Publications by authors named "Jürgen Finke"

208 Publications

Second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donor and survival in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains unknown. We compared overall survival (OS) using registry data from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) involving 455 adults who received a second allo-HCT from a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 320) or a haploidentical (n = 135) donor. Eligibility criteria required adults aged ≥18 years who received a second allo-HCT for treating AML relapse between 2005 and 2019. The primary end-point was OS. There was no statistically significant difference in the median (interquartile range) age between the groups, MUD 46 (35-58) versus haploidentical 44 (33-53) years (P = 0·07). The median OS was not different between the MUD and the haploidentical groups (10 vs. 11 months, P = 0·57). Similarly, the 2-year OS was 31% for the MUD and 29% for the haploidentical donor groups. The OS was worse if the procedure was performed with active AML [hazard ratio (HR) 1·42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·07-1·89; P = 0·02]. Conversely, a longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse (>13·2 months) was associated with better OS (HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·37-0·69; P < 0·0001). The results of the present analysis limit the ability to recommend one donor type over another when considering a second allo-HCT for relapsed AML. Our findings highlight that best OS is achieved when receiving the second allo-HCT in complete remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17426DOI Listing
April 2021

Donor lymphocyte infusions after first allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in adults with acute myeloid leukemia: a single-center landmark analysis.

Ann Hematol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is potentially curative for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The inherent graft-versus-leukemia activity (GvL) may be optimized by donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI). Here we present our single-center experience of DLI use patterns and effectiveness, based on 342 consecutive adult patients receiving a first allo-HSCT for AML between 2009 and 2017. The median age at transplantation was 57 years (range 19-79), and the pre-transplant status was active disease in 58% and complete remission (CR) in 42% of cases. In a combined landmark analysis, patients in CR on day +30 and alive on day +100 were included. In this cohort (n=292), 93 patients received cryopreserved aliquots of peripheral blood-derived grafts for DLI (32%) and median survival was 55.7 months (2-year/5-year probability: 62%/49%). Median survival for patients receiving a first dose of DLI "preemptively," in the absence of relapse and guided by risk marker monitoring (preDLI; n=42), or only after hematological relapse (relDLI; n=51) was 40.9 months (2-year/5-year: 64%/43%) vs 10.4 months (2-year/5-year: 26%/10%), respectively. Survival was inferior when preDLI was initiated at a time of genetic risk marker detection vs mixed chimerism or clinical risk only. Time to first-dose preDLI vs time to first-dose relDLI was similar, suggesting that early warning and intrinsically lower dynamics of AML recurrence may contribute to effectiveness of preDLI-modified GvL activity. Future refinements of the preemptive DLI concept will benefit from collaborative efforts to diagnose measurable residual disease more reliably across the heterogeneous genomic spectrum of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04494-zDOI Listing
April 2021

A prospective single-center study on CNI-free GVHD prophylaxis with everolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil in allogeneic HCT.

Ann Hematol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department Hematology, Oncology & Stem Cell Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Centre, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

We report a single-center phase I/II trial exploring the combination of everolimus (EVE) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free GVHD prophylaxis for 24 patients with hematologic malignancies and indication for allogeneic HCT after a high dose or reduced-intensity ablative conditioning. The study was registered as EudraCT-2007-001892-12 and Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00856505. All patients received PBSC grafts and no graft failure occurred. 7/24 patients (29%) developed acute grades III and IV GVHD (aGVHD), 16/19 evaluable patients (84%) developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD) of all grades, and 6/19 (31.6%) of higher grades. No severe toxicities related to study medication were observed. The median follow-up of all surviving patients is 2177 days. The 3-year OS was 45.2% (95% CI: 27.4-61.4%), and the 3-year PFS was 38.7% (95% CI: 22.0-55.1%). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 1 year and 3 year was 25% (95% CI: 12.5-50.0%), and 33.3% (95% CI: 18.9-58.7%), the cumulative incidence of NRM at 1 year and 3 years was 20.8% (95%CI: 9.6-45.5%), and 29.2% (95%CI: 15.6-54.4%), respectively. The utilization of CNI-free GVHD prophylaxis with EVE+MMF resulted in high rates of acute and chronic GVHD. Therefore, we do not recommend a CNI-free combination of mTOR inhibitor EVE with MMF as the sole GVHD prophylaxis. In subsequent studies, this combination should be modified, e.g., with further components like post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04487-yDOI Listing
March 2021

A prognostic score including mutation profile and clinical features for patients with CMML undergoing stem cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1760-1769

