Publications by authors named "Iwan Risnasari"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Properties of wood composite plastics made from predominant Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) plastics and their degradability in nature.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(8):e0236406. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.

To address concerns over plastics in the global environment, this project produced three wood plastics composites (WPCs) which could divert plastics from the waste stream into new materials. The three materials made had a ratio of 85%:15%, 90%:10%, and 95%:5% low density polyethylene (LDPE) to wood powder and were produced using the dissolution method. Physical and mechanical properties of each WPC were evaluated according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908:2003. Their degradation in nature was evaluated through a graveyard test and assay test conducted in Coptotermes curvignathus termites. Results showed that density, moisture content, thickness swelling and water absorption of the WPCs fulfilled the JIS standard. The mechanical properties of these composites also met the JIS standard, particularly their modulus of elasticity (MOE). Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bonding (IB) showed in lower values, depending on the proportion of wood filler they contained. Discoloration of the WPCs was observed after burial in the soil with spectra alteration of attenuated transmission reflectance (ATR) in the band of 500-1000 cm-1 which could be assigned to detach the interphase between wood and plastics. As termite bait, the WPCs decreased in weight, even though the mass loss was comparatively small. Micro Confocal Raman Imaging Spectrometer revealed that termite guts from insects feeding on WPCs contained small amounts of LDPE. This indicated termite can consume plastics in the form of WPCs. Thus WPCs made predominantly of plastics can be degraded in nature. While producing WPCs can assist in decreasing plastics litter in the environment, the eventual fate of the LDPE in termites is still unknown.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

September 2020

Hydrolysis of particleboard bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin for recycling.

Heliyon 2020 May 16;6(5):e03936. Epub 2020 May 16.

Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Raya Bogor KM 46 Cibinong, 16911, West Java, Indonesia.

In this study, the removal of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin adhesives from waste wood particleboards (PBs) via hydrolysis was discussed, particularly the use of this application to combat environmental issues often encountered in recycling projects. Herein, the conditions required for producing PBs with poor binding properties were examined. Additionally, we determined the appropriate formaldehyde: urea (F/U) mole ratios, namely, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.15, required for generating UF resins that can be characterized and used as PB binders. The resulting values were compared with those obtained for a high mole ratio of UF resin (F/U = 2.0) as well as a commercially available PB sample for binding. Aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions of various concentrations and water were used to leach the adhesive from the wood residues, and the effectiveness of these leaching agents was determined using a combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) technique in addition to the Kjeldahl method. Swelling tests were performed on the UF resins to measure the sol fraction (ω) and evaluate the network behavior of the resulting resins. Our results showed that factors, such as solid content, density, viscosity, and gel time, were necessary for generating an effective adhesive; herein, we determined that a solid content between 37.17 and 56.57%, density between 1.45 and 1.54 g/cm, viscosity ranging from 115-444 MPa.s, and gel time between 8.50 and 13.13 min were feasible. Whereas the physical properties of the resulting PB (i.e., the density and moisture content) fulfilled the criteria established by the Japanese Industrial Standard, as laid out in the document entitled JIS A 5908: Particleboards (2003), the mechanical properties failed to pass the aforementioned standard as low bending strength and weak internal bonding were noted for the PBs produced. The use of hydrolyzing agents successfully decomposed the UF resin adhesives by altering their nitrogen (N) content; confirmation of this was obtained through SEM-EDS analysis along with the Kjeldahl method. Swelling tests showed that despite containing a reasonable amount of nitrogen owing to its dissolution in either HCl or water, the ω parameter was heavily influenced by the concentration of the hardener and type of F/U mole ratio adhesive used for the PB under investigation. These results indicate that wood residues can be used as raw materials for recycling PBs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
May 2020

Enhancement of Oil Palm Waste Nanoparticles on the Properties and Characterization of Hybrid Plywood Biocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Using oil palm trunk (OPT) layered with empty fruit bunch (EFB), so-called hybrid plywood enhanced with palm oil ash nanoparticles, with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin as a binder, was produced in this study. The phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins filled with different loading of oil palm ash (OPA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as glue for layers of the oil palm trunk (OPT) veneer and empty fruit bunch fibre mat. The resulting hybrid plywood produced was characterised. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the hybrid plywood panels were investigated. The results obtained showed that the presence of OPA nanoparticles significantly affected the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the plywood panels. Significant improvements in dimension from water absorption and thickness swelling experiments were obtained for the plywood panels with the highest OPA nanoparticles loading in PF resin. The mechanical properties indicated that plywood composites showed improvement in flexural, shear, and impact properties until a certain loading of OPA nanoparticles in PF resin. Fracture surface morphology also showed the effectiveness of OPA nanoparticles in the reduction of layer breakage due to force and stress distribution. The thermal stability performance showed that PF filled OPA nanoparticles contributed to the thermal stability of the plywood panels. Therefore, the results obtained in this study showed that OPA nanoparticles certainly improved the characteristic of the hybrid plywood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2020