Publications by authors named "Ivica Grgurevic"

50 Publications

Diagnostic Performance of 2-D Shear-Wave Elastography with Propagation Maps and Attenuation Imaging in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of new 2-D shear-wave elastography (SWE) with propagation maps and attenuation imaging (ATI) for quantification of fibrosis and steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Consecutive patients with NAFLD and healthy volunteers underwent liver stiffness measurement and steatosis quantification by means of vibration-controlled transient elastography coupled with the controlled attenuation parameter as the reference and by 2-D shear-wave elastography (2-D-SWE) with propagation maps and ATI as the investigational methods. We included 232 participants (164 in the NAFLD group and 68 in the healthy control group): 51.7%/49.3% women/men; mean age, 54.2 ± 15.2 y; mean body mass index, 29.4 ± 6.5 kg/m. Significant correlations were found between 2-D-SWE and vibration-controlled transient elastography (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001) and between ATI and the controlled attenuation parameter (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001). NAFLD-specific 2-D-SWE liver stiffness measurement cutoffs were as follows-F ≥ 2: 7.9 kPa (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); F ≥ 3: 10 kPa (AUC = 0.92); and F = 4: 11.4 kPa (AUC = 0.95). For steatosis, the best cutoffs by ATI were as follows-S1 = 0.73 dB/cm/MHz (AUC = 0.86); S2 = 0.76 dB/cm/MHz (AUC = 0.86); and S3 = 0.80 dB/cm/MHz (AUC = 0.83). According to Baveno VI criteria, the optimal 2-D-SWE liver stiffness measurement for diagnosing liver cirrhosis is 15.5 kPa (AUC = 0.94), and for ruling out compensated advanced chronic liver disease it is 9.2 kPa (AUC = 0.92). To conclude, 2-D-SWE with propagation maps and ATI is reliable for quantification of liver fibrosis and steatosis in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.03.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of an integrated medication reconciliation model led by a hospital clinical pharmacist on the reduction of post-discharge unintentional discrepancies.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Libertas International University, Zagreb, Croatia.

What Is Known And Objective: There is no optimal standardized model in the transfer of care between hospitals and primary healthcare facilities. Transfer of care is a critical point during which unintentional discrepancies, that can jeopardize pharmacotherapy outcomes, can occur. The objective was to determine the effect that an integrated medication reconciliation model has on the reduction of the number of post-discharge unintentional discrepancies.

Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted on an elderly patient population. The intervention group of patients received a medication reconciliation model, led entirely by a hospital clinical pharmacist (medication reconciliation at admission, review and optimization of pharmacotherapy during hospitalization, patient education and counselling, medication reconciliation at discharge, medication reconciliation as part of primary health care in collaboration with a primary care physician and a community pharmacist). Unintentional discrepancies were identified by comparing the medications listed on the discharge summary with the first list of medications prescribed and issued at primary care level, immediately after discharge. The main outcome measures were incidence, type and potential severity of post-discharge unintentional discrepancies.

Results And Discussion: A total of 353 patients were analysed (182 in the intervention and 171 in the control group). The medication reconciliation model, led by a hospital clinical pharmacist, significantly reduced the number of patients with unintentional discrepancies by 57.1% (p < 0.001). The intervention reduced the number of patients with unintentional discrepancies associated with a potential moderate harm by 58.6% (p < 0.001) and those associated with a potential severe harm by 68.6% (p = 0.039). The most common discrepancies were incorrect dosage, drug omission and drug commission. Cardiovascular medications were most commonly involved in unintentional discrepancies.

What Is New And Conclusion: The integrated medication reconciliation model, led by a hospital clinical pharmacist in collaboration with all health professionals involved in the patient's pharmacotherapy and treatment, significantly reduced unintentional discrepancies in the transfer of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13431DOI Listing
May 2021

Liver and Nonliver-Related Outcomes at 2 Years Are Not Influenced by the Results of the FIB-4 Test and Liver Elastography in a Real-Life Cohort of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 8;2021:5582813. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Merkur, Zagreb, Croatia.

Aims: To investigate morbidity and mortality in a real-life cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in relation to prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: Patients with T2D were referred for assessment of liver fibrosis by the FIB-4 test and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE). Liver steatosis was quantified by the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). These patients were followed until death or censored date.

Results: Among 454 patients (52% males, mean age 62.5 years, BMI 30.9 kg/m), 82.6% was overweight, 77.8% had fatty liver, and 9.9% and 3.1% had LSM and FIB-4 values suggestive of advanced fibrosis, respectively. During the follow-up period of median 2 years, 106 (23%) patients experienced adverse event (11% cardiovascular) and 17 (3.7%) died, whereas no liver-related morbidity or mortality was observed. Independent predictors of adverse outcomes were age and higher platelet count, while FIB-4, LSM, and CAP were not.

Conclusion: In a cohort of T2D patients, no liver-related morbidity or mortality occurred during 2 years. Our patients probably have low real prevalence of advanced fibrosis which is likely overestimated by LSM ≥ 9.6 kPa. Liver fibrosis may be safely reassessed in the 2 years interval in noncirrhotic patients with T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5582813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7964120PMC
March 2021

Comparison of prognostic scores for alcoholic hepatitis: a retrospective study.

