Publications by authors named "Jürgen Schmidt"

169 Publications

Synthetic proteins for COVID-19 diagnostics.

Peptides 2021 Jun 1;143:170583. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

B-11 Bioenergy and Biome Sciences, Bioscience Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, United States.

There is an urgent need for inexpensive, rapid and specific antigen-based assays to test for vaccine efficacy and detect infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. We have identified a small, synthetic protein (JS7), representing a region of maximum variability within the receptor binding domain (RBD), which binds antibodies in sera from nine patients with PCR-verified COVID-19 of varying severity. Antibodies binding to either JS7 or the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD, as well as those that disrupt binding between a fragment of the ACE2 receptor and the RBD, are proportional to disease severity and clinical outcome. Binding to JS7 was inhibited by linear peptides from the RBD interface with ACE2. Variants of JS7, such as E484K or N501Y, can be quickly synthesized in pure form in large quantities by automated methods. JS7 and related synthetic antigens can provide a basis for specific diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168367PMC
June 2021

[Rehabilitation Outcome and Therapeutic Alliance of Inpatients of Psychosomatic Rehabilitation with Pension Request].

Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Gesellschaft für Qualität im Gesundheitswesen, GFQG, Karlsruhe.

Objective: Inpatients of psychosomatic rehabilitation with a latent or manifest desire for a pension are a risk group with regard to successful participation in rehabilitation and return to work. Reaching this group of patients, is both a legal requirement (rehabilitation before retirement), and important from an economic and health perspective. This study examines patients who are considering applying for a reduced earning capacity. The questions are whether these patients differ in socio-demographic variables and the success of rehabilitation from patients without pension considerations, and which patients benefitted from their rehabilitation despite pension considerations. Particular attention is paid to the therapeutic relationship.

Methods: Data are routinely collected from patients of 2 rehabilitation clinics who were undergoing inpatient psychosomatic treatment between October 2012 and February 2017 (n=8503).

Results: Inpatients with pension considerations were slightly older, more often incapacitated for work and more often receiving unemployment benefits. Both groups reported a significant reduction in symptoms over the course of the rehabilitation. Within the group considering retirement, patients who reported an improvement in symptoms reported a more positive relationship satisfaction.

Discussion/conclusion: Patients who are thinking about retirement often have difficult socio-demographic and health-related conditions for successful rehabilitation. Despite these conditions, many report an improvement in psychosomatic symptoms and a positive therapeutic relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1303-4861DOI Listing
March 2021

Ontology-based computer aid for the automation of HAZOP studies.

J Loss Prev Process Ind 2020 Nov 22;68:104321. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

CSE Center of Safety Excellence (CSE Institut), Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 9, 76327, Pfinztal, Germany.

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies are conducted to identify and assess potential hazards which originate from processes, equipment, and process plants. These studies are human-centered processes that are time and labor-intensive. Also, extensive expertise and experience in the field of process safety engineering are required. There have been several attempts by different research groups to (semi-)automate HAZOP studies in the past. Within this research, a knowledge-based framework for the automatic generation of HAZOP worksheets was developed. Compared to other approaches, the focus is on representing semantic relationships between HAZOP relevant concepts under consideration of the degree of abstraction. In the course of this, expert knowledge from the process and plant safety (PPS) domain is embedded within the ontological model. Based on that, a reasoning algorithm based on semantic reasoners is developed to identify hazards and operability issues in a HAZOP similar manner. An advantage of the proposed method is that by modeling causal relationships between HAZOP concepts, automatically generated but meaningless scenarios can be avoided. The results of the enhanced causation model are high quality extended HAZOP worksheets. The developed methodology is applied within a case study that involves a hexane storage tank. The quality and quantity of the automatically generated results agree with the original worksheets. Thus the ontology-based reasoning algorithm is well-suited to identify hazardous scenarios and operability issues. Node-based analyses involving multiple process units can also be carried out by a slight adjustment of the method. The presented method can help to support HAZOP study participants and non-experts in conducting HAZOP studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581379PMC
November 2020

Motion of dust ejected from the surface of asteroid (101955) Bennu.

