMN. Moreover, the expression of EGFP-Syk Y323F interfered with proper cell polarization and it impaired efficient migration of dHL-60 cells. In agreement with a major role of beta2 integrins in the recruitment of phagocytic cells to sites of lesion, mice with a Syk-deficient hematopoietic system demonstrated impaired PMN infiltration into the wounded tissue that was associated with prolonged cutaneous wound healing. These data imply a novel role of Syk via PI3K p110delta signaling for beta2 integrin-mediated migration which is a prerequisite for efficient PMN recruitment in vivo.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001132PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2063580PMC
November 2007

Neutrophil activation via beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18): molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.

Thromb Haemost 2007 Aug;98(2):262-73

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are key components of the innate immunity and their efficient recruitment to the sites of lesion is a prerequisite for acute inflammation. Signaling via adhesion molecules of the beta2 integrin family (CD11/CD18) plays an essential role for PMN recruitment and activation during inflammation. In this review, we will focus on the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk, an important downstream signaling component of beta2 integrins that is required for the control of different PMN functions including adhesion, migration and phagocytosis. The exploration of beta2 integrin-mediated Syk activation provided not only novel insights into the control of PMN functions but also led to the identification of Syk as a new molecular target for therapeutic intervention during inflammatory diseases.
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August 2007

The Vav binding site of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk at Tyr 348 is critical for beta2 integrin (CD11/CD18)-mediated neutrophil migration.

Blood 2006 Dec 1;108(12):3919-27. Epub 2006 Aug 1.

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schillerstr. 44, D-80336 München, Germany.

Leukocyte adhesion via beta(2) integrins (CD11/CD18) activates the tyrosine kinase Syk. We found that Syk was enriched at the lamellipodium during N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced migration of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells. Here, Syk colocalized with Vav, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Cdc42. The enrichment of Syk at the lamellipodium and its colocalization with Vav were absent upon expression of a Syk kinase-dead mutant (Syk K402R) or a Syk mutant lacking the binding site of Vav (Syk Y348F). Live cell imaging revealed that both mutations resulted in excessive lamellipodium formation and severely compromised migration compared with control cells. Similar results were obtained upon down-regulation of Syk by RNA interference (RNAi) technique as well as in Syk(-/-) neutrophils from wild-type mice reconstituted with Syk(-/-) bone marrow. A pivotal role of Syk in vivo was demonstrated in the Arthus reaction, where neutrophil extravasation, edema formation, and hemorrhage were profoundly diminished in Syk(-/-) bone marrow chimeras compared with those in control animals. In the inflamed cremaster muscle, Syk(-/-) neutrophils revealed a defect in adhesion and migration. These findings indicate that Syk is critical for beta(2) integrin-mediated neutrophil migration in vitro and plays a fundamental role in neutrophil recruitment during the inflammatory response in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-12-030387DOI Listing
December 2006

The proangiogenic capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils delineated by microarray technique and by measurement of neovascularization in wounded skin of CD18-deficient mice.

J Vasc Res 2006 14;43(1):1-11. Epub 2005 Oct 14.

Department of Physiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

Growing evidence supports the concept that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are critically involved in inflammation-mediated angiogenesis which is important for wound healing and repair. We employed an oligonucleotide microarray technique to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the proangiogenic potential of human PMN. In addition to 18 known angiogenesis-relevant genes, we detected the expression of 10 novel genes, namely midkine, erb-B2, ets-1, transforming growth factor receptor-beta2 and -beta3, thrombospondin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, ephrin A2, ephrin B2 and restin in human PMN freshly isolated from the circulation. Gene expression was confirmed by the RT-PCR technique. In vivo evidence for the role of PMN in neovascularization was provided by studying neovascularization in a skin model of wound healing using CD18-deficient mice which lack PMN infiltration to sites of lesion. In CD18-deficient animals, neovascularization was found to be significantly compromised when compared with wild-type control animals which showed profound neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the wound healing process. Thus, PMN infiltration seems to facilitate inflammation-mediated angiogenesis which may be a consequence of the broad spectrum of proangiogenic factors expressed by these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000088975DOI Listing
January 2006

The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk regulates lamellipodium formation and site-directed migration of human leukocytes.