Croat Med J 2021 Feb;62(1):17-24

Ivica Grgurević, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Dubrava University Hospital, Avenija Gojka Šuška 6, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia,

Aim: To explore the prognostic value of modified Discriminant Function (mDF), Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS), Model of End Stage Liver Disease (MELD), Age-Bilirubin-International Normalized Ratio-Creatinine score (ABIC), and the Lille Model for the 28- and 90-day mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients treated for alcoholic hepatitis in Dubrava University Hospital between January 2014 and May 2018. The diagnosis was established based on histology findings or the combination of patient´s history of ongoing alcohol consumption before hospitalization, serum bilirubin above 50 mmol/L, and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase ratio greater than 1.5. We calculated mDF, MELD, GAHS, and ABIC on the first and seventh day of hospitalization (including the Lille model).

Results: In total, 70 patients were enrolled. ABIC at admission most accurately predicted the 28-day mortality, with a cut-off of 9.92 (AUC 0.727; 95% CI 0.608-0.827, P=0.0119), while GAHS most accurately predicted the 90-day mortality, calculated both at admission (cut off >7, AUC 0.765, 95% CI 0.639-0.864, P<0.0001) and after seven days of hospitalization (cut-off >8, AUC 0.835 95% CI 0.716-0.918, P<0.0001). Modified DF was able to predict the 28- and 90-day mortality only when calculated after seven days of hospitalization.

Conclusion: There is a need for better prognostic indicators for patients with AH.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976889PMC
February 2021

Two-dimensional shear wave elastography predicts survival in advanced chronic liver disease.

Gut 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Radiology, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy, France.

Objective: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a tool used to screen for significant fibrosis and portal hypertension. The aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to develop an easy tool using LSM for clinical outcomes in advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) patients.

Design: This international multicentre cohort study included a derivation ACLD patient cohort with valid two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) results. Clinical and laboratory parameters at baseline and during follow-up were recorded. LSM by transient elastography (TE) was also recorded if available. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcome was the development of first/further decompensation.

Results: After screening 2148 patients (16 centres), 1827 patients (55 years, 62.4% men) were included in the 2D-SWE cohort, with median liver SWE (L-SWE) 11.8 kPa and a model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score of 8. Combination of MELD score and L-SWE predict independently of mortality (AUC 0.8). L-SWE cut-off at ≥20 kPa combined with MELD ≥10 could stratify the risk of mortality and first/further decompensation in ACLD patients. The 2-year mortality and decompensation rates were 36.9% and 61.8%, respectively, in the 305 (18.3%) high-risk patients (with L-SWE ≥20 kPa and MELD ≥10), while in the 944 (56.6%) low-risk patients, these were 1.1% and 3.5%, respectively. Importantly, this M10LS20 algorithm was validated by TE-based LSM and in an additional cohort of 119 patients with valid point shear SWE-LSM.

Conclusion: The M10LS20 algorithm allows risk stratification of patients with ACLD. Patients with L-SWE ≥20 kPa and MELD ≥10 should be followed closely and receive intensified care, while patients with low risk may be managed at longer intervals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323419DOI Listing
January 2021

Accuracy of Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness Measurement in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Mar 6;47(3):428-437. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) measured with either an M or XL probe against liver biopsy (LB) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was a cross-sectional prospective study that included 179 NAFLD patients. With a cutoff value for CAP ≥345, we can exclude significant steatosis in 87% (79.4%-92.5%) of our population. With respect to the LSM, the highest accuracy was obtained for F ≥ F3 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] = 0.98) and F = F4 (AUROC = 0.98). In a multivariable linear regression model, significant predictors influencing LSM were fibrosis stage (β = 2.6, p < 0.001) as a positive predictor and lobular inflammation (β = -0.68, p = 0.04) as a negative predictor, without significant influence after adjustment for CAP and probe type. We found that CAP is a satisfactory method for excluding advanced steatosis, while LSM is a good non-invasive marker for the exclusion of fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.11.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Potentially inappropriate medications involved in drug-drug interactions at hospital discharge in Croatia.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Oct 1. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background The potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can significantly affect patient safety in the elderly, especially at transition of health care. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate PIMs involved in potentially clinically significant DDIs in prescribed pharmacotherapy of elderly patients at hospital discharge. Setting Internal Medicine Clinic of University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia. Method During a 16-month period, the pharmacotherapy data were assessed using Lexicomp Online screening software to identify category C (monitor drug therapy), D (consider therapy modification) and X (avoid combination) DDIs. The European Union (EU)(7)-PIM criteria were applied to detect inappropriately prescribed medications involved in DDIs. Clinical pharmacists obtained data from patients' medical records and patient/caregiver interviews. Main outcome measure The incidence of PIMs involved in potentially clinically significant DDIs. Results A total of 364 consecutive elderly patients were enrolled in the study. The mean number of prescription medications at discharge was 9.3. Overall, 2833 potentially clinically significant DDIs were identified: 2445 (86.3%) of them were category C, 347 (12.3%) category D and 41 (1.4%) were category X interactions. A total of 1164 PIMs were involved in 31.2% of category C interactions, 60.2% of category D interactions and 43.9% of category X interactions. The most frequent PIMs involved in potentially clinically significant DDIs were tramadol, benzodiazepines, moxonidine, vildagliptin and metoclopramide. Conclusion A very high incidence of DDIs in elderly patients and a high incidence of PIMs involved in DDIs was determined at hospital discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01164-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Broken handle cord of impacted biliary basket - rescue by cholangioscopy with laser lithotripsy.

