Publications by authors named "Ivan Pisoni"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Short Vi-polysaccharide abrogates T-independent immune response and hyporesponsiveness elicited by long Vi-CRM conjugate vaccine.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 8;117(39):24443-24449. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Technology Platform Unit, GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH), 53100 Siena, Italy.

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates have been developed to overcome the T-independent response, hyporesponsiveness to repeated vaccination, and poor immunogenicity in infants of polysaccharides. To address the impact of polysaccharide length, typhoid conjugates made with short- and long-chain fractions of Vi polysaccharide with average sizes of 9.5, 22.8, 42.7, 82.0, and 165 kDa were compared. Long-chain-conjugated Vi (165 kDa) induced a response in both wild-type and T cell-deficient mice, suggesting that it maintains a T-independent response. In marked contrast, short-chain Vi (9.5 to 42.7 kDa) conjugates induced a response in wild-type mice but not in T cell-deficient mice, suggesting that the response is dependent on T cell help. Mechanistically, this was explained in neonatal mice, in which long-chain, but not short-chain, Vi conjugate induced late apoptosis of Vi-specific B cells in spleen and early depletion of Vi-specific B cells in bone marrow, resulting in hyporesponsiveness and lack of long-term persistence of Vi-specific IgG in serum and IgG antibody-secreting cells in bone marrow. We conclude that while conjugation of long-chain Vi generates T-dependent antigens, the conjugates also retain T-independent properties, leading to detrimental effects on immune responses. The data reported here may explain some inconsistencies observed in clinical trials and help guide the design of effective conjugate vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005857117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533886PMC
September 2020

Development of FAcE (Formulated Alhydrogel competitive ELISA) method for direct quantification of OAg present in Shigella sonnei GMMA-based vaccine and its optimization using Design of Experiments approach.

J Immunol Methods 2019 08 27;471:11-17. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) S.r.l., Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Many formulated vaccines, including 1790GAHB Shigella sonnei GMMA-based vaccine, contain Alhydrogel (aluminum hydroxide), consequently the antigen content must be determined in the formulated final vaccine product, as required by regulatory authorities. The direct quantification of antigens adsorbed on aluminum salts is difficult, and antigens may need to be extracted using laborious and often ineffective desorption procedures. To directly quantify the sugar vaccine target in the LPS of 1790GAHB, we have developed a new FAcE (Formulated Alhydrogel competitive ELISA) method. FAcE is an immunoassay based on the competition between S. sonnei LPS, coated on the ELISA plate, and the LPS in formulated S. sonnei GMMA, in binding a specific monoclonal antibody. To optimize the method, which is as easy to perform as a standard ELISA, we have applied a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. A model was found to define the significant assay variables and to predict their impact on the output responses. Results obtained using the DOE optimized FAcE assay showed that the method is sensitive (0.02 μg/mL lower detection limit), precise, reproducible and can accurately quantify independently formulated drug products, making it a useful tool in routine tests of Alhydrogel-based vaccines. We are currently using this method to determine S. sonnei vaccine potency, stability and lot-to-lot variations, and are broadening its applicability to quantify active ingredients of other Alhydrogel GMMA-vaccines and in multivalent vaccines formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2019.04.012DOI Listing
August 2019

Characterization of Citrobacter sp. line 328 as a source of Vi for a Vi-CRM(197) glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2012 Nov 26;6(11):763-73. Epub 2012 Nov 26.

Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health.

Introduction: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever with over 22 million cases and over 200,000 deaths reported annually. A vaccine is much needed for use in young children and the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH) is developing a conjugate vaccine which targets S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide.

Methodology: Here we describe a method suitable for industrial scale production of the Vi antigen based on expression by a Citrobacter line. We optimized the production of Vi by selecting a suitable Citrobacter strain (Citrobacter 328) that yields high and stable expression of Vi in chemically defined medium under industrial-scale fermentation conditions.

Results: Vi-CRM197 made using Vi from Citrobacter 328 elicited high anti-Vi antibody levels in mice and rabbits.

Conclusions: Citrobacter 328 is a suitable strain for production of Vi for conjugate anti-Typhi vaccines. Being a BSL-1 organism, which grows in defined medium and stably produces high yields of Vi, it offers excellent potential for safe production of inexpensive vaccines for populations at risk of typhoid fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.2495DOI Listing
November 2012

Plant pharming of a full-sized, tumour-targeting antibody using different expression strategies.

Plant Biotechnol J 2009 Jan 10;7(1):59-72. Epub 2008 Sep 10.

ENEA, Dipartimento BAS, Sezione Genetica e Genomica Vegetale, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00123, Rome, Italy.

The aims of this work were to obtain a human antibody against the tumour-associated antigen tenascin-C (TNC) and to compare the yield and quality of plant-produced antibody in either stable transgenics or using a transient expression system. To this end, the characterization of a full-sized human immunoglobulin G (IgG) [monoclonal antibody H10 (mAb H10)], derived from a selected single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and produced in plants, is presented. The human mAb gene was engineered for plant expression, and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines expressing both heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain were obtained and evaluated for antibody expression levels, in vivo assembly and functionality. Affinity-purified H10 from transgenics (yield, 0.6-1.1 mg/kg fresh weight) revealed that more than 90% of HC was specifically degraded, leading to the formation of functional antigen-binding fragments (Fab). Consequently, H10 was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated gene-transfer system. Moreover, the use of the p19 silencing suppressor gene from artichoke mottled crinkle virus raised antibody expression levels by an order of magnitude (yields of purified H10, 50-100 mg/kg fresh weight). Approximately 75% of purified protein consisted of full-sized antibody functionally binding to TNC (K(D) = 14 nm), and immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissues revealed specific accumulation around tumour blood vessels. The data indicate that the purification yields of mAb H10, using a transient expression system boosted by the p19 silencing suppressor, are exceptionally high when compared with the results reported previously, providing a technique for the over-expression of anticancer mAbs by a rapid, cost-effective, molecular farming approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2008.00371.xDOI Listing
January 2009