J Cell Physiol 2005 Aug;204(2):614-22

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.

The tyrosine kinase Syk is associated with CD18, the beta-subunit of the leukocyte adhesion molecules of the beta(2) integrin family (CD11/CD18), and becomes activated upon beta(2) integrin-mediated adhesion. In this study, we elucidated the role of Syk in polarization and site-directed migration of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells and monocytic THP-1 cells. By means of confocal microscopy, we detected a homogenous distribution of Syk in unstimulated cells in suspension. The stimulation of HL-60 cells by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP, 100 nM) or the activation of THP-1 cells by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (10 ng/ml) induced beta(2) integrin-mediated cell adhesion and polarization on immobilized fibrinogen which was associated with an enrichment of Syk at the lamellipodium forming site. This effect was abolished by function blocking anti-CD18 antibody or by treatment of the cells with the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (30 microM) suggesting that the redistribution of Syk required both, beta(2) integrin-mediated adhesion and Syk activation. Moreover, the inhibition of Syk by piceatannol or the downregulation of Syk by antisense technique resulted in an excessive formation of lamellipodia indicating that Syk may act as a negative regulator that limits lamellipodium formation. The analysis of chemotaxis revealed that the inhibition of Syk impaired the ability of the cells to follow a chemotactic gradient whereas random migration was intact. Taken together, our data suggest a novel role for Syk in the maintenance of a bipolar phenotype by regulating lamellipodium formation, which is a critical prerequisite for site-directed migration of leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.20323DOI Listing
August 2005

Human neutrophils promote angiogenesis by a paracrine feedforward mechanism involving endothelial interleukin-8.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005 Mar 21;288(3):H1186-92. Epub 2004 Oct 21.

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schillerstrasse 44, D-80336 Munich, Germany.

Neovascularization by sprouting angiogenesis is critical for inflammation-mediated tissue remodeling and wound healing. We report here that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) stimulated for 1 h with 100 nM N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) released a proangiogenic entity that induced sprouting of capillary-like structures in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. The effect was comparable to the response obtained on stimulation with 100 ng/ml basic FGF. The PMN-mediated response was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against VEGF or IL-8. As measured by ELISA technique, we found that fMLP-activated PMN (5 x 10(6)/ml) released 78 pg/ml IL-8 and 39 pg/ml VEGF within 1 h after stimulation. IL-8 release was blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide, but the inhibitors had no effect on VEGF release, suggesting that IL-8 secretion required de novo synthesis whereas VEGF was secreted from preformed stores. Accordingly, RT-PCR analysis revealed that IL-8 mRNA was upregulated on PMN stimulation, whereas the expression of VEGF mRNA was not affected. Moreover, supernatant derived from activated PMN induced upregulation of endothelial IL-8 mRNA expression, suggesting that release of VEGF and IL-8 from activated PMN may activate a paracrine feedforward mechanism involving endothelial IL-8. Moreover, VEGF-induced upregulation of endothelial IL-8 expression as well as sprouting of capillary-like structures was inhibited by a neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody. These findings suggest that bacteria-derived tripeptides stimulate human PMN to release VEGF and IL-8, which activate endothelial cells and induce angiogenesis by a paracrine feedforward mechanism involving endothelial IL-8 upregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00237.2004DOI Listing
March 2005

Identification of caspase-10 in human neutrophils and its role in spontaneous apoptosis.

J Leukoc Biol 2004 May 3;75(5):836-43. Epub 2004 Feb 3.

Department of Physiology, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany.