Endoscopy 2020 12 19;52(12):E459-E460. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1167-0904DOI Listing
December 2020

How close are we to hepatitis C virus elimination in Central Europe?

Clin Exp Hepatol 2020 Feb 17;6(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland.

Aim Of The Study: To collect and analyse data obtained from HCV opinion leaders/experts from central European countries, on factors which can affect the WHO target of HCV elimination by 2030.

Material And Methods: Data were collected from opinion leaders/experts involved in management of HCV infections in Central European countries which participated in 9 Conference of the Central European Hepatologic Collaboration (Warsaw, 10-11 October 2019). A dedicated questionnaire collected current information related to HCV elimination in Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia.

Results: The HCV prevalence rate in particular countries varied from 0.2% to 1.7%. In most central European countries all the HCV infected population is eligible for reimbursement of treatment. However, in some countries there are still some limitations related to the stage of the disease and people who inject drugs. All countries have access to at least one pangenotypic regimen. The most common barrier to HCV elimination in all countries is insufficient political will to establish priority for HCV. None of the reporting countries has established a national screening programme.

Conclusions: Access to therapy for HCV is similar and the majority of patients in Central Europe can be treated according to the current guidelines. Unfortunately there are still some limitations and a lack of political will to implement national screening programmes. According to collected data HCV elimination will not be possible in the region by 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2020.93049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062123PMC
February 2020

Steatosis assessment by controlled attenuation parameter in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease.

Liver Int 2020 07 17;40(7):1784-1785. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Pathology and Cytology, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14426DOI Listing
July 2020

Natural History of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice and an Individualized Approach.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 21;2020:9181368. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, associated with epidemics of overweight and resulting metabolic syndrome (MetS). Around 20-30% of patients with NAFLD develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is the most important predictor of liver-related and overall morbidity and mortality. In contrast to classical understanding, no significant association has been demonstrated between the inflammatory component of NAFLD, i.e., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the adverse clinical outcomes. Older age (>50 years) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in addition to some genetic variants, are most consistently reported indicators of increased risk of having liver fibrosis. However, critical driving force for the progression of fibrosis and risk factors for this have still not been fully elucidated. Apart from the genetic profile, gut dysbiosis, weight gain, worsening of insulin resistance, and worsening of liver steatosis represent candidate factors associated with unfavourable development of liver disease. Cardiovascular events, extrahepatic malignancies, and liver-related deaths are the leading causes of mortality in NAFLD. As patients with advanced fibrosis are under highest risk of adverse clinical outcomes, efforts should be made to recognize individuals under risk and rule out the presence of this stage of fibrosis, preferably by using simple noninvasive tools. This process should start at the primary care level by using validated biochemical tests, followed by direct serum tests for fibrosis or elastography in the remaining patients. Patients with advanced fibrosis should be referred to hepatologists for aggressive lifestyle modification and correction of the components of MetS, and cirrhotic patients should be screened for hepatocellular carcinoma and oesophageal varices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9181368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995480PMC
May 2021

Infection as a predictor of mortality in decompensated liver cirrhosis: exploring the relationship to severity of liver failure.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 11;32(11):1458-1465

Department for Clinical Microbiology and Hospital Infection, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Infections are common in patients with liver cirrhosis and increase mortality. We explored the relationship between infection and liver dysfunction in their effects on mortality.

Methods: Single-center data on decompensated liver cirrhosis patients hospitalized between March 2014 and December 2017 (index period) were reviewed until death, liver transplantation or 31 December 2018. Infections were classified as community-acquired infection (CAi) or hospital/healthcare associated infection (HCAi). Child-Pugh, model for the end-stage liver disease (MELD) and chronic liver failure-organ failure (CLiF-OF) scores indicated liver (dys)function.

Results: We enrolled 155 patients (85% alcoholic liver disease), 65 without infection at first hospitalization, 48 with CAi and 42 with HCAi. Multidrug resistant agents were confirmed in 2/48 (4.2%) CAi and 10/42 (23.8%) HCAi patients. At first hospitalization, infection was independently associated with worse liver dysfunction and vice versa, and with higher 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-6.94]. The association was reduced with adjustment for MELD/CLiF-OF scores, but mediation analysis detected an indirect (via liver dysfunction) association. Twenty-eight patients were repeatedly hospitalized, 11 with new HCAi. HCAi was independently associated with twice higher risk of medium-term mortality and added an additional risk to any level of liver dysfunction, considering all or patients who survived the first 30 days. In those repeatedly hospitalized, HCAi appeared independently associated with a higher probability of infection and higher MELD scores at subsequent hospitalizations.

Conclusion: Infection (particularly HCAi) adds mortality risk to any level of liver dysfunction in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. Mechanisms of long(er)-term effects (in acute episode survivors) seemingly include enhanced deterioration of liver function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001667DOI Listing
November 2020

Epidemiological and clinical features of primary biliary cholangitis in two Croatian regions: a retrospective study.