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The inclusion of mutation status improved risk stratification for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment option, and patient selection is critical because of relevant transplant-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the impact of mutation status together with clinical presentations on posttransplant outcome. Our study included 240 patients with a median follow-up of 5.5 years. A significant association with worse survival was identified for the presence of mutations in ASXL1 and/or NRAS. In multivariable analysis, ASXL1- and/or NRAS-mutated genotype (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63), marrow blasts >2% (HR, 1.70), and increasing comorbidity index (continuous HR, 1.16) were independently associated with worse survival. A prognostic score (CMML transplant score) was developed, and the following points were assigned: 4 points for an ASXL1- and/or NRAS-mutated genotype or blasts >2% and 1 point each for an increase of 1 in the comorbidity index. The CMML transplant score (range, 0-20) was predictive of survival and nonrelapse mortality (P < .001 for both). Up to 5 risk groups were identified, showing 5-year survival of 81% for a score of 0 to 1, 49% for a score of 2 to 4, 43% for a score of 5 to 7, 31% for a score of 8 to 10, and 19% for a score >10. The score retained performance after validation (concordance index, 0.68) and good accuracy after calibration. Predictions were superior compared with existing scores designed for the nontransplant setting, which resulted in significant risk reclassification. This CMML transplant score, which incorporated mutation and clinical information, was prognostic in patients specifically undergoing transplantation and may facilitate personalized counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993107PMC
March 2021

Ruxolitinib-ECP combination treatment for refractory severe chronic graft-versus-host disease.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 17;56(4):909-916. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Medicine I, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Glucocorticoid-refractory (SR) chronic (c) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a multisystem immunological disease and the leading cause of non-relapse mortality (NRM) in patients surviving longer than 2 years after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Both ruxolitinib (RUX) and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) have shown activity for SR-cGVHD which motivated us to treat refractory cGHVD patients with the RUX-ECP combination. In this retrospective survey, 23 patients received RUX-ECP as salvage therapy for SR-cGVHD. The best response (CR or PR) at any time point during treatment was 74% (17/23) including 9% (2/23) CR and 65% (15/23) PR. The 24-months-survival was 75% (CI 56.0-94.1). Newly diagnosed cytopenia occurred in 22% (5/23) and CMV reactivation was observed in 26% (6/23) of the patients. Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) correlated with response. Our retrospective analysis shows that the RUX-ECP combination is safe and has activity in a fraction of patients with SR-cGVHD, which needs validation in a prospective trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01122-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Colon and liver tissue damage detection using methylated SESN3 and PTK2B genes in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Feb 20;56(2):327-333. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Freiburg University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been investigated in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) following allogeneic cell transplantation (HSCT). Identifying the tissue of origin of cfDNA in patients with aGvHD is relevant particularly when a biopsy is not feasible. We investigate the cfDNA tissue of origin in patients with aGvHD using methylated gene biomarkers. Patients with liver, colon, or skin aGvHD (n = 28) were analyzed. Liver- and colon-derived cfDNA was measured using a colon- (SESN3) and liver (PTK2B)-specific methylation marker with digital droplet PCR. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in PTK2B and SESN3 concentration was observed between patients with colon or liver GvHD and the control group. For SESN3 and PTK2B the area under the curve in the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) space was 0.952 (95% CI, 0.888-1 p < 0.001) and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.964-1 p < 0.001), respectively. Thresholds to differentiate aGvHD from non-aGvHD in colon were 0 (sensitivity: 0.905; specificity: 0.989) and liver 1.5 (sensitivity: 0.928; specificity: 0.910). Clinical improvement of liver or colon aGvHD resulted in PTK2B and SESN3 reduced concentration. Whereas, in those patients without improvement the PTK2B and SESN3 level remained stable or increased. The PTK2B liver-specific marker and the SESN3 colon-specific marker and their longitudinal analysis might improve aGvHD detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01090-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of spleen size and splenectomy on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: A retrospective analysis by the chronic malignancies working party on behalf of European society for blood and marrow transplantation (EBMT).

Am J Hematol 2021 01 27;96(1):69-79. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

CHU de Lille, Université de Lille, Lille, France.