Heliyon 2020 Oct 15;6(10):e05275. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

From Jan. 6, 2019 to Feb. 18, 2019, OSIRIS-REx observed asteroid (101955) Bennu ejecting 11 plumes of dust, of which part is escaping and another part is re-captured by the asteroid. The relative magnitudes of the typical forces acting on the emitted dust are quite different from the environments of the planets and other minor planets in the solar system. Here we show that ejected dust grains from the surface of Bennu can be caught in the gravitational field of Bennu. To this end, we calculated numerically the trajectories of dust grains of various sizes, from the 0.1μm to the ten millimeter range. The shape and the fate of an emitted cloud of particles depend on the size of the grains: smaller grains form a more narrowly confined dust trail while trails formed by larger grains disperse more rapidly. Four different fates are possible for ejected dust. All grains with radius less than 1.0μm, directly re-impact on Bennu or they escape directly. In contrast, a fraction of grains with a radius larger than 10.0 μm will impact or escape only after performing a number of non-Keplerian revolutions around Bennu. Our findings show how dust grains may populate the vicinity of Bennu and other active asteroids and that they can reach interplanetary space and other celestial bodies, implying that organic matter can be transported from carbonaceous asteroids to other celestial bodies, including Earth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569235PMC
October 2020

HPTLC-DESI-HRMS-Based Profiling of Anthraquinones in Complex Mixtures-A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Crude Extracts of Chilean Mushrooms.

Foods 2020 Feb 6;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with negative ion desorption electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) was used for the analysis of anthraquinones in complex crude extracts of Chilean dermocyboid Cortinarii. For this proof-of-concept study, the known anthraquinones emodin, physcion, endocrocin, dermolutein, hypericin, and skyrin were identified by their elemental composition. HRMS also allowed the differentiation of the investigated anthraquinones from accompanying compounds with the same nominal mass in the crude extracts. An investigation of the characteristic fragmentation pattern of skyrin in comparison with a reference compound showed, exemplarily, the feasibility of the method for the determination of these coloring, bioactive and chemotaxonomically important marker compounds. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the coupling of HPTLC with DESI-HRMS represents an advanced and efficient technique for the detection of anthraquinones in complex matrices. This analytical approach may be applied in the field of anthraquinone-containing food and plants such as spp. (rhubarb), spp., spp., spp. and others. Furthermore, the described method can be suitable for the analysis of anthraquinone-based colorants and dyes, which are used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074031PMC
February 2020

The unusual fragmentation of long-chain feruloyl esters under negative ion electrospray conditions.

J Mass Spectrom 2019 Jun;54(6):549-556

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120, Halle/Saale, Germany.

Long-chain ferulic acid esters, such as eicosyl ferulate (1), show a complex and analytically valuable fragmentation behavior under negative ion electrospay collision-induced dissociation ((-)-ESI-CID) mass spectrometry, as studied by use of a high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometer. In a strong contrast to the very simple fragmentation of the [M + H] ion, which is discussed briefly, the deprotonated molecule, [M - H] , exhibits a rich secondary fragmentation chemistry. It first loses a methyl radical (MS ) and the ortho-quinoid [M - H - Me] radical anion thus formed then dissociates by loss of an extended series of neutral radicals, C H (n = 0-16) from the long alkyl chain, in competition with the expulsion of CO and CO (MS ). The further fragmentation (MS ) of the [M - H - Me - C H ] ion, discussed as an example, and the highly specific losses of alkyl radicals from the [M - H - Me - CO] and [M - H - Me - CO ] ions provide some mechanistic and structural insights.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.4357DOI Listing
June 2019

Synthesis of stable isotope-labeled chloroquine and amodiaquine and their metabolites.

J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 2019 05;62(5):230-248

Inorganic, Isotope, and Actinide Chemistry, Group-IIAC, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA.

Anti-malaria drugs chloroquine and amodiaquine and their metabolites were synthesized to incorporate C and N starting from U- C-labeled benzene to give M + 7 isotopomers. Chloroquine and its metabolites were prepared from 7-chloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-4-one through an aryl substitution with the corresponding amines; and the amodiaquine and its metabolites were prepared from 4,7-dichloroquinoline in a similar fashion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3721DOI Listing
May 2019

Antibacterial Silicon Oxide Thin Films Doped with Zinc and Copper Grown by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Materials Science, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria.

Zn-doped and Cu-doped SiO films were synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition to study their antibacterial efficiency against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and their cytotoxic effect on the growth of mouse cells. Zn-rich and Cu-rich particles with diameters up to several microns were found to be homogeneously distributed within the SiO films. For both doping elements, bacteria are killed within the first three hours after exposure to the film surface. In contrast, mouse cells grow well on the surfaces of both film types, with a slight inhibition present only after the first day of exposure. The obtained results indicate that the films show a high potential for use as effective antibacterial surfaces for medical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9020255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409802PMC
February 2019

Changes in health in the countries of the UK and 150 English Local Authority areas 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Lancet 2018 11 24;392(10158):1647-1661. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Previous studies have reported national and regional Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimates for the UK. Because of substantial variation in health within the UK, action to improve it requires comparable estimates of disease burden and risks at country and local levels. The slowdown in the rate of improvement in life expectancy requires further investigation. We use GBD 2016 data on mortality, causes of death, and disability to analyse the burden of disease in the countries of the UK and within local authorities in England by deprivation quintile.