Croat Med J 2019 Dec;60(6):494-502

Ivica Grgurević, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, Avenija Gojka Šuška 6, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia,

Aim: To assess the measures of disease frequency and determine the clinical features of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in two Croatian regions.

Methods: Databases of two tertiary hospitals, one located in the continental and one in the coastal region of Croatia, were retrospectively searched for PBC patients diagnosed from 2007 to 2018. Epidemiologic data analysis was restricted to patients from each hospital's catchment area. We analyzed factors related to response to therapy and event-free survival (EFS), defined as absence of ascites, variceal bleeding, encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation (LT), or death. In addition, we determined clinical and demographic data of transplanted PBC patients.

Results: Out of 83 PBC patients, 86.7% were female, with a median age at diagnosis of 55 years. Average PBC incidence for the 11-year period was 0.79 and 0.89 per 100000 population, whereas the point prevalence on December 31, 2017 was 11.5 and 12.5 in the continental and coastal region, respectively. Of 76 patients with complete medical records, 21% had an advanced disease stage, 31.6% had an associated autoimmune condition, and all received ursodeoxycholic acid. EFS rate at 5 years was 95.8%. In an age and sex-adjusted multivariate Cox regression model, the only factor significantly associated with inferior EFS was no response to therapy (HR=18.4; P=0.018). Of all Croatian patients who underwent LT, 3.8% had PBC, with the survival rate at 5 years after LT of 93.4%.

Conclusion: This study gives pioneer insights into the epidemiological and clinical data on PBC in Croatia, thus complementing the PBC map of Southeast Europe.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952898PMC
December 2019

Impact of hemodialysis on liver stiffness measured with real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Feb 28;133(3-4):96-101. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Split, 21 000, Split, Croatia.

Background And Aims: The impact of hemodialysis on liver stiffness is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess liver fibrosis by real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE) and to quantify the influence of net fluid withdrawal on liver stiffness during one hemodialysis session. The second aim was to investigate the influence of systolic blood pressure and time spent on dialysis (in years) on liver stiffness measurements.

Methods: This before/after hemodialysis (HD) study in a group of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients was carried out with patients on regular HD. Measurements of liver stiffness were done using RT 2D-SWE directly before and after a hemodialysis session.

Results: In this study 27 patients with mean age 69.4 ± 14.75 years were included. Mean net fluid withdrawal volume per session was 2874.07 ± 778.35 ml. Mean pre-HD and post-HD liver stiffness measurements were 8.15 kPa (95% confidence interval, CI 7.61-8.68) and 6.70 kPa (95% CI 6.10-7.30 kPa), respectively. Mean liver stiffness reduction was 1.448 ± 1.14 kPa. The amount of fluid removed correlated with the decline in liver stiffness values after HD (ρ = 0.523, P = 0.003). There was a positive but statistically not significant correlation between time spent in HD and liver stiffness (ρ = 0.151, P = 0.623) CONCLUSION: Liver stiffness significantly declined after one session of HD. The change in liver stiffness was strongly correlated with the amount of net fluid withdrawal. Random liver stiffness measurements (LSM) by RT 2D-SWE does not precisely show the degree of fibrosis, Furthermore, it is presumed that postdialysis liver stiffness values likely reflect the real degree of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-019-01577-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Multiparametric ultrasound in liver diseases: an overview for the practising clinician.

Postgrad Med J 2019 Aug 21;95(1126):425-432. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Ultrasound (US) is usually the first and most commonly used tool in the diagnostic algorithm for liver disease. It is widely available, non-invasive and offers a real-time assessment of the liver in several anatomic planes, using different US modalities such as greyscale imaging, Doppler, elastography and contrast-enhanced US. This multiparametric ultrasound (MPUS) provides more information of the examined structures and allows for a faster and more accurate diagnosis, usually at the point of care, thus reducing the requirement for some invasive and more expensive methods. Current data on the MPUS in hepatology are summarised in this review, mostly focused on its use for non-invasive staging of liver fibrosis, detection and classification of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices, prognosis in chronic liver diseases and characterisation of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Based on the available data, we propose practical algorithms for clinical use of MPUS in chronic liver disease and FLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-136111DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of pharmacotherapeutic education on medication adherence and adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective, randomized study.

Croat Med J 2018 Dec;59(6):290-297

Srećko Marušić, Medical Department, University Hospital Dubrava, Av. Gojka Šuška 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia,

Aim: To evaluate the impact of pharmacotherapeutic education on 30-day post-discharge medication adherence and adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: The prospective, randomized, single-center study was conducted at the Medical Department of University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, between April and June 2018. One hundred and thirty adult patients with T2DM who were discharged to the community were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Both groups during the hospital stay received the usual diabetes education. The intervention group received additional individual pre-discharge pharmacotherapeutic education about the discharge prescriptions. Medication adherence and occurrence of adverse outcomes (adverse drug reactions, readmission, emergency department visits, and death) were assessed at the follow-up visit, 30 days after discharge.