The role of spleen size and splenectomy for the prediction of post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) outcome in myelofibrosis remains under debate. In EBMT registry, we identified a cohort of 1195 myelofibrosis patients transplanted between 2000-2017 after either fludarabine-busulfan or fludarabine-melphalan regimens. Overall, splenectomy was performed in 202 (16.9%) patients and its use decreased over time (28.3% in 2000-2009 vs 14.1% in 2010-2017 period). By multivariate analysis, splenectomy was associated with less NRM (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93, P = .018) but increased risk of relapse (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.02, P = .042), with no significant impact on OS (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.67-1.12, P = .274). However, in subset analysis comparing the impact of splenectomy vs specific spleen sizes, for patients with progressive disease, an improved survival was seen in splenectomised subjects compared to those patients with a palpable spleen length ≥ 15 cm (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.69, P < .001), caused by a significant reduction in NRM (HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.49, P < .001), without significantly increased relapse risk (HR 1.47, 95% CI 0.87-2.49, P = .147). Overall, despite the possible biases typical of retrospective cohorts, this study highlights the potential detrimental effect of massive splenomegaly in transplant outcome and supports the role of splenectomy for myelofibrosis patients with progressive disease and large splenomegaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26020DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-Term Survival Benefit after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 9;27(1):95.e1-95.e4. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The critical question in the management of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is which patients may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Using ad hoc statistical analysis, we designed a multicenter retrospective study to determine outcomes in 261 patients age ≤70 years at diagnosis who underwent allo-HCT (n = 119) compared with those who did not (n = 142) according to the current CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS). Categorizing patients as lower risk (CPSS low/intermediate-1) or higher risk (intermediate-2/high) showed significantly improved outcomes after transplantation in higher-risk patients, with a 37% reduced hazard for death. However, although higher CPSS was associated with worse outcomes in the nontransplantation group, the score was of limited utility for post-transplantation risk stratification. This study may provide further support for the potentially beneficial role of allo-HCT in terms of long-term survival in higher-risk patients but also underscores the need for transplantation-specific risk assessment. Recognizing limitations of retrospective comparisons, larger and prospective comparisons are needed to further refine the indication for allo-HCT and thus counseling of patients with CMML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Prevalence and characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms with concomitant monoclonal gammopathy.

Leuk Res 2020 11 15;98:106454. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Partner Site, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Of BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, 3-14 % display a concomitant monoclonal gammopathy (MGUS). Nonetheless, literature on co-occurring MPN and MGUS is scarce, the molecular underpinnings are unknown and it is unclear whether patients require a specific management. Here, we compared the clinical and genetic features of MPN patients with and without concomitant MGUS. Of 114 MPN patients prospectively studied by serum immunofixation (median age, 67 years; 36.0 % essential thrombocythemia [ET], 24.6 % polycythemia vera [PV], 11.4 % secondary myelofibrosis [sMF], 28.1 % primary myelofibrois [PMF]; 73.7 % JAK2 V617F positive), 10 (9 %) harbored an M-protein. No relevant clinical differences existed between MPN patients with or without M-protein. Seven additional MPN/MGUS patients were retrospectively identified in our MPN registry, yielding a total of 17 patients (7 ET, 3 PV, 3 sMF, 4 PMF). One patient developed multiple myeloma (MM) and one smoldering MM. Seven of 12 patients analyzed carried mutations (e.g. in ASXL1 or TET2) in addition to those in JAK2 or CALR, and 4 of 10 patients showed aberrant cytogenetics. M-protein was mainly IgG (12/17), followed by IgM (4/17). In the two patients that underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation mutant JAK2 and M-protein were no longer detectable post-transplant. In conclusion, MGUS prevalence in our cohort was in the range of previous reports and at most slightly higher than expected in the general population. MGUS presence did not correlate with a specific MPN entity, clinical features or genetic alterations. Our observations suggest that there is no strong clinical or biological relationship between the occurrence of MGUS and MPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106454DOI Listing
November 2020

The impact of cytogenetic risk on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia: On behalf of the acute leukemia working party (ALWP) of the European group for blood and marrow transplantation (EBMT).

Am J Hematol 2021 01 8;96(1):40-50. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Hematology Department, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, Paris, France.

Karyotypic analysis at time of diagnosis has an important value in determining initial response to treatment, remission duration and overall survival (OS) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Less is known about its value before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients transplanted with active disease, either relapsed or primary refractory (Rel-Ref) AML. We explored the impact of cytogenetic risk (stratification according to MRC-UK) in 2089 patients with either Ref (n = 972) or Rel AML (n = 1117) transplanted during the period 2000-2017. Overall, 154 patients had a favorable risk, 1283 had an intermediate risk and 652 had an adverse cytogenetic risk. Median follow-up was 49 months. Compared to the favorable risk group, intermediate and adverse risk patients were associated with worse leukemia-free survival and OS and also with a higher incidence of relapse. In a subgroup analysis of patients in the intermediate risk group harboring Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), this remained an important prognostic factor, being associated with worse outcomes. When analyzing patients according to the intensity of the conditioning regimen, no differences were observed for the main transplant outcomes. In conclusion, in patients diagnosed with AML and transplanted with active disease, karyotype remains an important prognostic factor, allowing splitting patients into different risk groups according to their cytogenetics. Similarly, FLT3-ITD mutation also remains a negative prognostic factor in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26000DOI Listing
January 2021

FLAMSA-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning versus Myeloablative Conditioning in Younger Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Active Disease at the Time of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 24;26(11):2165-2173. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Cell Therapy, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Sorbonne University, INSERM UMR 938, Paris, France.