Methods: We extracted data from the GBD 2016 to estimate years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and attributable risks from 1990 to 2016 for England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the UK, and 150 English Upper-Tier Local Authorities. We estimated the burden of disease by cause of death, condition, year, and sex. We analysed the association between burden of disease and socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We present results for all 264 GBD causes of death combined and the leading 20 specific causes, and all 84 GBD risks or risk clusters combined and 17 specific risks or risk clusters.

Findings: The leading causes of age-adjusted YLLs in all UK countries in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, lung cancers, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age-standardised rates of YLLs for all causes varied by two times between local areas in England according to levels of socioeconomic deprivation (from 14 274 per 100 000 population [95% uncertainty interval 12 791-15 875] in Blackpool to 6888 [6145-7739] in Wokingham). Some Upper-Tier Local Authorities, particularly those in London, did better than expected for their level of deprivation. Allowing for differences in age structure, more deprived Upper-Tier Local Authorities had higher attributable YLLs for most major risk factors in the GBD. The population attributable fractions for all-cause YLLs for individual major risk factors varied across Upper-Tier Local Authorities. Life expectancy and YLLs have improved more slowly since 2010 in all UK countries compared with 1990-2010. In nine of 150 Upper-Tier Local Authorities, YLLs increased after 2010. For attributable YLLs, the rate of improvement slowed most substantially for cardiovascular disease and breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, and showed little change for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Morbidity makes an increasing contribution to overall burden in the UK compared with mortality. The age-standardised UK DALY rate for low back and neck pain (1795 [1258-2356]) was higher than for ischaemic heart disease (1200 [1155-1246]) or lung cancer (660 [642-679]). The leading causes of ill health (measured through YLDs) in the UK in 2016 were low back and neck pain, skin and subcutaneous diseases, migraine, depressive disorders, and sense organ disease. Age-standardised YLD rates varied much less than equivalent YLL rates across the UK, which reflects the relative scarcity of local data on causes of ill health.

Interpretation: These estimates at local, regional, and national level will allow policy makers to match resources and priorities to levels of burden and risk factors. Improvement in YLLs and life expectancy slowed notably after 2010, particularly in cardiovascular disease and cancer, and targeted actions are needed if the rate of improvement is to recover. A targeted policy response is also required to address the increasing proportion of burden due to morbidity, such as musculoskeletal problems and depression. Improving the quality and completeness of available data on these causes is an essential component of this response.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Public Health England.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32207-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215773PMC
November 2018

In situ collection of dust grains falling from Saturn's rings into its atmosphere.

Science 2018 10;362(6410)

Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Saturn's main rings are composed of >95% water ice, and the nature of the remaining few percent has remained unclear. The Cassini spacecraft's traversals between Saturn and its innermost D ring allowed its cosmic dust analyzer (CDA) to collect material released from the main rings and to characterize the ring material infall into Saturn. We report the direct in situ detection of material from Saturn's dense rings by the CDA impact mass spectrometer. Most detected grains are a few tens of nanometers in size and dynamically associated with the previously inferred "ring rain." Silicate and water-ice grains were identified, in proportions that vary with latitude. Silicate grains constitute up to 30% of infalling grains, a higher percentage than the bulk silicate content of the rings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat3185DOI Listing
October 2018

Macromolecular organic compounds from the depths of Enceladus.

Nature 2018 06 27;558(7711):564-568. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, UMR-CNRS 6112, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Saturn's moon Enceladus harbours a global water ocean , which lies under an ice crust and above a rocky core . Through warm cracks in the crust a cryo-volcanic plume ejects ice grains and vapour into space that contain materials originating from the ocean. Hydrothermal activity is suspected to occur deep inside the porous core, powered by tidal dissipation . So far, only simple organic compounds with molecular masses mostly below 50 atomic mass units have been observed in plume material. Here we report observations of emitted ice grains containing concentrated and complex macromolecular organic material with molecular masses above 200 atomic mass units. The data constrain the macromolecular structure of organics detected in the ice grains and suggest the presence of a thin organic-rich film on top of the oceanic water table, where organic nucleation cores generated by the bursting of bubbles allow the probing of Enceladus' organic inventory in enhanced concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0246-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027964PMC
June 2018

[Testing the Psychometric Properties of the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) in Different Health Care Settings].

Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2017 Nov 30;67(11):465-476. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Rehazentrum Oberharz, Clausthal-Zellerfeld.

The Helping Alliance Questionnaire developed by Luborsky was psychometricly examined for the first time and translated into German by Bassler et al. in the mid-1990s. It consists of 11 Items, which are summarized to the scales "relation to the therapist" and "satisfaction with therapeutic outcome". HAQ is now one of the most used instruments to measure therapeutic alliance. The goal of this study was to test the psychometric properties based on three large patient samples in different treatment settings. Analyses were conducted based on 2 samples of patients in inpatient psychosomatic/psychotherapeutic rehabilitation (n=655, n=2494) and one sample in outpatient psychotherapy (n=1477). Exploratory factor analyses and for verification confirmatory factor analyses were applied. Furthermore reliability and validity analysis were conducted. The 2-factorial structure found in literature was replicated with an increasing stability at the end of treatment. Item 2 and 3 had inconsistent factor loadings at different points of measurement and study. Reliability and validity indices were satisfying to good. The fit of the model, on the other hand, was less satisfying and suggests a solution without Item 2 and 3. For reasons of content as well as for reasons of dissemination, it is pleaded for the maintenance of the existing item assignments in the HAQ for the present.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-111083DOI Listing
November 2017

Eye blink detection for different driver states in conditionally automated driving and manual driving using EOG and a driver camera.

Behav Res Methods 2018 06;50(3):1088-1101

Chair of Human-Machine Systems, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

In this article, we examine the performance of different eye blink detection algorithms under various constraints. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an electrooculogram- and camera-based blink detection process in both manually and conditionally automated driving phases. A further comparison between alert and drowsy drivers was performed in order to evaluate the impact of drowsiness on the performance of blink detection algorithms in both driving modes. Data snippets from 14 monotonous manually driven sessions (mean 2 h 46 min) and 16 monotonous conditionally automated driven sessions (mean 2 h 45 min) were used. In addition to comparing two data-sampling frequencies for the electrooculogram measures (50 vs. 25 Hz) and four different signal-processing algorithms for the camera videos, we compared the blink detection performance of 24 reference groups. The analysis of the videos was based on very detailed definitions of eyelid closure events. The correct detection rates for the alert and manual driving phases (maximum 94%) decreased significantly in the drowsy (minus 2% or more) and conditionally automated (minus 9% or more) phases. Blinking behavior is therefore significantly impacted by drowsiness as well as by automated driving, resulting in less accurate blink detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0928-0DOI Listing
June 2018

Tulasporins A-D, 19-Residue Peptaibols from the Mycoparasitic Fungus Sepedonium tulasneanum.

Nat Prod Commun 2016 Dec;11(12):1821-1824

Four new 19-residue peptaibols, named tulasporins A-D (1-4), were isolated from the semi-solid cultures of Sepedonium tulasneanum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive ESI-HRMS(n) fragmentation studies as well as (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses. Interestingly, the structures of tulasporins A-D (1-4) resemble those of chrysospermins isolated earlier from cultures of S. chrysospermur. Previously, it was hypothesized that the peptaibol production by Sepedonium species correlates with the morphology of the aleurioconidia, as exclusively round-shaped aleurioconidia forming species produced peptaibols. Since the investigated Sepedonium tulasneanum produces oval aleurioconidia, this study can be considered as the first report of peptaibols from a Sepedonium strain with oval-shaped aleurioconidia. Thus, it could be demonstrated that both round as well as oval aleurioconidia forming Sepedonium species are able to produce peptaibols. Tulasporins A-D (1-4), when tested against phytopathogenic fungi, exhibited good growth inhibitory activity against both Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora infestans, while they were devoid of significant activity against Septoria tritici.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2016

Accelerated cell-surface interlocking on plasma polymer-modified porous ceramics.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Dec 9;69:1116-24. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Dept. of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock, Germany. Electronic address:

Excellent osseointegration of permanent implants is crucial for the long lasting success of the implantation. To improve the osseointegrative potential, bio-inert titanium alloy surfaces (Ti6Al4V) are modified by plasma chemical oxidation (PCO®) of the titanium-oxide layer to a non-stoichiometric, amorphous calcium phosphate layer. The native titanium-oxide film measuring only a few nanometers is converted by PCO® to a thick porous calcium phosphate layer of about 10μm. In a second step the PCO surface is combined with a cell adhesive plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) nano film (5 and 50nm). Independent of the PPAAm coating homogeneity, the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells show a remarkable increase in cell size and well-developed filopodia. Analyses of the actin cytoskeleton reveal that the cells mold to the pore shape of the PPAAm-covered PCO, thereby establishing a strong attachment to the surface. Interestingly, we could demonstrate that even though our untreated PCO shows excellent hydrophilicity, this alone is not sufficient to facilitate fast cell spreading, but the positive surface charges mediated by PPAAm. This multilayer composite material guarantees enhanced interlocking of the cells with the porous surface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.08.016DOI Listing
December 2016

Low chromatic Fresnel lens for broadband attosecond XUV pulse applications.