Results: The number of adherent patients was significantly higher in the intervention group (57/64 [89.9%] vs 41/61 [67.2%]; χ2 test, P=0.003]. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of patients who experienced adverse outcomes (31/64 [48.4%] vs 36/61 [59.0%]; χ2 test, P=0.236). However, higher frequencies of all adverse outcomes were consistently observed in the control group.

Conclusion: Pharmacotherapeutic education of patients with T2DM can significantly improve 30-day post-discharge medication adherence, without a significant reduction in adverse clinical outcomes. ClinicalTrial.gov identification number: NCT03438162.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330775PMC
December 2018

Magnitude dependent discordance in liver stiffness measurements using elastography point quantification with transient elastography as the reference test.

Eur Radiol 2019 May 28;29(5):2448-2456. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition; Department of Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine and Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Avenija Gojka Suska 6, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.

Objectives: To investigate diagnostic performance of point shear wave elastography by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD).

Methods: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography (TE) and ElastPQ was performed in patients with CLD and healthy volunteers. The stage of liver fibrosis was defined by TE which served as the reference. We compared two methods by using correlation, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) analysis, Bland and Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression.

Results: A total of 185 subjects (20 healthy volunteers and 165 patients with CLD (128 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), 83 (44.9%) females, median age 53 years, BMI 27.3 kg/m) were evaluated. There were 24.3%, 13.5% and 11.4% patients in ≥ F2, ≥ F3 and F4 stage, respectively. The best performing cutoff LSM values by ElastPQ were 5.5 kPa for F ≥ 2 (AUC = 0.96), 8.1 kPa for F ≥ 3 (AUC = 0.98) and 9.9 kPa for F4 (AUC = 0.98). Mean (SD) difference between TE and ElastPQ measurements was 0.98 (3.27) kPa (95% CI 0.51-1.45, range 4.99-21.60 kPa). Two methods correlated significantly (r = 0.86; p < 0.001), yet Bland and Altman plot demonstrated difference between measurements, especially with TE values > 10 kPa. Passing and Bablok regression analysis yielded significant constant and proportional difference between ElastPQ and TE.

Conclusion: ElastPQ is reliable method for assessment of liver fibrosis but LSM values are not interchangeable with TE, especially above 10 kPa. Diagnostic performance of ElastPQ for sub-classification of patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease should therefore be furtherly investigated.

Key Points: • ElastPQ appears to be reliable method for assessment of liver fibrosis, with data presented here mostly applicable to NAFLD. • LSM values produced by TE and ElastPQ are NOT interchangeable-in values < 10 kPa, they are similar, but in values > 10 kPa, they appear to be increasingly and significantly different. • Diagnostic performance of ElastPQ for sub-classification of patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease should be furtherly investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5831-2DOI Listing
May 2019

Albi Score as a Predictor of Survival in Patients with Compensated Cirrhosis Resected for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Exploratory Evaluation in Relationship to Palbi and Meld Liver Function Scores.

Acta Clin Croat 2018 Jun;57(2):292-300

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, Dubrava University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia.

The aim of the study was to explore predictive value of the ALBI, PALBI and MELD scores on survival in patients resected for hepatocellular carcinoma with compensated liver cirrhosis and no macrovascular infiltration. In this retrospective study, longitudinal survival analysis was performed. We analyzed patient/tumor characteristics and MELD, ALBI and PALBI scores as liver function tests for predicting survival outcome. Survival was analyzed from the date of liver resection until death, liver transplantation, or end of follow-up. Patients were stratified for age, cirrhosis etiology, presence of esophageal varices, hepatocellular carcinoma stage, microvascular invasion, histologic differentiation, and resection margins. We identified 38 patients (alcoholic cirrhosis in 84.2% of patients) resected over an 8-year period. Median preoperative MELD score was 8, ALBI score -2.63, and PALBI score -2.38. During the follow-up period, 24 patients died. Estimated median survival time was 36 months. Microvascular invasion was observed in 33 patients. Higher ALBI score was associated with 23.1% higher relative risk of death. PALBI score was associated with 12.1% higher relative risk of death, whereas MELD score was not associated with the risk of death. In conclusion, ALBI score demonstrated significant predictive capabilities for survival in patients with compensated cirrhosis resected for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20471/acc.2018.57.02.09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531997PMC
June 2018

Ultrasound Grade of Liver Steatosis Is Independently Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 23;2018:8490242. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

The aim of the study was to explore (a) prevalence and grade of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) among outpatients referred for abdominal ultrasound (US) examination and (b) relationship between the presence and severity of liver steatosis and metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a retrospective analysis of patients without history of liver disease examined by abdominal US in the University hospital setting. US was used to detect and semiquantitatively grade (0-3) liver steatosis. Data on patients' age, gender, body mass index (BMI), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD), raised blood pressure (RBP), transaminases, and platelet counts were obtained from medical records. MS was defined as having at least 3 of the following components: obesity, IGM, AD, and RBP. Of the 631 patients (median age 60 years, median BMI 27.4 kg/m2, and 57.4% females) 71.5% were overweight and 48.5% had NAFL. In the subgroup of 159 patients with available data on the components of MS, patients with higher US grade of steatosis had significantly higher BMI and increased prevalence of obesity, IGM, AD, RBP, and accordingly more frequently had MS, whereas they did not differ in terms of age and gender. NAFL was independently associated with the risk of having MS in a multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and IGM. The grade of liver steatosis did not correlate with the presence of liver fibrosis. We demonstrated worrisome prevalence of obesity and NAFL in the outpatient population from our geographic region. NAFL is independently associated with the risk of having MS implying worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8490242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6126110PMC
March 2019

Comparison of hepatoprotective effect from ischemia-reperfusion injury of remote ischemic preconditioning of the liver vs local ischemic preconditioning of the liver during human liver resections.

