Publications by authors named "Iwanari Kawamura"

39 Publications

How does the level of pulmonary venous isolation compare between pulsed field ablation and thermal energy ablation (radiofrequency, cryo, or laser)?

Europace 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Department of Cardiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1030, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Aims: We studied the extent/area of electrical pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) after either pulsed field ablation (PFA) using a pentaspline catheter or thermal ablation technologies.

Methods And Results: In a clinical trial (NCT03714178), paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) patients underwent PVI with a multi-electrode pentaspline PFA catheter using a biphasic waveform, and after 75 days, detailed voltage maps were created during protocol-specified remapping studies. Comparative voltage mapping data were retrospectively collected from consecutive PAF patients who (i) underwent PVI using thermal energy, (ii) underwent reablation for recurrence, and (iii) had durably isolated PVs. The left and right PV antral isolation areas and non-ablated posterior wall were quantified. There were 20 patients with durable PVI in the PFA cohort, and 39 in the thermal ablation cohort [29 radiofrequency ablation (RFA), 6 cryoballoon, and 4 visually guided laser balloon]. Pulsed field ablation patients were younger with shorter follow-up. Left atrial diameter and ventricular systolic function were preserved in both cohorts. There was no significant difference between the PFA and thermal ablation cohorts in either the left- and right-sided PV isolation areas, or the non-ablated posterior wall area. The right superior PV isolation area was smaller with PFA than RFA, but this disappeared after propensity score matching. Notch-like normal voltage areas were seen at the posterior aspect of the carina in the balloon sub-cohort, but not the PFA or RFA cohorts.

Conclusion: Catheter-based PVI with the pentaspline PFA catheter creates chronic PV antral isolation areas as encompassing as thermal energy ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab150DOI Listing
June 2021

Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19: Incidence, Predictors, Outcomes and Comparison to Influenza.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Background: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020.

Results: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml, p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml, p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%, p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78).

Conclusions: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2021.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904279PMC
February 2021

Does pulsed field ablation regress over time? A quantitative temporal analysis of pulmonary vein isolation.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Jun 27;18(6):878-884. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiology, Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Department of Cardiology, Homolka Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: The tissue specificity of pulsed field ablation (PFA) makes it an attractive energy source for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI). However, beyond each PFA lesion's zone of irreversible electroporation and cell death, there may be a surrounding zone of reversible electroporation and cell injury that could potentially normalize with time.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the level of electrical PVI that is observed acutely after PFA regresses over time.

Methods: In a clinical trial, patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent PVI using a biphasic PFA waveform delivered through a dedicated, variably deployable multielectrode basket/flower catheter. Detailed voltage maps were created using a multispline diagnostic catheter immediately after PFA and again ∼3 months later in a prospective, protocol-specified reassessment procedure. We analyzed 20 patients who underwent PFA with durable PVI and available maps from both time points. To compare the ablated zones, the left- and right-sided PV antral isolation areas and nonablated posterior wall area were quantified and the distances between left and right PV low-voltage edges were measured.

Results: A comparison of voltage maps immediately after PFA and at a median of 84 days (interquartile range 69-90 days) later revealed that there was no significant difference in either the left- and right-sided PV antral isolation areas or nonablated posterior wall area. The distances between low-voltage edges on the posterior wall were also not significantly different between the 2 time points.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the level of PV antral isolation after PFA with a multielectrode PFA catheter persists without regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.02.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Safety and feasibility of same-day discharge in patients receiving pulmonary vein isolation-systematic review and a meta-analysis.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, First Avenue, 16th Street, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a same-day discharge protocol following pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).

Methods: PubMed and Embase were systematically investigated from the inception to 20 July 2020. Studies on safety and feasibility of PVI for atrial fibrillation (AF) were included. Study-specific estimates were combined using one-group meta-analysis with a random-effects model.

Results: Seven observational studies investigating the safety and feasibility of same-day discharge protocols were identified. Of a total of 3656 patients who have undergone PVI for AF, the overall complication rate was 0.80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-1.40%). The readmission within 30-day following same-day discharge protocol occurred at a pooled rate of 3.6% (95% CI, 0.0-8.4%). Frequent complications following the procedure were complications related to vascular access (0.38%; 95% CI, 0.18-0.58%), and phrenic nerve injury (0.19%; 95% CI, 0.05-0.33%). The reported complications in SDD group were mainly based on results among patients without perioperative complications.

Conclusions: The introduction of same-day discharge strategies might be safe and feasible in selected patients given the reported complication and re-admission rates in the current practice. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-021-00967-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcatheter embolic coils to treat peridevice leaks after left atrial appendage closure.