The use of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in the setting of active relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been hindered by high historical rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM). FLAMSA (fludarabine, Ara-C, and amsacrine) chemotherapy (CT) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) has been proposed as an effective and potentially safer alternative in this scenario. As improvements in supportive care have contributed to decreasing NRM rates after MAC, a comparative reassessment of these two strategies was performed. This was a registry-based analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Eligibility criteria included age 18 to 50 years, primary refractory, first or second relapsed active AML, first allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched sibling donor (MSD) or an unrelated donor (UD) performed between 2005 and 2018, MAC or FLAMSA-RIC. A total of 1018 patients were included. The median patient age was 39 years (range, 18 to 50). Two hundred and fifty-eight patients received busulfan (Bu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy), 314 received Cy/total body irradiation (TBI), 318 received FLAMSA-TBI, and 128 received FLAMSA-CT. The median duration of follow-up was 50 months. In univariate analysis, the 2-year relapse incidence (RI) (54%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 50%-57%), leukemia-free survival (LFS) (30%; 95% CI, 27%-33%), and refined graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (21%; 95% CI, 18%-24%) were not significantly different between cohorts. Lower 2-year NRM was observed in the FLAMSA-CT group (7% versus 16% in Bu/Cy, 19% in Cy/TBI, and 18% in FLAMSA-TBI; P = .04), as well as increased 2-year overall survival (OS) (50% versus 33% in Bu/Cy, 34% in Cy/TBI, and 36% in FLAMSA-TBI; P = .03). These results were maintained in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] for NRM: .40, P = .01; HR for OS: .65, P = .01; Bu/Cy as reference). These data suggest that FLAMSA-CT may be a preferred conditioning regimen in patients with active R/R AML due to lower NRM. Yet, the high relapse rates observed in our analyses emphasize the need for novel therapeutic strategies in this clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.020DOI Listing
November 2020

Sorafenib Maintenance After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With -Internal Tandem Duplication Mutation (SORMAIN).

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 16;38(26):2993-3002. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Philipps University Marburg and University Hospital Gießen and Marburg, Campus Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Purpose: Despite undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication mutation in the like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (ITD) have a poor prognosis, frequently relapse, and die as a result of AML. It is currently unknown whether a maintenance therapy using FLT3 inhibitors, such as the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, improves outcome after HCT.

Patients And Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial (SORMAIN; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000591), 83 adult patients with ITD-positive AML in complete hematologic remission after HCT were randomly assigned to receive for 24 months either the multitargeted and FLT3-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40 placebo). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary endpoint of this trial. Relapse was defined as relapse or death, whatever occurred first.

Results: With a median follow-up of 41.8 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for relapse or death in the sorafenib group versus placebo group was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.85; log-rank = .013). The 24-month RFS probability was 53.3% (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68) with placebo versus 85.0% (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93) with sorafenib (HR, 0.256; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65; log-rank = .002). Exploratory data show that patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) before HCT and those with detectable MRD after HCT derive the strongest benefit from sorafenib.

Conclusion: Sorafenib maintenance therapy reduces the risk of relapse and death after HCT for ITD-positive AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03345DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of reduced-toxicity conditioning protocols using fludarabine, melphalan combined with thiotepa or carmustine in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 26;56(1):110-120. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

The age of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has increased during the last decades, mainly due to improved reduced-intensity/toxicity conditioning protocols. A reduced-intensity conditioning based on fludarabin, carmustin/BCNU and melphalan (FBM) has been previously developed at our institution. Since we observed detrimental effects in individual patients with compromised lung function, efforts have been made in order to replace BCNU by thiotepa (FTM) to reduce toxicity. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome, GvHD incidence, lung function and organ toxicity of patients with a median age of 62 years (range 21-79) transplanted for malignant disease (96.7%, 62.3% in intermediate/advanced disease stage) at our institution after conditioning with FBM (n = 136) or FTM (n = 105) between 2013 and 2017. Median follow-up was 868 days (range 0-2615). In multivariate analysis for overall survival, no difference was detected between both conditioning protocols in the presence of impaired lung function, age, lower performance, and liver disease previous allo-HCT. In the subgroup analysis, FTM was not inferior to FBM in patients with pulmonary disease prior allo-HCT, lymphoid malignancies, and higher comorbidity index. In conclusion, the reduced-intensity FBM and FTM conditioning protocols show adequate antineoplastic efficacy and are suitable for patients with impaired lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0986-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319212PMC
January 2021

The outcome of two or more HLA loci mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute leukemia: an ALWP of the EBMT study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 19;56(1):20-29. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