In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated apoptosis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Whereas TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis was almost absent in the presence of the caspase-8 inhibitor Z-Ac-Ala-Glu-Val-Asp-7-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-AEVD-FMK), the inhibitor had no effect on spontaneous apoptosis, suggesting that spontaneous apoptosis was independent of caspase-8. Subsequently, we identified different isoforms of caspase-10 in human PMN and found high expression of caspase-10/b and/or -10/d and low expression of caspase-10/a and -10/c at the mRNA level. At the protein level, freshly isolated PMN showed high expression of caspase-10/b and -10/d as well as moderate expression of caspase-10/a and -10/c. Upon spontaneous apoptosis, caspase-10/b was down-regulated, which was accompanied by the appearance of a specific 47-kDa caspase-10/b cleavage product and an increased caspase-10 activity. In contrast, no down-regulation of caspase-10/a, -10/c, or -10/d was observed, suggesting that spontaneous apoptosis was associated with a differential activation of caspase-10/b. This was confirmed by the finding that spontaneous apoptosis was inhibited in the presence of Z-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp (Z-IETD)-FMK, which blocks caspase-10. However, no down-regulation of caspase-10 isoforms was observed in the presence of TNF-alpha, suggesting that caspase-10 was not involved in TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that spontaneous and TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of PMN have different molecular requirements. Whereas TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis depends on the activation of caspase-8, spontaneous apoptosis requires the activation of caspase-10/b. This finding may reveal that PMN apoptosis in different (patho-) physiological settings results from distinct molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0703317DOI Listing
May 2004

A role for Syk-kinase in the control of the binding cycle of the beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

J Leukoc Biol 2003 Aug;74(2):260-9

Department of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.

A fine control of beta(2) integrin (CD11/CD18)-mediated firm adhesion of human neutrophils to the endothelial cell monolayer is required to allow ordered emigration. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control this process, intracellular protein tyrosine signaling subsequent to beta(2) integrin-mediated ligand binding was studied by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting techniques. The 72-kDa Syk-kinase, which was tyrosine-phosphorylated upon adhesion, was found to coprecipitate with CD18, the beta-subunit of the beta(2) integrins. Moreover, inhibition of Syk-kinase by piceatannol enhanced adhesion and spreading but diminished N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced chemotactic migration. The enhancement of adhesiveness was associated with integrin clustering, which results in increased integrin avidity. In contrast, piceatannol had no effect on the surface expression or on the affinity of beta(2) integrins. Altogether, this suggests that Syk-kinase controls alternation of beta(2) integrin-mediated ligand binding with integrin detachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0102016DOI Listing
August 2003

Gene structure and functional analysis of the mouse nidogen-2 gene: nidogen-2 is not essential for basement membrane formation in mice.

Mol Cell Biol 2002 Oct;22(19):6820-30

Department of Protein Chemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

Nidogens are highly conserved proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates and are found in almost all basement membranes. According to the classical hypothesis of basement membrane organization, nidogens connect the laminin and collagen IV networks, so stabilizing the basement membrane, and integrate other proteins. In mammals two nidogen proteins, nidogen-1 and nidogen-2, have been discovered. Nidogen-2 is typically enriched in endothelial basement membranes, whereas nidogen-1 shows broader localization in most basement membranes. Surprisingly, analysis of nidogen-1 gene knockout mice presented evidence that nidogen-1 is not essential for basement membrane formation and may be compensated for by nidogen-2. In order to assess the structure and in vivo function of the nidogen-2 gene in mice, we cloned the gene and determined its structure and chromosomal location. Next we analyzed mice carrying an insertional mutation in the nidogen-2 gene that was generated by the secretory gene trap approach. Our molecular and biochemical characterization identified the mutation as a phenotypic null allele. Nidogen-2-deficient mice show no overt abnormalities and are fertile, and basement membranes appear normal by ultrastructural analysis and immunostaining. Nidogen-2 deficiency does not lead to hemorrhages in mice as one may have expected. Our results show that nidogen-2 is not essential for basement membrane formation or maintenance.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC135501PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mcb.22.19.6820-6830.2002DOI Listing
October 2002