Heart Rhythm 2021 May 4;18(5):717-722. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) has proven to be an effective alternative to long-term oral anticoagulation in the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. In a minority of patients, inadequate seal may result in persistent peridevice flow and inability of the appendage to fully thrombose, thereby representing a potential source for thromboembolism.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to study the use of endovascular coiling of the appendage to address persistent peridevice leak in patients undergoing LAAC with the Watchman device.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-center analysis involving patients who underwent placement of a LAAC device and returned for endovascular coiling to address persistent device leak between 2018 and 2020. Baseline characteristics, procedural outcomes, and follow-up echocardiograms were analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of this technique.

Results: Patients (N = 20) were identified with a mean leak size of 3.8 ± 1.3 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), all of whom had a non-thrombosed appendage. Acute procedural success was achieved in 95% of patients. Complete or significant reduction in flow beyond the LAAC device was achieved in 61% and 33% of patients, respectively. The 1 procedure-related adverse event was a pericardial effusion before coil deployment, requiring percutaneous drainage.

Conclusion: The clinical impact of residual peridevice leak post-Watchman implantation is a matter of continuing investigation. However, appendage coiling represents a new therapeutic tool to address this potential source for thromboembolism. Further studies should address the clinical impact of this technique, including the safety of discontinuing anticoagulation after successful coiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.01.030DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and effectiveness of intracardiac echocardiography in ventricular tachycardia ablation: a nationwide observational study.

Heart Vessels 2021 Jul 21;36(7):1009-1015. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) utilized in conjunction with three-dimensional (3-D) mapping systems could enhance ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation procedures. ICE has been increasingly used in VT ablation; however, the safety and effectiveness of VT ablation under the combined use of ICE remains unclear. The present study aimed to analyze the safety and short-term effects of VT ablation with or without ICE. We retrospectively enrolled patients who underwent initial VT ablation with a combination of ICE and a 3-D mapping system within 3 days of hospitalization and discharged from April 2011 to March 2017 using a nationwide Japanese inpatient database. Following enrollment, we conducted a propensity score-matching analysis to compare safety (in-hospital complications) and effectiveness (readmission within 30 days after discharge due to cardiovascular disease and readmissions within 30 days for repeat VT ablations) between patients who underwent VT ablation with (ICE group) and without ICE (non-ICE group). 3-D mapping systems were applied to both groups. We identified 5,804 eligible patients (1,272 and 4,532 patients in the ICE and non-ICE groups, respectively). One-to-one propensity score matching created a total of 1,147 pairs between the ICE and non-ICE groups. The ICE group showed a significantly lower prevalence of cardiac tamponade than the non-ICE group. There were no significant differences observed between the two groups regarding other outcomes concerning safety and effectiveness. Ventricular tachycardia ablation with ICE used in combination with a 3-D mapping system may reduce cardiac tamponade; however, no additional clinical advantages were noted in terms of safety and effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01766-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Malignant Arrhythmias in Patients With COVID-19: Incidence, Mechanisms, and Outcomes.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 11 7;13(11):e008920. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Helmsley Electrophysiology Center (M.K.T., D.M., E.C., P.S., I.K., M.B., W.W., M.A.M., S.C., J.S.K., N.L., A.S., S.R.D., V.Y.R.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality.

Methods: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block.

Results: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, =0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event.

Conclusions: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668347PMC
November 2020

Pulsed Field Ablation in Patients With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 09;76(9):1068-1080

Homolka Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Unlike for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone is considered insufficient for many patients with persistent AF. Adjunctive ablation of the left atrial posterior wall (LAPW) may improve outcomes, but is limited by both the difficulty of achieving lesion durability and concerns of damage to the esophagus-situated behind the LAPW.

Objectives: This study sought to assess the safety and lesion durability of pulsed field ablation (PFA) for both PVI and LAPW ablation in persistent AF.

Methods: PersAFOne is a single-arm study evaluating biphasic, bipolar PFA using a multispline catheter for PVI and LAPW ablation under intracardiac echocardiographic guidance. A focal PFA catheter was used for cavotricuspid isthmus ablation. No esophageal protection strategy was used. Invasive remapping was mandated at 2 to 3 months to assess lesion durability.

Results: In 25 patients, acute PVI (96 of 96 pulmonary veins [PVs]; mean ablation time: 22 min; interquartile range [IQR]: 15 to 29 min) and LAPW ablation (24 of 24 patients; median ablation time: 10 min; IQR: 6 to 13 min) were 100% acutely successful with the multispline PFA catheter alone. Using the focal PFA catheter, acute cavotricuspid isthmus block was achieved in 13 of 13 patients (median: 9 min; IQR: 6 to 12 min). The median total procedure time was 125 min (IQR: 108 to 166 min) (including a median of 28 min [IQR: 25 to 33 min] for voltage mapping), with a median of 16 min (IQR: 12 to 23 min) fluoroscopy. Post-procedure esophagogastroduodenoscopy and repeat cardiac computed tomography revealed no mucosal lesions or PV narrowing, respectively. Invasive remapping demonstrated durable isolation (defined by entrance block) in 82 of 85 PVs (96%) and 21 of 21 LAPWs (100%) treated with the pentaspline catheter. In 3 patients, there was localized scar regression of the LAPW ablation, albeit without conduction breakthrough.