A mismatched unrelated (MMUD) donor represents an alternative therapeutic option for patients who need allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and do not have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor. We studied outcomes of patients with acute leukemia transplanted from ≥2 HLA allele MMUD. The study population consisted of 465 patients. The median follow-up period was 63 and 75 months in the AML and ALL groups, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute (a) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during the first 100 days was 37% and 16%, respectively. Total and extensive chronic (c) GVHD rates at 2 years were 38% and 17%, respectively. In the entire population, the 5-year relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival and refined GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 33%, 31%, 37%, 41%, and 27%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, HLA-DR mismatch was a poor prognostic factor, giving a significantly higher NRM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.67, p = 0.02]; poorer LFS (HR, 1.42, p = 0.03); OS (HR, 1.46, p = 0.03) and higher aGVHD grade II-IV (HR, 1.46, p = 0.05). In this study, allo-HCT from ≤6/8 HLA allele MMUD in acute leukemia patients resulted in acceptable LFS and refined GRFS. HLA-DR mismatch was a poor prognostic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0974-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Cytogenetic risk score maintains its prognostic significance in AML patients with detectable measurable residual disease undergoing transplantation in remission: On behalf of the acute leukemia working party of the European society for blood and marrow transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Haematology and EBMT Paris study office / CEREST-TC, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938 and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

While evidence for measurable residual disease (MRD) is a harbinger of inferior outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients referred for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), the exact clinical trajectory of specific patient subsets in this clinical setting is undefined. Using a recently published prognostic cytogenetic model (Canaani et al. Leukemia 2019) we evaluated whether this model applied also to studies of patients with positive MRD. The analysis comprised MRD patients in first complete remission undergoing allo-SCT from a matched sibling donor or unrelated donor. Seven hundred and seventy-five patients were evaluated with a median follow-up duration of 22 months. Cytogenetic risk score was favorable, intermediate/FLT3 intermediate/FLT3-ITD3, and adverse in 15%, 28.3%, 37% and 19.7% of the patients, respectively. Favorable and intermediate/FLT3 risk patients had 2-year leukemia-free survival rates of 78% and 61%, respectively, compared with only 50% and 37% for intermediate/FLT3-ITD3 and adverse risk patients, respectively (P < .001). In multivariate analysis adverse and intermediate/FLT3-ITD3 risk patients were more likely to experience disease relapse compared with favorable risk patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-7.3; P < .001, and HR = 4.4, CI 95%, 2.4-7.8; P < .001, respectively]. The European society for blood and marrow transplantation cytogenetic risk score is a valuable adjunct for risk stratification of MRD AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25905DOI Listing
June 2020

Ibrutinib in patients with relapsed/refractory central nervous system lymphoma: A retrospective single-centre analysis.

Br J Haematol 2020 07 26;190(2):e110-e114. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16759DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of Serum Ferritin Levels Before Start of Conditioning With Mortality After alloSCT - A Prospective, Non-interventional Study of the EBMT Transplant Complications Working Party.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:586. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Elevated serum ferritin levels occur due to iron overload or during inflammation and macrophage activation. A correlation of high serum ferritin levels with increased mortality after alloSCT has been suggested by several retrospective analyses as well as by two smaller prospective studies. This prospective multicentric study aimed to study the association of ferritin serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. Patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or MDS receiving a matched sibling alloSCT for the first time were considered for inclusion, regardless of conditioning. A comparison of outcomes between patients with high and low ferritin level was performed using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers reported data on 298 alloSCT recipients. The ferritin cut off point was determined at 1500 μg/l (median of measured ferritin levels). In alloSCT recipients with ferritin levels above cut off measured before the start of conditioning, overall survival (HR = 2.5, CI = 1.5-4.1, = 0.0005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.8, < 0.0001) were inferior. Excess mortality in the high ferritin group was due to both higher relapse incidence (HR = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.8, = 0.007) and increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 3.1, CI = 1.5-6.4, = 0.002). NRM was driven by significantly higher infection-related mortality in the high ferritin group (HR = 3.9, CI = 1.6-9.7, = 0.003). Acute and chronic GVHD incidence or severity were not associated to serum ferritin levels. We conclude that ferritin levels can serve as routine laboratory biomarker for mortality risk assessment before alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174614PMC
March 2021

Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Leukemia 2021 01 14;35(1):215-224. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Université de Lille, 59000, Lille, France.