Opt Express 2016 Jul;24(15):16788-98

Fresnel zone plates show a great potential in achieving high spatial resolution imaging or focusing for XUV and soft/hard X-ray radiation, however they are usually strictly monochromatic due to strong chromatic dispersion and thus do not support broad radiation spectra, preventing their application to attosecond XUV pulses. Here we report on the design and theoretical simulations based on the design of an achromatic hybrid optics combining both, a refractive and diffractive lens in one optical element. We are able to show by calculation that the chromatic dispersion along the optical axis can be greatly reduced compared to a standard Fresnel zone plate while preserving the temporal structure of the attosecond XUV pulses at focus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.016788DOI Listing
July 2016

Pyrofomins A-D, polyoxygenated sesquiterpenoids from Pyrofomes demidoffii.

Fitoterapia 2016 Jul 14;112:229-32. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany. Electronic address:

Pyrofomins A-D, four polyoxygenated sesquiterpenoids have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruit bodies of Pyrofomes demidoffii. Their structures are elucidated by IR, HR-FTICR-MS, and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the cedrane carbon skeleton of pyrofomin A (1) is confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The sesquiterpenoids 1-4 show neither cytotoxicity against KB cells nor antimicrobial activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2016.06.004DOI Listing
July 2016

Dialect Variation Influences the Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Word Processing in Sentences. Electrophysiological Evidence from a Cross-Dialectal Comprehension Study.

Front Psychol 2016 27;7:739. Epub 2016 May 27.

Forschungszentrum Deutscher Sprachatlas, Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

This event-related potential (ERP) study examines the influence of dialectal competence differences (merged vs. unmerged dialect group) on cross-dialectal comprehension between Southern German dialects. It focuses on the question as to whether certain dialect phonemes (/[Formula: see text]/, /[Formula: see text]/), which are attributed to different lexemes in two dialect areas (Central Bavarian, Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone) evoke increased neural costs during sentence processing. In this context, the phonological and semantic processing of lexemes is compared in three types of potentially problematic communication settings (misunderstanding, incomprehension, allophonic variation = potential comprehension). For this purpose, an oddball design including whole sentences was combined with a semantic rating task. Listeners from the unmerged Central Bavarian dialect area heard sentences including either native or non-native lexemes from the merged neighboring dialect. These had to be evaluated with regard to their context acceptability. The main difference between the lexemes can be attributed to the fact that they have different meanings in the respective dialect areas or are non-existent in the linguistic competence of the Central Bavarians. The results provide evidence for the fact that non-native lexemes containing the /[Formula: see text]/-diphthong lead to enhanced neural costs during sentence processing. The ERP results show a biphasic pattern (N2b/N400, LPC) for non-existent lexemes (incomprehension) as well as for semantically incongruous lexemes (misunderstanding), reflecting an early error detection mechanism and enhanced costs for semantic integration and evaluation. In contrast, allophonic /[Formula: see text]/ deviations show reduced negativities and no LPC, indexing an unproblematic categorization and evaluation process. In the light of these results, an observed change of /[Formula: see text]/ to /[Formula: see text]/ in the Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone can be interpreted as a facilitation strategy of cross-dialectal comprehension to reduce both misunderstandings as well as neural costs in processing, which might be interpreted as the initial trigger for this particular phoneme change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882417PMC
June 2016

Chilenopeptins A and B, Peptaibols from the Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori KSH 883.

J Nat Prod 2016 Apr 8;79(4):929-38. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry , Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.

The Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori strain KSH 883, isolated from the endemic Boletus loyo Philippi, was studied in a polythetic approach based on chemical, molecular, and biological data. A taxonomic study of the strain using molecular data of the ITS, EF1-α, and RPB2 barcoding genes confirmed the position of the isolated strain within the S. chalcipori clade, but also suggested the separation of this clade into three different species. Two new linear 15-residue peptaibols, named chilenopeptins A (1) and B (2), together with the known peptaibols tylopeptins A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the semisolid culture of strain KSH 883. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS(n) experiments in conjunction with comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis. Thus, the sequence of chilenopeptin A (1) was identified as Ac-Aib(1)-Ser(2)-Trp(3)-Aib(4)-Pro(5)-Leu(6)-Aib(7)-Aib(8)-Gln(9)-Aib(10)-Aib(11)-Gln(12)-Aib(13)-Leu(14)-Pheol(15), while chilenopeptin B (2) differs from 1 by the replacement of Trp(3) by Phe(3). Additionally, the total synthesis of 1 and 2 was accomplished by a solid-phase approach, confirming the absolute configuration of all chiral amino acids as l. Both the chilenopeptins (1 and 2) and tylopeptins (3 and 4) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b01018DOI Listing
April 2016

Generation of circularly polarized high harmonic radiation using a transmission multilayer quarter waveplate.

Opt Express 2015 Dec;23(26):33564-78

High harmonic radiation is meanwhile nearly extensively used for the spectroscopic investigation of electron dynamics with ultimate time resolution. The majority of high harmonic beamlines provide linearly polarized radiation created in a gas target. However, circular polarization greatly extends the spectroscopic possibilities for high harmonics, especially in the analysis of samples with chirality or prominent spin polarization. We produced a free-standing multilayer foil as a transmission EUV quarter waveplate and applied it for the first time to high harmonic radiation. We measured a broadband (4.6 eV FWHM) ellipticity of 75% at 66 eV photon energy with a transmission efficiency of 5%. The helicity is switchable and the ellipticity can be adjusted to lower values by angle tuning. As a single element it can be easily integrated in any existing harmonic beamline without major changes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.033564DOI Listing
December 2015

Negative ion electrospray high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry of polyphenols.

Authors:
Jürgen Schmidt

J Mass Spectrom 2016 Jan;51(1):33-43

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120, Halle/Saale, Germany.

Representative compounds with a 1,3-dihydroxybenzene substructure belonging to different important polyphenol classes (stilbenes, flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, phloroglucinols, anthraquinones and bisanthraquinones) were investigated based on detailed high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry measurements with an Orbitrap system under negative ion electrospray conditions. The mass spectral behaviour of these compound classes was compared among each other not only with respect to previously described losses of CO, CH2 CO and C3 O2 but also concerning the loss of CO2 and successive specific fragmentations. Furthermore, some unusual fragmentations such as the loss of a methyl radical during mass spectral decomposition are discussed. The obtained results demonstrate both similarities and differences in their mass spectral fragmentation under MS(n) conditions, allowing a characterization of the corresponding compound type. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3712DOI Listing
January 2016

Structure and Absolute Configuration of Pseudohygrophorones A(12) and B(12), Alkyl Cyclohexenone Derivatives from Hygrophorus abieticola (Basidiomycetes).

J Nat Prod 2016 Jan 21;79(1):74-80. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry , Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle/Saale, Germany.

Pseudohygrophorones A(12) (1) and B(12) (2), the first naturally occurring alkyl cyclohexenones from a fungal source, and the recently reported hygrophorone B(12) (3) have been isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus abieticola Krieglst. ex Gröger & Bresinsky. Their structures were assigned on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as ESI-HRMS measurements. The absolute configuration of the three stereogenic centers in the diastereomeric compounds 1 and 2 was established with the aid of (3)JH,H and (4)JH,H coupling constants, NOE interactions, and conformational analysis in conjunction with quantum chemical CD calculations. It was concluded that pseudohygrophorone A(12) (1) is 4S,5S,6S configured, while pseudohygrophorone B(12) (2) was identified as the C-6 epimer of 1, corresponding to the absolute configuration 4S,5S,6R. In addition, the mass spectrometric fragmentation behavior of 1-3 obtained by the higher energy collisional dissociation method allows a clear distinction between the pseudohygrophorones (1 and 2) and hygrophorone B(12) (3). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited pronounced activity against phytopathogenic organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00675DOI Listing
January 2016

Benzoxazolinone detoxification by N-Glucosylation: The multi-compartment-network of Zea mays L.

Plant Signal Behav 2016 ;11(1):e1119962

f AVT-Enzyme Process Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringer Weg 1 , 52074 Aachen , Germany.