Conclusions: The unique safety profile of PFA potentiated efficient, safe, and durable PVI and LAPW ablation. This extends the potential role of PFA beyond paroxysmal to persistent forms of AF. (Pulsed Fields for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation [PersAFOne]; NCT04170621).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.07.007DOI Listing
September 2020

Syncope and presyncope in patients with COVID-19.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 10 12;43(10):1139-1148. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Introduction: Recent studies have described several cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 including myocardial ischemia, myocarditis, thromboembolism, and malignant arrhythmias. However, to our knowledge, syncope in COVID-19 patients has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to characterize syncope and/or presyncope in COVID-19.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with either syncope or presyncope. This "study" group (n = 37) was compared with an age and gender-matched cohort of patients without syncope ("control") (n = 40). Syncope was attributed to various categories. We compared telemetry data, treatments received, and clinical outcomes between the two groups.

Results: Among 1000 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital, the incidence of syncope/presyncope was 3.7%. The median age of the entire cohort was 69 years (range 26-89+ years) and 55% were men. Major comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Syncopal episodes were categorized as (a) unspecified in 59.4% patients, (b) neurocardiogenic in 15.6% patients, (c) hypotensive in 12.5% patients, and (d) cardiopulmonary in 3.1% patients with fall versus syncope and seizure versus syncope in 2 of 32 (6.3%) and 1 of 33 (3.1%) patients, respectively. Compared with the "control" group, there were no significant differences in both admission and peak blood levels of d-dimer, troponin-I, and CRP in the "study" group. Additionally, there were no differences in arrhythmias or death between both groups.

Conclusions: Syncope/presyncope in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is uncommon and is infrequently associated with a cardiac etiology or associated with adverse outcomes compared to those who do not present with these symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461520PMC
October 2020

Patient characteristics, procedure details including catheter devices, and complications of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia: a nationwide observational study.

J Arrhythm 2020 Jun 5;36(3):464-470. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics School of Public Health The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan.

Background: Nationwide data are insufficient with respect to the characteristics of patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation, complications of VT ablation, and procedure details including catheter devices used during VT ablation. The present study was performed to describe the patient characteristics, procedure details including catheter devices, and in-hospital complications of catheter ablation for VT using a national inpatient database.

Methods: We used the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, a national Japanese inpatient database, to identify patients who underwent VT ablation from July 2010 to March 2017. We examined patients' age, gender, baseline diseases, comorbid conditions, admission status, catheter devices and drugs used, and in-hospital complications of VT ablation.

Results: We identified 10 641 patients (median age, 61 years) who underwent VT ablation. The most frequently observed background heart disease among patients with structural heart disease was ischemic cardiomyopathy. An irrigated ablation catheter was used in 73% of patients, a force-sensing ablation catheter was used in 22%, and intracardiac echocardiography was used in 25%. The frequency of using these procedures continuously increased over time. Overall, the prevalence of in-hospital complications was 3.5% (cardiac tamponade, 0.8%; stroke, 0.6%; critical bleeding, 1.9%; mechanical circulatory support, 0.9%; and in-hospital death, 0.8%).

Conclusions: The results of this study show the clinical features of VT ablation in a real-world clinical setting. The use of irrigated catheters, force-sensing catheters, and intracardiac echocardiography increased over time. The prevalence of in-hospital complications was 3.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279962PMC
June 2020

Quality of life improvements by durable pulmonary vein isolation in patients with atrial fibrillation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 08 4;31(8):2013-2021. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Successful pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) can improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the role of durable PVI for such QOL improvement is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of durable PVI in improving the QOL of patients with AF.

Methods And Results: We assessed 119 patients who underwent PVI (age 66.4 ± 9.6 years, 104 paroxysmal AF). A scheduled electrophysiological study was performed 6 months after the first PVI session-regardless of recurrence of AF-to assess the durability of PVI and to identify and re-isolate reconnected pulmonary veins. QOL scores were evaluated by an AF-specific QOL questionnaire and checked at baseline, 6  months, and 1 year after the first session. In patients without AF recurrence (nonrecurrence group, n = 93), the scores at 6 months improved compared with those at baseline; conversely, the scores did not improve in patients with AF recurrence (n = 26). Nevertheless, the scores at 1 year improved compared with those at 6 months in both groups. Within the nonrecurrence group, the score difference between 6 months and baseline was higher in the durable PVI group (n = 58) than that in the nondurable PVI group (n = 35).