We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0815-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Rabbit ATG/ATLG in preventing graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: consensus-based recommendations by an international expert panel.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 22;55(6):1093-1102. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

This collaborative initiative aimed to provide recommendations on the use of polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A comprehensive review of articles released up to October, 2018 was performed as a source of scientific evidence. Fourteen clinically relevant key questions to the domains indication, administration, and post-transplant management were developed and recommendations were produced using the Delphi technique involving a Panel of 14 experts. ATG/ATLG was strongly recommended as part of myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to matched or mismatched unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood allogeneic HSCT in malignant diseases to prevent severe acute and chronic GvHD. ATG/ATLG was also recommended prior to HLA-identical sibling peripheral HSCT with good but lesser bulk of evidence. In reduced intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens, ATG/ATLG was deemed appropriate to reduce the incidence of acute and chronic GvHD, but a higher risk of relapse should be taken into account. Recommendations regarding dose, application, and premedication were also provided as well as post-transplant infectious prophylaxis and vaccination. Overall, these recommendations can be used for a proper and safe application of polyclonal ATG/ATLG to prevent GvHD after allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0792-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269907PMC
June 2020

Relapse- and Immunosuppression-Free Survival after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: How Can We Assess Treatment Success for Complex Time-to-Event Endpoints?

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 9;26(5):992-997. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Institute of Statistics, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

In most clinical oncology trials, time-to-first-event analyses are used for efficacy assessment, which often do not capture the entire disease process. Instead, the focus may be on more complex time-to-event endpoints, such as the course of disease after the first event or endpoints occurring after randomization. We propose "relapse- and immunosuppression-free survival" (RIFS) as an innovative and clinically relevant outcome measure for assessing treatment success after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT). To capture the time-dynamic relationship of multiple episodes of immunosuppressive therapy during follow-up, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality, a multistate model was developed. The statistical complexity is that the probability of RIFS is nonmonotonic over time; thus, standard time-to-first-event methodology is inappropriate for formal treatment comparisons. Instead, a generalization of the Kaplan-Meier method was used for probability estimation, and simulation-based resampling was suggested as a strategy for statistical inference. We reanalyzed data from a recently published phase III trial in 201 leukemia patients after SCT. The study evaluated long-term treatment success of standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis plus a pretransplant antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin compared with standard prophylaxis alone. Results suggested that treatment increased the long-term probability of RIFS by approximately 30% during the entire follow-up period, which complements the original findings. This article highlights the importance of complex endpoints in oncology, which provide deeper insight into the treatment and disease process over time. Multistate models combined with resampling are highlighted as a promising tool to evaluate treatment success beyond standard endpoints. An example code is provided in the Supplementary Materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.001DOI Listing
May 2020

The impact of concomitant cytogenetic abnormalities on acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7 or deletion 7q after HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2020 03 17;95(3):282-294. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Monosomy 7 or deletion 7q (-7/7q-) is the most frequent adverse cytogenetic features reported in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and is a common indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Nevertheless, -7/7q- occurs frequently with other high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities such as complex karyotype (CK), monosomal karyotype (MK), monosomy 5 or deletion 5q (-5/5q-), 17p abnormalities (abn(17p)) or inversion of chromosome 3 (inv(3)), the presence of which may influence the outcomes after SCT. A total of 1109 patients were allocated to this study. Two-year probability of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30% and 36%, respectively. Two-year probability of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 20%. We defined five different cytogenetic subgroups: the "-7/7q- ± CK group- designated group1," the "MK group-designated group 2," the "-5/5q- group- designated group 3," the "abn(17p) group- designated group 4" and the "inv(3) group- designated group 5." The 2-year probability of LFS in first remission was 48% for group 1, 36.4% for group 2, 28.4% for group 3, 19.1% for group 4 and 17.3% for group 5, respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed those significant differences across groups. Note, SCT in -7/7q- AML provides durable responses in one third of the patients. The presence of -7/7q- with or without CK in the absence of MK, abn(17p) or inv(3) is associated with a better survival after SCT. On the contrary, addition of MK, -5/5q-, abn(17p) or inv(3) identifies a sub-group of patients with poor prognosis even after SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25714DOI Listing
March 2020

Graft-versus-host disease of the CNS is mediated by TNF upregulation in microglia.