Int J Surg 2018 Jun 4;54(Pt A):248-253. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

Aim: To compare and evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) with local ischemic preconditioning (LIPC) of the liver during human liver resections.

Methods: A prospective, single-centre, randomised control trial was conducted in the Clinical Hospital "***" from April 2017 to January 2018. A total of 60 patients, who underwent liver resection due to colorectal cancer liver metastasis, were randomised to one of three study arms: 1) a RIPC group, 2) an LIPC group and 3) a control group (CG) in which no ischemic preconditioning was done before liver resection. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum transaminase levels, bilirubin levels, albumin, and protein levels, coagulograms and through pathohistological analysis. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT****).

Results: Significant differences were found in serum levels of liver transaminases and bilirubin levels between thegroups, the highest level in the CG and the lowest level in the LIPC group. Levels of cholinesterase were also significantly higher in the LIPC group. Pathohistological findings graded by the Rodriguez score showed favourable changes in the LIPC and RIPC groups versus the CG.

Conclusion: Strong evidence supports the hepatoprotective effect of RIPC and LIPC preconditioning from an ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. Better synthetic liver function preservation in these two groups supports this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.05.001DOI Listing
June 2018

Systemic inhibition of BMP1-3 decreases progression of CCl-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

Growth Factors 2017 12 27;35(6):201-215. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

a Laboratory for Mineralized Tissues, Center for Translational and Clinical Research, School of Medicine , University of Zagreb, Scientific Center of Excellence for Reproductive and Regenerative Medicine , Zagreb , Croatia.

Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process resulting in an accumulation of excess extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 (BMP1-3), an isoform of the metalloproteinase Bmp1 gene, circulates in the plasma of healthy volunteers and its neutralization decreases the progression of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Here, we investigated the potential role of BMP1-3 in a chronic liver disease. Rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced liver fibrosis were treated with monoclonal anti-BMP1-3 antibodies. Treatment with anti-BMP1-3 antibodies dose-dependently lowered the amount of collagen type I, downregulated the expression of Tgfb1, Itgb6, Col1a1, and Acta2 and upregulated the expression of Ctgf, Itgb1, and Dcn. Mehanistically, BMP1-3 inhibition decreased the plasma levels of transforming growth factor beta 1(TGFβ1) by prevention of its activation and lowered the prodecorin production further suppressing the TGFβ1 profibrotic effect. Our results suggest that BMP1-3 inhibitors have significant potential for decreasing the progression of fibrosis in liver cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08977194.2018.1428966DOI Listing
December 2017

Hepatitis C is now curable, but what happens with cirrhosis and portal hypertension afterwards?

Clin Exp Hepatol 2017 Dec 16;3(4):181-186. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

Results from the interferon era have demonstrated reversibility of cirrhosis following viral eradication, but only for patients in the initial stage of cirrhosis. Although direct-acting antivirals (DAA) represent revolutionary treatment of hepatitis C, there are currently no studies showing histological effects of therapy on a large number of cirrhotic patients. However, studies involving transient elastography demonstrated a rapid decrease in liver stiffness after successful DAA therapy, probably due to resolution of inflammation, rather than fibrosis regression, as the latter requires a longer period of time. Reversal of fibrosis and cirrhosis upon viral eradication is a prerequisite for the reduction of portal pressure, but this effect has only been observed for the subclinical stage of portal hypertension (PH). On the other hand, the majority of patients with clinically significant PH remain at risk of decompensation and death, despite hepatitis C virus cure, as PH remains high in this setting. This calls for novel therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2017.71491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5731432PMC
December 2017

Liver elastography malignancy prediction score for noninvasive characterization of focal liver lesions.

Liver Int 2018 06 3;38(6):1055-1063. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Hepatology, Swiss Liver Center, University Clinic for Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: To analyse elastographic characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLL)s and diagnostic performance of real-time two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (RT-2D-SWE) in order to differentiate benign and malignant FLLs.

Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with FLL by abdominal ultrasound (US) underwent RT-2D-SWE of FLL and non-infiltrated liver by intercostal approach over the right liver lobe. The nature of FLL was determined by diagnostic work-up, including at least one contrast-enhanced imaging modality (MDCT/MRI), check-up of target organs when metastatic disease was suspected and FLL biopsy in inconclusive cases.