Conclusions: The QOL of AF patients improved by the resumption of sinus rhythm following PVI. Patients with durable PVI had increased QOL scores compared with those with nondurable PVI. The durability of PVI may achieve further improvements in the QOL of patients with AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14592DOI Listing
August 2020

Ostial dimensional changes after pulmonary vein isolation: Pulsed field ablation vs radiofrequency ablation.

Heart Rhythm 2020 09 4;17(9):1528-1535. Epub 2020 May 4.

Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Cardiology Department, Homolka Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is an important potential complication of PV isolation using thermal modalities such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Pulsed field ablation (PFA) is an alternative energy that causes nonthermal myocardial cell death.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PFA vs RFA on the incidence and severity of PV narrowing or stenosis.

Methods: Data were analyzed from 4 paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ablation trials using either PFA or RFA; because of absent CT scans or poor computed tomography scan quality, 73 of 153 patients (47.7%) were excluded. Baseline and 3-month cardiac computed tomography scans were reconstructed into 3-dimensional images, and the long and short axes of the PV ostia were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed in a randomized blinded manner by 2 physicians.

Results: A total of 299 PVs from 80 patients after either PFA (n = 37) or RFA (n = 43) were enrolled. PV ostial diameters decreased significantly less with PFA than with RFA (% change; long axis: 0.9% ± 8.5% vs -11.9% ± 16.3%; P < .001 and short axis: 3.4% ± 12.7% vs -12.9% ± 18.5%; P < .001). After a combined quantitative/qualitative analysis, mild (30%-49%), moderate (50%-69%), or severe (70%-100%) PV narrowing was observed, respectively, in 9.0% (15 of 166), 1.8% (3 of 166), and 1.2% (2 of 166) of PVs in the RFA cohort but in none of the PVs after PFA (P < .001). Overall, PV narrowing/stenosis was present in 0% and 0% vs 12.0% and 32.5% of PVs and patients who underwent PFA and RFA, respectively.

Conclusion: This study indicates that unlike after RFA, the incidence and severity of PV narrowing/stenosis after PV isolation is virtually eliminated with PFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.04.040DOI Listing
September 2020

Focal Pulsed Field Ablation for Pulmonary Vein Isolation and Linear Atrial Lesions: A Preclinical Assessment of Safety and Durability.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 06 6;13(6):e008716. Epub 2020 May 6.

Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (J.S.K., K.K., I.K., S.R.D., V.Y.R.).

Background: A novel ablation and mapping system can toggle between delivering biphasic pulsed field (PF) and radiofrequency energy from a 9-mm lattice-tip catheter. We assessed the preclinical feasibility and safety of (1) focal PF-based thoracic vein isolation and linear ablation, (2) combined PF and radiofrequency focal ablation, and (3) PF delivered directly atop the esophagus.

Methods: Two cohorts of 6 swine were treated with pulsed fields at low dose (PF) and high dose (PF) and followed for 4 and 2 weeks, respectively, to isolate 25 thoracic veins and create 5 right atrial (PF), 6 mitral (PF), and 6 roof lines (radiofrequency+PF). Baseline and follow-up voltage mapping, venous potentials, ostial diameters, and phrenic nerve viability were assessed. PF and radiofrequency lesions were delivered in 4 and 1 swine from the inferior vena cava onto a forcefully deviated esophagus. All tissues were submitted for histopathology.

Results: Hundred percent of thoracic veins (25 of 25) were successfully isolated with 12.4±3.6 applications/vein with mean PF times of <90 seconds/vein. Durable isolation improved from 61.5% PF to 100% with PF (=0.04), and all linear lesions were successfully completed without incurring venous stenoses or phrenic injury. PF sections had higher transmurality rates than PF (98.3% versus 88.1%; =0.03) despite greater mean thickness (2.5 versus 1.3 mm; <0.001). PF lesions demonstrated homogenous fibrosis without epicardial fat, nerve, or vessel involvement. In comparison, radiofrequency+PF sections revealed similar transmurality but expectedly more necrosis, inflammation, and epicardial fat, nerve, and vessel involvement. Significant ablation-related esophageal necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were seen in all radiofrequency sections, as compared with no PF sections.

Conclusions: The lattice-tip catheter can deliver focal PF to durably isolate veins and create linear lesions with excellent transmurality and without complications. The PF lesions did not damage the phrenic nerve, vessels, and the esophagus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008716DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparison of touch-up ablation rate and pulmonary vein isolation durability between hot balloon and cryoballoon.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 06 20;31(6):1298-1306. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: This study aimed to compare touch-up ablation (TUA) rates and pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) durability of hot balloon ablation (HBA) and cryoballoon ablation (CBA) in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) patients.