J Clin Invest 2020 03;130(3):1315-1329

Department of Medicine I, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can affect the central nervous system (CNS). The role of microglia in CNS-GVHD remains undefined. In agreement with microglia activation, we found that profound morphological changes and MHC-II and CD80 upregulation occurred upon GVHD induction. RNA sequencing-based analysis of purified microglia obtained from mice with CNS-GVHD revealed TNF upregulation. Selective TNF gene deletion in microglia of Cx3cr1creER Tnffl/- mice reduced MHC-II expression and decreased CNS T cell infiltrates and VCAM-1+ endothelial cells. GVHD increased microglia TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) activation and NF-κB/p38 MAPK signaling. Selective Tak1 deletion in microglia using Cx3cr1creER Tak1fl/fl mice resulted in reduced TNF production and microglial MHC-II and improved neurocognitive activity. Pharmacological TAK1 inhibition reduced TNF production and MHC-II expression by microglia, Th1 and Th17 T cell infiltrates, and VCAM-1+ endothelial cells and improved neurocognitive activity, without blocking graft-versus-leukemia effects. Consistent with these findings in mice, we observed increased activation and TNF production of microglia in the CNS of GVHD patients. In summary, we prove a role for microglia in CNS-GVHD, identify the TAK1/TNF/MHC-II axis as a mediator of CNS-GVHD, and provide a TAK1 inhibitor-based approach against GVHD-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI130272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269577PMC
March 2020

Donor selection for a second allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AML patients relapsing after a first transplant: a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

Blood Cancer J 2019 11 18;9(12):88. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Division of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Second allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT2) is a therapeutic option for patients with AML relapsing after a first transplant. Prior studies have shown similar results after SCT2 from the same or different donor; however, there are limited data on second non-T-depleted haplo-identical transplant in this setting. We retrospectively analyzed SCT2 outcomes in 556 patients, median age 46 years, relapsing after first transplant given in CR1. Patients were divided into three groups based on SCT2 donor (donor2): same donor (n = 163, sib/sib-112, UD/UD-51), different matched donor (n = 305, sib/different sib-44, sib/UD-93, UD/different UD-168), or haplo-donor (n = 88, sib/haplo-45, UD/haplo-43). Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate after SCT2 was 23.5%, 23.7%, and 21.8%, respectively (P = 0.30). Multivariate analysis showed no effect of donor2 type on relapse: hazard ratio (HR) 0.89 (P = 0.57) and 1.11 (P = 0.68) for different donor and haplo-donor compared to same donor, respectively. However, donor2 did predict for non-relapse mortality (NRM) after SCT2: HR 1.21 (P = 0.50) and 2.08 (P = 0.03), respectively, and for LFS: HR 1.00 (P = 0.97) and 1.43 (P = 0.07), respectively. In conclusion, SCT2 with the same or different matched donor is associated with similar outcomes in patients with relapsed AML. Non-T-depleted haplo-identical transplant may be associated with higher NRM, similar relapse rate and with no better results in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0251-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861251PMC
November 2019

Role of Age and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in Myelodysplastic Patients Undergoing an Allotransplant: A Retrospective Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 21;26(3):451-457. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) but is severely limited by nonrelapse mortality (NRM), especially in this mostly older population. Comorbidity assessment is crucial to predict NRM and often assessed with the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). Moreover, the impact of age on NRM still remains a matter of debate. In recent years, the age at which transplants are made has been progressively increasing, and patients with comorbidities have become more common. Extricating the respective roles of age and comorbidities in toxic mortality is all the more important. This study by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry included 1245 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MDSs between 2003 and 2014. Overall, 4-year NRM and overall survival were 32% and 47%, respectively. When considered as continuous predictors, HCT-CI score and age were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for NRM. In multivariate analysis, age band (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.25; P= .016), HCT-CI ≥3 (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.73; P = .022), and Karnofsky Performance Status ≤80 (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.73; P< .0001) were significantly predictive of a worse NRM. In our large cohort, both comorbidities, evaluated by the original HCT-CI score, and chronological age significantly affected NRM. Thus, age should be part of the transplant decision-making process and should be integrated in future scoring systems predicting outcomes of HSCT in MDSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.015DOI Listing
March 2020

Association of uric acid levels before start of conditioning with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a prospective, non-interventional study of the EBMT Transplant Complication Working Party.

Haematologica 2020 07 10;105(7):1977-1983. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Uric acid is a danger signal contributing to inflammation. Its relevance to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) derives from preclinical models where the depletion of uric acid led to improved survival and reduced graft--host disease (GvHD). In a clinical pilot trial, peri-transplant uric acid depletion reduced acute GvHD incidence. This prospective international multicenter study aimed to investigate the association of uric acid serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. We included patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving a first matched sibling alloSCT from peripheral blood, regardless of conditioning. We compared outcomes between patients with high and low uric acid levels with univariate- and multivariate analysis using a cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers from 10 countries reported data on 366 alloSCT recipients. There were no significant differences in terms of baseline comorbidity and disease stage between the high- and low uric acid group. Patients with uric acid levels above median measured before start of conditioning did not significantly differ from the remaining in terms of acute GvHD grades II-IV incidence (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.4, =0.08). However, they had significantly shorter overall survival (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7-4.7, <0.0001) and progression free survival (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, =0.025). Non-relapse mortality was significantly increased in alloSCT recipients with high uric acid levels (HR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0, =0.003). Finally, the incidence of relapse after alloSCT was increased in patients with higher uric acid levels (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, =0.04). We conclude that high uric acid levels before the start of conditioning correlate with increased mortality after alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.228668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327652PMC
July 2020

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant for acquired aplastic anaemia: a joint study of the Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Parties (ADWP/SAAWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 25;55(2):441-451. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Hematology Unit, G. Gaslini Children's Hospital, Genova, Italy.