Results: We analysed 196 patients (median age 60 [range 50-68], 50.5% males) with 259 FLLs (57 hepatocellular carcinomas, 17 cholangiocarcinomas, 94 metastases, 71 haemangiomas, 20 focal nodular hyperplasia) of which 70 (27%) were in cirrhotic liver. Malignant lesions were stiffer (P < .001) with higher variability in intralesional stiffness (P = .001). The best performing cut-off of lesion stiffness was 22.3 kPa (sensitivity 83%; specificity 86%; positive predictive value [PPV] 91.5%; negative predictive value [NPV] 73%) for malignancy. Lesion stiffness <14 kPa had NPV of 96%, while values >32.5 kPa had PPV of 96% for malignancy. Lesion stiffness, lesion/liver stiffness ratio and lesion stiffness variability significantly predicted malignancy in stepwise logistic regression (P < .05), and were used to construct a new Liver Elastography Malignancy Prediction (LEMP) score with accuracy of 96.1% in validation cohort (online calculator available at http://bit.do/lemps).

Conclusion: The comprehensive approach demonstrated in this study enables correct differentiation of benign and malignant FLL in 96% of patients by using RT-2D-SWE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13611DOI Listing
June 2018

Non-invasive diagnosis of portal hypertension in cirrhosis using ultrasound based elastography.

Med Ultrason 2017 May;19(3):310-317

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timișoara, Romania..

Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by ultrasound-based elastography may be used to non-invasively discriminate between the stages of liver fibrosis, rule out cirrhosis and follow its evolution, including the prediction of the presence of oesophageal varices. The same is possible in order to diagnose clinically significant portal hypertension, referring primarilyto transient elastography and LSM values ≥20-25 kPa. The same approach may be used to reliably rule out the presence ofoesophageal varices (LSM <20 kPa + platelets >150x109/L). These recommendations refer primarily to patients with viral aetiology of chronic liver disease (hepatitis C), while additional studies are required for other aetiologies. While spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) also poses a logical choice in this indication, controversial results have nevertheless been published on this issue. It should be emphasized, however, that more recent data indicate that this parameter should be included in the diagnostic algorithm for portal hypertension, if not as the sole then as a part of a sequential algorithm, combined with LSM. Until now, transient elastography has been most extensively studied and founded on scientific evidence, although the results of other ultrasound-based elastography techniques demonstrate the same trend for the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-1019DOI Listing
May 2017

Diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of PIVKAII, GP3, CSTB, SCCA1 and HGF for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

Ann Clin Biochem 2018 May 20;55(3):355-362. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

3 School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Introduction Despite some new treatment possibilities, the improvement in survival rate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is still poor due to late diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKAII), Glypican-3 (GP3), Cystatin B (CSTB), squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as potential tumour markers for HCC in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) using imaging techniques (MSCT and MRI) as reference standards. Patients and methods Eighty-three participants were included: 20 healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ALC and 32 patients with HCC. Peripheral blood sampling was performed for each participant, and serum concentrations of PIVKAII, GP3, CSTB, SCCA1 and HGF were determined using commercial ELISA kits. Results Only serum concentrations of PIVKAII were significantly higher in HCC patients as compared with ALC and healthy controls (cut-off: 2.06  µg/L; AUC: 0.903), whereas individual diagnostic performance of other individual compounds was inadequate. The 'best' combination of tumour markers in our study includes all tested markers with AUC of 0.967. Conclusion While novel diagnostic tumour markers are urgently needed, the examined potential tumour markers, with the exception of PIVKAII seem to be inadequate for diagnosing HCC in ALC. Furthermore, probably the future is in finding the best optimal combination of tumour markers for diagnosing HCC based on cost-effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004563217726808DOI Listing
May 2018

Comment to: "Management and outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs".

J Gastroenterol 2017 09 16;52(9):1075-1076. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-017-1361-yDOI Listing
September 2017

Subtypes and clinical significance of common bile duct varices in portal vein thrombosis: diagnosis and follow-up by Doppler US and EUS.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016 Mar;41(3):476-84

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

Purpose: To investigate (1) diagnostic performance of transabdominal color doppler ultrasound (US) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for detection and sub-classification of common bile duct varices (CBDV) in patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and (2) clinical significance and natural history of CBDV subtypes.

Patients And Methods: During a 4-year period, 56 patients with PVT underwent US and EUS for the presence and subtypes of CBDV. Natural history was analyzed for patients who attended control visits.

Results: CBDV were diagnosed in 57 and 59 % of patients with US and EUS, respectively. In 19 % of patients, EUS revealed different CBDV subtypes than previously seen by US. The most common were paracholedochal (PCV), while the least common were epicholedochal (ECV) and Submucosal varices (SMV). Nine patients had obstructive jaundice and underwent ERCP which was complicated by hemobilia in two patients with SMV. Among eight patients who underwent control EUS (median follow-up 60 months), the form of CBDV remained unchanged. Two patients bled from esophageal varices, both with ECV.

Conclusion: While abdominal US and EUS are equally sensitive for detection of CBDV, EUS allows more precise determination of CBDV subtype. Patients with SMV might be at increased risk of bleeding upon ERCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-015-0596-4DOI Listing
March 2016

Real-time two-dimensional shear wave ultrasound elastography of the liver is a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes and the presence of esophageal varices in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.