Methods: In total, 137 PAF patients were enrolled in the study. Among them, 59 underwent two HBA procedures at 6-month intervals and 78 patients underwent two CBA sessions, both regardless of atrial fibrillation recurrence. Propensity score matching was performed to estimate similar patient characteristics between the HBA and CBA groups.

Results: Each group comprised of 46 matched patients for comparison. The TUA rate at the first session was higher for HBA (49 of 184 PVs) than for CBA (20 PVs) (P = .01), with the highest incidence at the left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV). The rates of PVI durability at the second session performed 7 months later were similar between HBA (168 of 184 PVs) and CBA (162 PVs) groups. The PVI durability rate at the TUA sites of the first session was higher for HBA than for CBA (41 of 49 PVs vs 10 PVs, respectively; P = .01). Fifty percent of the patients underwent HBA at 73°C for the LSPV. HBA performed at 73°C yielded a lower TUA rate than that at 70°C (16 of 23 PVs vs 7 of 23 PVs; P = .008).

Conclusions: While PVI durability was similar between HBA and CBA, the TUA rate was higher for HBA than for CBA, especially on the LSPV. For LSPV, HBA at a balloon temperature of 73°C may reduce the TUA rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14485DOI Listing
June 2020

Bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation between the left ventricular endocardium and great cardiac vein for refractory ventricular premature complexes originating from the left ventricular summit.

J Arrhythm 2020 Apr 14;36(2):363-366. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Cardiology Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital Tokyo Japan.

Ablation for ventricular arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular (LV) summit is sometimes challenging. Bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is effective for refractory arrhythmias; little is known about bipolar RFCA from the coronary venous system and the appropriate settings. We experienced three cases of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) originating from the LV summit successfully treated by bipolar RFCA between the LV endocardium (irrigated catheters as active electrodes) and coronary venous system (8-mm-tip catheters as return electrodes). These cases showed that bipolar RFCA was effective for the VPCs originating from the LV summit; 8-mm-tip catheters were useful as return electrodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132175PMC
April 2020

Recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation ablation and prior stroke: A study based on etiological classification.

J Arrhythm 2020 Feb 3;36(1):95-104. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University Tokyo Japan.

Background: Different subtypes of ischemic stroke may have different risk factors, clinical features, and prognoses. This study investigated the incidence and mode of stroke recurrence in patients with a history of stroke who underwent atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.

Methods: Of 825 patients who underwent AF ablation from 2006 to 2016, 77 patients (9.3%, median age 69 years) with a prior ischemic stroke were identified. Patients were classified as those with prior cardioembolic (CE) stroke (n = 55) and those with prior non-CE stroke (n = 22). The incidence and pattern of stroke recurrence were investigated.

Results: The incidence of asymptomatic AF (54.5% vs 22.7%;  = .011) and left atrial volume (135.8 mL vs 109.3 mL;  = .024) was greater in the CE group than in the non-CE group. Anticoagulation treatment was discontinued at an average of 28.1 months following the initial ablation in 34 (44.2%) patients. None of the patients developed CE stroke during a median 4.1-year follow-up. In the non-CE group, 2 patients experienced recurrent non-CE stroke (lacunar infarction in 1 and atherosclerotic stroke in 1); however, AF was not observed at the onset of recurrent ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: In patients with a history of stroke who underwent catheter ablation for AF, the incidence of recurrent stroke was 0.54/100 patient-years. The previous stroke in these patients may not have been due to AF in some cases; therefore, a large-scale prospective study is warranted to identify the appro priate antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of potentially recurrent stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011801PMC
February 2020

Pulsed Field Ablation Versus Radiofrequency Ablation: Esophageal Injury in a Novel Porcine Model.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 03 24;13(3):e008303. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (J.S.K., K.K., I.K., S.R.D., V.Y.R.).

Background: Pulsed field ablation (PFA) can be myocardium selective, potentially sparing the esophagus during left atrial ablation. In an in vivo porcine esophageal injury model, we compared the effects of newer biphasic PFA with radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Methods: In 10 animals, under general anesthesia, the lower esophagus was deflected toward the inferior vena cava using an esophageal deviation balloon, and ablation was performed from within the inferior vena cava at areas of esophageal contact. Four discrete esophageal sites were targeted in each animal: 6 animals received 8 PFA applications/site (2 kV, multispline catheter), and 4 animals received 6 clusters of irrigated RFA applications (30 W×30 seconds, 3.5 mm catheter). All animals were survived to 25 days, sacrificed, and the esophagus submitted for pathological examination, including 10 discrete histological sections/esophagus.