This retrospective study explored the incidence of autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) in 530 paediatric and adult patients with acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA) who underwent first allogeneic HSCT between 2002 and 2012. AIC was a rare complication with a cumulative incidence of AIC at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years post HSCT of 2.5% (1.2-3.9 95% CI), 4.4% (2.6-6.2 95% CI), 4.6% (2.8-6.5 95% CI) and 5.1% (3.1-7.2 95% CI). Overall survival at 5 years after diagnosis of AIC was 85.9% (71-100 95% CI). Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with AIC at a median of 10.6 (2.6-91.5) months post HSCT. Eight (32%) patients were diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), seven (28%) with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), seven (24%) with Evans syndrome and four (16%) with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). Treatment strategies were heterogeneous. Complete responses were seen in 12 of 25 patients, with death in three patients. In multivariable Cox analysis of a subgroup of 475 patients, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant was associated with higher risk of AIC compared with bone marrow (BM) when conditioning regimens contained fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (2.81 [1.06-7.49 95% CI]; p = 0.038), or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.86 [1.11-7.37 95% CI]; p = 0.029). Myeloablative conditioning was associated with a lower risk of AIC compared with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (0.34 [0.12-0.98 95% CI]; p = 0.046) and ATG containing regimens (0.34 [0.12-0.95 95% CI]; p = 0.04). These findings provide clinically useful information regarding the incidence of a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic HSCT for aAA, and further support for BM as the preferred stem cell source for transplant of patients with aAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0680-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995778PMC
February 2020

Transplant outcomes for patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with prior lymphoid malignancy: an ALWP of EBMT study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 16;55(1):224-232. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Hematology, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a curative therapy for patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), though the impact of conditioning regimens on HCT outcomes for patients with antecedent lymphoid malignancy is largely unknown. This multicenter, retrospective registry study of the ALWP of the EBMT assessed HCT outcomes in this population. In all, 549 patients ≥18 years with sAML following an antecedent lymphoid malignancy treated with first allograft between 2000-2016 were included. Myeloablative (MAC) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given in 258 (47%) and 291 (53%), respectively. At 2 years, leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 31.7% (95% CI, 27.5-35.9), overall survival (OS) was 37.4% (95% CI, 33-41.8), nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 28.9% (95% CI, 25-33), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 22.8% (95% CI, 19-26.6). In multivariate analysis, patients receiving RIC regimens had lower risk of NRM (HR: 0.58, CI: 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003), and improved LFS (HR: 0.67, CI: 0.52-0.85, p = 0.001). Patients with prior autologous HCT had inferior LFS (HR: 1.30, CI: 1.01-1.67, p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that sAML patients following prior lymphoid malignancy treated with RIC regimens have a lower risk of NRM and improved LFS, OS, and GFRS. Other variables associated with inferior outcomes include older age, active disease, adverse cytogenetics, and prior auto-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0673-3DOI Listing
January 2020

Phenotypical and functional analysis of donor lymphocyte infusion products after long-term cryopreservation.

Transfus Apher Sci 2020 Feb 10;59(1):102594. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.

Donor lymphocyte infusions, collected from peripheral blood by apheresis, are regularly used to re-establishing disease control in patients with impending or full relapse after allogeneic cell transplantation. The cryopreservation and thawing processes of the cellular products, required for clinical needs, result in a decreased cellular recovery. The aim of this study was to perform an integral analysis of phenotypic and functional characteristics in different cell populations, within cryopreserved products used for therapeutic purposes. A total of 77 cryopreserved products were analysed. Cell viability and subpopulations such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14 and CD56 cells were quantified by FACS. Cell proliferation, cytotoxic capacity and CD4 intracellular ATP content were evaluated. A significant loss of cell viability was observed. CD56 cells were significantly reduced when compared with mononuclear cells without cryopreservation. Cell proliferation was also significantly reduced in the cryopreserved products. Cytotoxic capacity was decreased as well although it did not reach statistical significance. However, CD4 intracellular ATP was increased in the cryopreserved products. The analysed functional cell properties showed a wide distribution range although the apheresis, cryopreservation and thawing procedures were similar in all the analysed samples. Our findings may be useful for an improved characterisation of cryopreserved products to be used as donor lymphocyte infusion for therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2019.06.022DOI Listing
February 2020