The major detoxification product in maize roots after 24 h benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) exposure was identified as glucoside carbamate resulting from rearrangement of BOA-N-glucoside, but the pathway of N-glucosylation, enzymes involved and the site of synthesis were previously unknown. Assaying whole cell proteins revealed the necessity of H2O2 and Fe(2+) ions for glucoside carbamate production. Peroxidase produced BOA radicals are apparently formed within the extraplastic space of the young maize root. Radicals seem to be the preferred substrate for N-glucosylation, either by direct reaction with glucose or, more likely, the N-glucoside is released by glucanase/glucosidase catalyzed hydrolysis from cell wall components harboring fixed BOA. The processes are accompanied by alterations of cell wall polymers. Glucoside carbamate accumulation could be suppressed by the oxireductase inhibitor 2-bromo-4´-nitroacetophenone and by peroxidase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione. Alternatively, activated BOA molecules with an open heterocycle may be produced by microorganisms (e.g., endophyte Fusarium verticillioides) and channeled for enzymatic N-glucosylation. Experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis lines indicate a role of maize glucosyltransferase BX9 in BOA-N-glycosylation. Western blots with BX9 antibody demonstrate the presence of BX9 in the extraplastic space. Proteomic analyses verified a high BOA responsiveness of multiple peroxidases in the apoplast/cell wall. BOA incubations led to shifting, altered abundances and identities of the apoplast and cell wall located peroxidases, glucanases, glucosidases and glutathione transferases (GSTs). GSTs could function as glucoside carbamate transporters. The highly complex, compartment spanning and redox-regulated glucoside carbamate pathway seems to be mainly realized in Poaceae. In maize, carbamate production is independent from benzoxazinone synthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2015.1119962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871689PMC
December 2016

Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Lancet 2015 Dec 14;386(10010):2257-74. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regions, and within each English region by deprivation quintile. We also assess disease and injury burden in England attributable to potentially preventable risk factors. England and the English regions are compared with the remaining constituent countries of the UK and with comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and beyond.

Methods: We extracted data from the GBD 2013 to compare mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with a disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in England, the UK, and 18 other countries (the first 15 EU members [apart from the UK] and Australia, Canada, Norway, and the USA [EU15+]). We extended elements of the analysis to English regions, and subregional areas defined by deprivation quintile (deprivation areas). We used data split by the nine English regions (corresponding to the European boundaries of the Nomenclature for Territorial Statistics level 1 [NUTS 1] regions), and by quintile groups within each English region according to deprivation, thereby making 45 regional deprivation areas. Deprivation quintiles were defined by area of residence ranked at national level by Index of Multiple Deprivation score, 2010. Burden due to various risk factors is described for England using new GBD methodology to estimate independent and overlapping attributable risk for five tiers of behavioural, metabolic, and environmental risk factors. We present results for 306 causes and 2337 sequelae, and 79 risks or risk clusters.

Findings: Between 1990 and 2013, life expectancy from birth in England increased by 5·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 5·0-5·8) from 75·9 years (75·9-76·0) to 81·3 years (80·9-81·7); gains were greater for men than for women. Rates of age-standardised YLLs reduced by 41·1% (38·3-43·6), whereas DALYs were reduced by 23·8% (20·9-27·1), and YLDs by 1·4% (0·1-2·8). For these measures, England ranked better than the UK and the EU15+ means. Between 1990 and 2013, the range in life expectancy among 45 regional deprivation areas remained 8·2 years for men and decreased from 7·2 years in 1990 to 6·9 years in 2013 for women. In 2013, the leading cause of YLLs was ischaemic heart disease, and the leading cause of DALYs was low back and neck pain. Known risk factors accounted for 39·6% (37·7-41·7) of DALYs; leading behavioural risk factors were suboptimal diet (10·8% [9·1-12·7]) and tobacco (10·7% [9·4-12·0]).

Interpretation: Health in England is improving although substantial opportunities exist for further reductions in the burden of preventable disease. The gap in mortality rates between men and women has reduced, but marked health inequalities between the least deprived and most deprived areas remain. Declines in mortality have not been matched by similar declines in morbidity, resulting in people living longer with diseases. Health policies must therefore address the causes of ill health as well as those of premature mortality. Systematic action locally and nationally is needed to reduce risk exposures, support healthy behaviours, alleviate the severity of chronic disabling disorders, and mitigate the effects of socioeconomic deprivation.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Public Health England.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00195-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672153PMC
December 2015

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Lancet 2015 Dec 11;386(10010):2287-323. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685753PMC
December 2015

Detection of a new piperideine alkaloid in the pygidial glands of some Stenus beetles.

Chem Biodivers 2015 Sep;12(9):1422-34

Lehrstuhl für Organische Chemie, NW II, Universität Bayreuth, DE-95440 Bayreuth, (phone: +49-921-553098; fax: +49-921-555358).

Rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine (3), 3-(2-methylbut-1-enyl)pyridine (4), and cicindeloine (5) in their pygidial glands to protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation. The biosynthesis of stenusine (3), 3-(2-methylbut-1-enyl)pyridine (4), and cicindeloine (5) was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus, Stenus similis, and Stenus solutus, respectively. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine (5) occurs also as a major compound in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides. The three metabolites follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from L-lysine and the side chain from L-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by few modifications of shared precursor molecules, such as 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-(2-methylbutylidene)pyridine (1). This piperideine alkaloid was synthesized and detected by GC/MS and GC at a chiral phase in the pygidial glands of Stenus similis, Stenus tarsalis, and Stenus cicindeloides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201400391DOI Listing
September 2015

A study on the biosynthesis of hygrophorone B(12) in the mushroom Hygrophorus abieticola reveals an unexpected labelling pattern in the cyclopentenone moiety.

Phytochemistry 2015 Oct 2;118:174-80. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle/Saale, Germany. Electronic address:

The hitherto unknown natural formation of hygrophorones, antibacterial and antifungal cyclopentenone derivatives from mushrooms, was investigated for hygrophorone B(12) in Hygrophorus abieticola Krieglst. ex Gröger & Bresinsky by feeding experiments in the field using (13)C labelled samples of D-glucose and sodium acetate. The incorporation of (13)C isotopes was extensively studied using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as ESI-HRMS analyses. In the experiment with [U-(13)C6]-glucose, six different (13)C2 labelled isotopomers were observed in the 2D INADEQUATE spectrum due to incorporation of [1,2-(13)C2]-acetyl-CoA. This labelling pattern demonstrated that hygrophorone B(12) is derived from a fatty acid-polyketide route instead of a 1,4-α-D-glucan derived anhydrofructose pathway. The experiment with [2-(13)C]-acetate revealed an unexpected incorporation pattern in the cyclopentenone functionality of hygrophorone B(12). Four single-labelled isotopomers, in particular [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, [3-(13)C]-, and [4-(13)C]-hygrophorone B(12), were detected that showed only half enrichment in comparison to the respective labelled alkyl side chain carbons. This labelling pattern indicates the formation of a symmetrical intermediate during hygrophorone B(12) biosynthesis. Based on these observations, a biogenetic route via a 4-oxo fatty acid and a chrysotrione B homologue is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.08.018DOI Listing
October 2015

Size distribution of particles in Saturn's rings from aggregation and fragmentation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Aug 16;112(31):9536-41. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Astronomy and Space Physics, University of Oulu, PL 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland

Saturn's rings consist of a huge number of water ice particles, with a tiny addition of rocky material. They form a flat disk, as the result of an interplay of angular momentum conservation and the steady loss of energy in dissipative interparticle collisions. For particles in the size range from a few centimeters to a few meters, a power-law distribution of radii, ~r(-q) with q ≈ 3, has been inferred; for larger sizes, the distribution has a steep cutoff. It has been suggested that this size distribution may arise from a balance between aggregation and fragmentation of ring particles, yet neither the power-law dependence nor the upper size cutoff have been established on theoretical grounds. Here we propose a model for the particle size distribution that quantitatively explains the observations. In accordance with data, our model predicts the exponent q to be constrained to the interval 2.75 ≤ q ≤ 3.5. Also an exponential cutoff for larger particle sizes establishes naturally with the cutoff radius being set by the relative frequency of aggregating and disruptive collisions. This cutoff is much smaller than the typical scale of microstructures seen in Saturn's rings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503957112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534276PMC
August 2015

Penarines A-F, (nor-)sesquiterpene carboxylic acids from Hygrophorus penarius (Basidiomycetes).

Phytochemistry 2014 Dec 27;108:229-33. Epub 2014 Sep 27.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle/Saale, Germany. Electronic address:

Five sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (1-5) and one nor-sesquiterpene carboxylic acid (6) of the very rare ventricosane type, named penarines A-F, were isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus penarius (Hygrophoraceae). This is the first report of (nor)-sesquiterpenes isolated from basidiocarps of the family Hygrophoraceae. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, ROESY) NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry studies. Additionally, the only known member of this rare type of sesquiterpenes, ventricos-7(13)-ene (7), could be identified via headspace GC-MS analysis in a fruiting body of H. penarius. Compounds 1-6 were devoid of remarkable antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and the colon cancer cell line HT-29 showing no significant cytotoxic activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.09.005DOI Listing
December 2014