Results: The animals weight increased by 13.7±6.2% and 6.8±6.3% (=0.343) in the PFA and RFA cohorts, respectively. No PFA animals (0 of 6, 0%) developed abnormal in-life observations, but 1 of 4 RFA animals (25%) developed fever and dyspnea. On necropsy, no PFA animals (0 of 6, 0%) demonstrated esophageal lesions. In contrast, esophageal injury occurred in all RFA animals (4 of 4, 100%; =0.005): a mean of 1.5 mucosal lesions/animal (length, -21.8±8.9 mm; width, -4.9±1.4 mm) were observed, including one esophago-pulmonary fistula and deep esophageal ulcers in the other animals. Histological examination demonstrated tissue necrosis surrounded by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis. The necrotic RFA lesions involved multiple esophageal tissue layers with evidence of arteriolar medial thickening and fibrosis of periesophageal nerves. Abscess formation and full-thickness esophageal wall disruptions were seen in areas of perforation/fistula.

Conclusions: In this novel porcine model of esophageal injury, biphasic PFA induced no chronic histopathologic esophageal changes, while RFA demonstrated a spectrum of esophageal lesions including fistula and deep esophageal ulcers and abscesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.008303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069397PMC
March 2020

Conduction slowing area during sinus rhythm harbors ventricular tachycardia isthmus.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 02 20;31(2):440-449. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyorin University Hospital, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: The voltage map during sinus rhythm (SR) is a cornerstone of substrate mapping (SM) in scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) and frequently used with pace mapping (PM). Where to conduct PM is unclear in cases of an extensive or unidentified substrate. Conduction properties are another aspect incorporated by SM, and conduction slowing has gained interest as being related to successful ablation, although its mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SR conduction properties and VT isthmuses.

Methods: Nineteen patients (mean age, 62 years) who underwent VT ablation with voltage mapping and PM were reviewed. Isochronal late activation maps (ILAMs) with eight zones were reconstructed and sequentially named from one to eight according to the SR propagation. Good PM sites were superimposed on ILAMs, and the isthmus was defined using different pacing latencies. ILAM properties harboring isthmuses were investigated.

Results: Twenty-eight ILAMs (13 epicardium, 1 right ventricular [RV], and 14 left ventricular [LV] endocardium) were reviewed. Eighteen isthmuses of 24 target VTs were identified, in which the proximal ends were in a later zone than the distal ends (zone 6 vs 4; P < .001), suggesting a reverse isthmus vector to the SR. The conduction velocity of the zone involving the distal isthmus was significantly lower than that of the SR preceding zone (0.40 vs 1.30 m/s; P < .001). SR conduction velocity decelerated by 69.5% (range 59.7%-74.5%) before propagating into the isthmus area.

Conclusion: Conduction slowing area during SR were related with the exit portion of the VT isthmuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14339DOI Listing
February 2020

Patient characteristics and in-hospital complications of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for Brugada syndrome in Japan.

J Arrhythm 2019 Dec 16;35(6):842-847. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics School of Public Health The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan.

Background: Clinical features and complications of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) implantation for Brugada syndrome have not been well studied.

Methods: We used the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database to retrospectively investigate patients who had undergone ICD implantation between April 2016 and March 2017. We compared the characteristics and in-hospital complications of patients with Brugada syndrome implanted with S-ICD or transvenous (TV)-ICD.

Results: We extracted 3090 patients who received ICD implantation. Among them, we identified 278 Brugada patients. The mean age was 43 ± 14.4 years and 262 (94%) were male. Of these 278 patients, 136 (49%) received S-ICD and 142 (51%) received TV-ICD. TV-ICD recipients had a history of atrial fibrillation more frequently compared with S-ICD recipients. The median (interquartile range) of length of hospital stay was not significantly different between patients with S-ICD and TV-ICD (13 days [10-20.5] vs 12 days [10-18], respectively). The prevalence of in-hospital complications after ICD implantation was similar between the two groups. There were no patients with cardiac tamponade, hemothorax, pneumothorax, cardiovascular event, stroke, and death following the procedure during hospitalization in either group.

Conclusions: Short-term safety of S-ICD implantation may be identical to that of TV-ICD. Large prospective studies are warranted to compare the effects and long-term safety of S-ICD compared with TV-ICD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6898525PMC
December 2019

Elongated xiphoid process misleading the pericardiocentesis site.

Europace 2020 04;22(4):583

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, 2 - 34 -10 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz279DOI Listing
April 2020

Catheter ablation for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in Brugada syndrome patients: detailed characteristics and long-term follow-up.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2020 Jan 12;57(1):97-103. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a risk of sudden cardiac death due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation with unusual monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT). Detailed characteristics of MVT and long-term outcome of catheter ablation are still unknown. This study is aimed to identify the detailed characteristics and long-term follow-up of catheter ablation in BrS patients.