Croat Med J 2015 Oct;56(5):470-81

Ivica Grgurevic, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Dubrava, Avenija Gojka Suska 6, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia-EU,

Aim: Primary: to evaluate predictivity of liver stiffness (LS), spleen stiffness (SS), and their ratio assessed by real-time 2D shear wave elastography (RT-2D-SWE) for adverse outcomes (hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or death; "event") in compensated liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. Secondary: to evaluate ability of these measures to discriminate between cirrhotic patients with/without esophageal varices (EV).

Methods: Predictivity of LS, SS, and LS/SS was assessed in a retrospectively analyzed cohort of compensated LC patients (follow-up cohort) and through comparison with incident patients with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) (cross-sectional cohort). Both cohorts were used to evaluate diagnostic properties regarding EV.

Results: In the follow-up cohort (n=44) 18 patients (40.9%) experienced an "event" over a median period of 28 months. LS≥21.5 kPa at baseline was independently associated with 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-10.4, P=0.026) higher risk of event. Association between SS and outcomes was weaker (P=0.056), while there was no association between LS/SS ratio and outcomes. Patients with DC (n=43) had higher LS (35.3 vs 18.3 kPa, adjusted difference 65%, 95% CI 43%-90%; P<0.001) than compensated patients at baseline. Adjusted odds of EV increased by 13% (95% CI 7.0%-20.0%; Plt;0.001) with 1 kPa increase in LS. At cut-offs of 19.7 and 30.3 kPa, LS and SS had 90% and 86.6% negative predictive value, respectively, to exclude EV in compensated patients.

Conclusion: This is the first evaluation of RT-2D-SWE as a prognostic tool in LC. Although preliminary and gathered in a limited sample, our data emphasize the potential of LS to be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes and the presence of EV in LC patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655932PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2015.56.470DOI Listing
October 2015

[LOW SPECIFICITY OF PLATELET TO SPLEEN RATIO FOR NONINVASIVE PREDIC- TION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ESOPHAGEAL VARICES IN PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLIC LIVER CIRRHOSIS].

Acta Med Croatica 2014 Dec;68(4-5):353-60

Diagnosis of esophageal varices (EV) is based upon endoscopic examination, which is a rather unpleasant method that carries a certain risk of complications. For that reason, efforts have been made to develop noninvasive methods for characterization of EV. The aim of this study was to explore the value of platelet count to spleen size ratio (PSR) for noninvasive prediction and characterization of EV in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). One hundred and seventeen patients (20 females and 97 males, mean age 60.7) with ALC were included in our research. All patients underwent endoscopic examination upon which the EV were classified as small (< 5 mm), large (> 5 mm), or absent. Spleen size (bipolar diameter in mm) was assessed by ultrasound. Platelet count to spleen diameter ratio was calculated and the values obtained were compared to the presence, size and risk of bleeding from EV as defined by endoscopy. No significant difference in PSR could be found between patients without and with EV (1.341 ± 0.725 vs. 1.053 ± 0.636, respectively; p = 0.06). The PSR was significantly different between the patients with small and large EV (1.103 ± 0.689 vs. 0.876 ± 0.314; p < 0.05) with a cut-off value of 1.141 (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 38.2%, AUROC = 0.656; p = 0.042). The value of PSR below 1.182 pointed to patients at risk from variceal bleeding with 91.7% sensitivity and 38.5% specificity (AUROC = 0.625, p = 0.035). Based on our results, it is not possible to recommend the use of PSR as the exclusive noninvasive indicator for the presence, size and bleeding risk from EV due to its low specificity for these categories in patients with ALC.
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December 2014

Liver and spleen stiffness and their ratio assessed by real-time two dimensional-shear wave elastography in patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis.

Eur Radiol 2015 Nov 23;25(11):3214-21. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Avenija Gojka Suska 6, Zagreb, 10 000, Croatia.

Objectives: To investigate the performance of real-time 2D shear wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE) for non-invasive staging of liver disease in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH).

Materials And Methods: Naive CVH patients underwent liver (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) measurements by an intercostal approach. Patients with ALT >3× upper limit of normal, cholestasis as revealed by dilated intrahepatic biliary tree, and liver congestion were excluded. Results were expressed in kPa and compared to histological stage (Ishak) of liver fibrosis (LF). Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) were diagnosed using standard clinical, ultrasound, and endoscopic criteria.

Results: Of 123 patients, LS was successfully measured in 79.7% and SS in 53.7%. LS accurately differentiated between liver disease stages, with cut-off values of 8.1 (AUC 0.991) for F ≥ 3, 10.8 kPa (AUC 0.954) for F ≥ 5, and 27 kPa (AUC 0.961) for decompensated LC. SS was significantly different between non-cirrhotic stages (F0-4) and LC (cut-off 24 kPa; AUC 0.821). While both LS and SS increased with liver disease progression, the difference between them decreased, as reflected by the stiffness ratio index.

Conclusions: RT 2D-SWE can accurately differentiate between the stages of LF, and can distinguish LF from LC and compensated from decompensated LC.

Key Points: • RT 2D-SWE is an accurate method for assessment of liver fibrosis. • RT 2D-SWE is applicable in 80% of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. • RT 2D-SWE accurately differentiates compensated from decompensated liver cirrhosis. • Both liver and spleen stiffness increase with progression of liver fibrosis. • In cirrhosis, the difference between liver and spleen stiffness decreases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-3728-xDOI Listing
November 2015