Methods: We evaluated 188 patients who were diagnosed with BrS from March 1999 to March 2018. Of those, patients who developed MVT and underwent catheter ablation were included. We identified eight MVTs in seven BrS patients.

Results: Three of them already had implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and MVTs were terminated by cardioversion or anti-tachycardia pacing. Four patients presented with MVT originating from the right ventricular outflow tract, one patient had MVT arising from the LV septum, one patient had MVT arising from the tricuspid annulus, and one patient had bundle branch reentry ventricular tachycardia. All MVTs were successfully treated by catheter ablation in the acute phase, and seven of eight (87.5%) were free from ventricular tachyarrhythmia during the long-term follow-up (median, 7.2 years).

Conclusions: All MVT cases were successfully treated by catheter ablation. We observed high ventricular arrhythmia free rate following catheter ablation during the long-term follow-up period. BrS patients who developed MVT should consider catheter ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-019-00620-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Multiple peritricuspidal reentry tachycardias after cardiac infiltration by leukaemia: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2019 Jun;3(2)

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, 2-34-10 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Cardiac involvement by malignant lymphocytic neoplasms is a rare phenomenon. Little is known concerning cardiotoxicity in the chronic phase after completion of treatment.

Case Summary: A 50-year-old woman with a past history of cardiac involvement of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) underwent electrophysiologic study and catheter ablation for symptomatic atrial tachycardia (AT). She was diagnosed with ALL when she was 8 years old and treated with systematic chemotherapy with prednisolone and vincristine. After complete remission, she suffered from repeated palpitations beginning at the age of 16 years. Electrophysiologic study using high-density (HD) mapping showed two types of peritricuspid AT in addition to low voltage in the right atrium with conduction delay.

Discussion: Cardiac involvement by malignant lymphocytic neoplasms is a rare phenomenon, and cardiac infiltration often disappears after remission of ALL. Thus, little is known about cardiac electrophysiological characteristics in the chronic phase of complete remission of ALL. We describe a rare case of a patient with multiple peritricuspidal reentry tachycardias after cardiac infiltration by leukaemia using a HD mapping system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytz046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601183PMC
June 2019

Characteristics of Marshall bundle-related atrial tachycardias using an ultrahigh-resolution mapping system.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2019 Aug 23;55(2):161-169. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Marshall bundle (MB)-related atrial tachycardias (ATs) have already been described; however, their characteristics using an ultrahigh-resolution mapping system are not yet well known. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of MB-related ATs with ultrahigh-resolution mapping.

Methods: In 28 patients who underwent an electrophysiological study for ATs using an ultrahigh-resolution mapping system, precise circuits of 37 ATs were detected. Among those ATs, five were diagnosed as MB-related ATs that had epicardial connections among the reentrant circuits (mean age 76.6 ± 3.7 years, one male patient). We analyzed the characteristics of those MB-related ATs with ultrahigh-resolution mapping.

Results: The mean cycle length was 260 ± 60 ms, and the total acquired electrograms were 12,962 ± 2616 points. Two ATs were perimitral ATs, two rotated around the left pulmonary vein (PV), and one rotated around the left inferior PV. All ATs had a centrifugal activation pattern: 5 o'clock on the mitral annulus in four ATs and the upper ridge in one. Tiny potentials, which indicated epicardial potentials covering the cycle length, were detected in four of five ATs. The local activation times covered over 95% of the tachycardia cycle length on the endocardial side only in all ATs. All ATs were terminated during a radiofrequency ablation from the endocardial side of the Marshall bundle.

Conclusions: The ultrahigh-resolution mapping system demonstrated an activation map of MB-related ATs with a centrifugal pattern. Macroreentrant tachycardias with a centrifugal activation pattern should be considered as possible MB-related ATs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-019-00544-9DOI Listing
August 2019

Characteristics of ventricular intracardiac electrograms of ventricular tachycardias originating from the epicardia in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2019 04 2;30(4):575-581. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental, University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: While characteristic waveforms of 12-lead electrocardiograms have been reported to predict the epicardial origin of ventricular tachycardia (VT), it has not been fully examined whether ventricular intracardiac electrograms (VEGMs) recorded from the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) via telemetry can determine the origin of VT or not. The aim of this study was to investigate the VEGM characteristics of VT originating from the epicardia.

Method And Results: Intracardiac VEGMs of the induced VTs, with detected sites of origin during the VT study, were recorded in 15 (23 VTs) of the 46 patients. The characteristics of the 23 VTs were evaluated using far-field and near-field VEGMs recorded via telemetry. Five of 23 VTs were found to be focused on the epicardial site (epi group) and 18 VTs were focused on the endocardium (endo group). VTs of the epi group had longer VEGM duration in far-field EGM than those of the endo group (epi group: 240 ± 49 ms vs endo group: 153 ± 45 ms; P = 0.002) and the duration from the onset to the peak of VEGM was also longer than that of the endo group (epi group: 153 ± 53 ms vs endo group: 63 ± 28 ms; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the V wave duration in tip-ring EGM between both groups (epi group: 122 ± 52 ms vs endo group: 98 ± 6 ms; P = 0.377).

Conclusion: Evaluation of intracardiac VEGM before VT ablation may be helpful to predict the epicardial origin of VT in patients with an ICD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.13854DOI Listing
April 2019

The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and recurrence of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation using a contact force-sensing catheter.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2019 Apr 20;54(3):209-215. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Our aim was to elucidate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after repeated pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).

Methods: We conducted a non-randomized observational study, with the data prospectively collected. One hundred patients (paroxysmal AF, n = 89) underwent PVI using a contact force-sensing catheter. All patients underwent an electrophysiological study and additional ablation for left atrium-pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection and non-PV foci, 6 months after the first treatment session, regardless of AF recurrence. Those with an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 were diagnosed with OSA. Continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) therapy was initiated after the second treatment session, based on results of a sleep study. For analysis, patients were classified into the non-OSA (n = 66), treated OSA (OSA patients undergoing CPAP; n = 11), and untreated OSA (n = 23) groups, and between-group differences evaluated.

Results: After the first session, AF recurrence was observed in 18.2% (12/66) and 14.7% (5/34) of patients without and with OSA, respectively (P = 0.678). After the second procedure, the rate of AF recurrence was 12.1% (8/66) in the non-OSA group, 9.1% (1/11) in the treated OSA group, and 8.7% (2/23) in the untreated OSA group (log-rank P = 0.944).

Conclusions: The rate of AF recurrence might not be greater in patients with untreated OSA than in those without OSA and those with treated OSA after repeated PVI, using a contact force-sensing catheter, for patients with paroxysmal or short-term persistent AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-018-0489-xDOI Listing
April 2019

Pneumopericardium after epicardial catheter ablation detected with "bruit de moulin".

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2018 Oct 23;4(10):484-485. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2018.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197557PMC
October 2018

Macroreentrant atrial tachycardia detouring the epicardium at the anterior wall of the left atrium.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2019 02 2;30(2):263-264. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

A 79-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary vein isolation for persistent atrial fibrillation was admitted for recurrence of atrial tachycardia, with a tachycardia cycle length of 236 milliseconds. The ultra-high-resolution mapping system revealed that tachycardia circuit detouring the epicardium at the anterior wall scar and breaking through to the endocardium below the left atrial appendage. Radiofrequency energy was applied to this site, which successfully terminated the tachycardia. This case suggests that epicardial conduction could occur even at the left atrial anterior wall and identifies a variation in epicardial conduction around the left atrium, which could be a tachycardia circuit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.13766DOI Listing
February 2019

High-resolution 3D mapping of epicardial conduction during Marshall bundle-related atrial tachycardia.

J Arrhythm 2018 Jun 30;34(3):298-301. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Cardiology Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital Tokyo Japan.

A 73-year-old woman was admitted for atrial tachycardia (AT) ablation. The activation map and pacing study indicated that the AT propagated around the left pulmonary vein and that the Marshall bundle (MB) bypassed the scar area of the left pulmonary vein ridge and mitral isthmus. The Rhythmia Mapping System revealed double potentials propagated along the assumed position of the MB. The mapping system includes a confidence mask that can be used to visually identify low-confidence areas of the map based upon extremely low-voltage signals. Given the low-voltage area in the endocardial side, the epicardial conduction was emphasized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6009767PMC
June 2018

Ventricular tachycardia storm originating from interventricular septum successfully treated with surgical cryoablation with electroanatomic and electrophysiological mapping before dual valve replacement.

J Arrhythm 2018 Feb 21;34(1):71-73. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Tokyo Medical and Dental, University Tokyo Japan.

A 58-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted with heart failure. He had a history of two catheter ablation procedures for ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the intraventricular septum (IVS). Before dual valve replacement (DVR), he suffered a VT storm. An electrophysiological study revealed an extended low-voltage area at the IVS with the exit of the induced VT at the anterior side. Radiofrequency application was performed at the VT exit as a landmark for surgical cryoablation (SA). During the DVR, SA was performed at the IVS using this landmark. After SA, the patient had no ventricular tachyarrhythmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828278PMC
February 2018