Publications by authors named "Ivan Holoubek"

57 Publications

Characterization of Equivalent Black Carbon at a regional background site in Central Europe: Variability and source apportionment.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 20;260:113771. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute CAS, Brno, 60300, Czech Republic; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, 62500, Czech Republic.

Characterizing Black Carbon (BC) at regional background areas is important for better understanding its impact on climate forcing and health effects. The variability and sources of Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) in PM (atmospheric particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) have been investigated during a 5-year measurement period at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), Czech Republic. Ground based measurements were performed from September 2012 to December 2017 with a 7-wavelength aethalometer (AE31, Magee Scientific). The contributions of fossil fuel (EBC) and biomass burning (EBC) were estimated using the aethalometer model. Seasonal, diurnal and weekly variations of EBC were observed that can be related to the sources fluctuations and transport characteristic of pollutants predominantly associated with regional air masses recirculating over the Czech Republic and neighboring countries. The absorption Ångström exponent (α-value) estimated in summer (1.1 ± 0.2) was consistent with reported value for traffic, while the mean highest value (1.5 ± 0.2) was observed in winter due to increased EBC accounting for about 50% of the total EBC. This result is in agreement with the strong correlation between EBC and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) in winter. During this season, the concentrations of EBC and Delta-C (proxy for biomass burning) reached a maximum in the evening when increasing emissions of wood burning in domestic heating devices (woodstoves/heating system) is expected, especially during the weekend. The diurnal profile of EBC displays a typical morning peak during the morning traffic rush hour and shows a decreasing concentration during weekends due to lower the traffic emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113771DOI Listing
May 2020

Bulk atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Central Europe.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 14;26(23):23429-23441. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous and toxic contaminants. Their atmospheric deposition fluxes on the regional scale were quantified based on simultaneous sampling during 1 to 5 years at 1 to 6 background/rural sites in the Czech Republic and Austria. The samples were extracted and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For all seasons and sites, total deposition fluxes for ΣPAHs ranged 23-1100 ng m d, while those for Σ6PCBs and Σ12OCPs ranged 64-4400 and 410-7800 pg m d, respectively. Fluoranthene and pyrene were the main contributors to the PAH deposition fluxes, accounting on average for 19% each, while deposition fluxes of PCBs and OCPs were dominated by PCB153 (26%) and γ-hexachlorobenzene (30%), respectively. The highest deposition flux of ΣPAHs was generally found in spring, while no seasonality was found for PCB deposition. For deposition fluxes for ΣOCPs, no clear spatial trend was found, confirming the perception of long-lived regional pollutants. Although most OCPs and PCBs hardly partition to the particulate phase in ambient air, on average, 42% of their deposition fluxes were found on filters, confirming the perception that particle deposition is more efficient than dry gaseous deposition. Due to methodological constraints, fluxes derived from bulk deposition samplers should be understood as lower estimates, in particular with regard to those substances which in ambient aerosols mostly partition to the particulate phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05464-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667414PMC
August 2019

Risk of POP mixtures on the Arctic food chain.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2017 05 5;36(5):1181-1192. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy.

The exposure of the Arctic ecosystem to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was assessed through a review of literature data. Concentrations of 19 chemicals or congeneric groups were estimated for the highest levels of the Arctic food chain (Arctic cod, ringed seals, and polar bears). The ecotoxicological risk for seals, bears, and bear cubs was estimated by applying the concentration addition (CA) concept. The risk of POP mixtures was very low in seals. By contrast, the risk was 2 orders of magnitude higher than the risk threshold for adult polar bears and even more (3 orders of magnitude above the threshold) for bear cubs fed with contaminated milk. Based on the temporal trends available for many of the chemicals, the temporal trend of the mixture risk for bear cubs was calculated. Relative to the 1980s, a decrease in risk from the POP mixture is evident, mainly because of international control measures. However, the composition of the mixture substantially changes, and the contribution of new POPs (particularly perfluorooctane sulfonate) increases. These results support the effectiveness of control measures, such as those promulgated in the Stockholm Convention, as well as the urgent need for their implementation for new and emerging POPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1181-1192. © 2017 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3671DOI Listing
May 2017

Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Apr 25;550:231-240. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Masaryk University, RECETOX - Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.044DOI Listing
April 2016

Source identification, spatio-temporal distribution and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the upper Danube catchment.

Chemosphere 2015 Nov 18;138:777-83. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Riverine sediments, collected on a monthly basis during a period of one year, from five sites in a mixed land use region of the Czech Republic were analysed for chlorinated and brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The region is located in the upper catchment of the Danube River. The POPs concentrations were as follows: 11-930 pg g(-1) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 170-980 pg g(-1) dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), 34-13,700 pg g(-1) polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), 5.7-29,200 pg g(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 0.21-351 ng g(-1) hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs), for PCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN (TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN) ranged from 0.37 to 19 pg g(-1). The results revealed a clear spatial separation between sites based on concentration and congener profile. There were also some obvious temporal patterns of selected POPs, which were related to river flow (seasonality) and organic carbon (TOC) of the sediment. Potential sources of POPs include local municipalities (flame retardants), some diffuse sources (PCNs and PCDDs/Fs) and potential point sources (PBDEs). Risk assessment based on risk quotients (RQ) revealed limited to medium ecological risk from PBDEs. TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN were low relative to other European rivers, hence the risk to aquatic organisms was considered to be low. PCNs contributed significantly to overall TEQ in several cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.001DOI Listing
November 2015

Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

Environ Int 2015 May 10;78:8-15. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Forschungsstelle für Atmosphärische Chemie, Dr. Hans-Frisch-Str. 1-3, Universität Bayreuth, D-954 48 Bayreuth, Germany.

Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.001DOI Listing
May 2015

Seasonally and regionally determined indication potential of bioassays in contaminated river sediments.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2010 Mar;29(3):522-34

RECETOX-Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, Brno, Czech Republic.

River sediments are a dynamic system, especially in areas where floods occur frequently. In the present study, an integrative approach is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial dynamics of contamination of sediments from a regularly flooded industrial area in the Czech Republic, which presents a suitable model ecosystem for pollutant distribution research at a regional level. Surface sediments were sampled repeatedly to represent two different hydrological situations: spring (after the peak of high flow) and autumn (after longer period of low flow). Samples were characterized for abiotic parameters and concentrations of priority organic pollutants. Toxicity was assessed by Microtox test; genotoxicity by SOS-chromotest and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-yeast test; and the presence of compounds with specific mode of action by in vitro bioassays for dioxin-like activity, anti-/androgenicity, and anti-/estrogenicity. Distribution of organic contaminants varied among regions and seasonally. Although the results of Microtox and genotoxicity tests were relatively inconclusive, all other specific bioassays led to statistically significant regional and seasonal differences in profiles and allowed clear separation of upstream and downstream regions. The outcomes of these bioassays indicated an association with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as master variables. There were significant interrelations among dioxin-like activity, antiandrogenicity and content of organic carbon, clay, and concentration of PAHs and PCBs, which documents the significance of abiotic factors in accumulation of pollutants. The study demonstrates the strength of the specific bioassays in indicating the changes in contamination and emphasizes the crucial role of a well-designed sampling plan, in which both spatial and temporal dynamics should be taken into account, for the correct interpretations of information in risk assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.83DOI Listing
March 2010

Kinetic bacterial bioluminescence assay for contact sediment toxicity testing: relationships with the matrix composition and contamination.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2010 Mar;29(3):507-14

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, Brno, Czech Republic.

The present study represents the first broader evaluation of the rapid 30-s kinetic bioluminescence assay with Vibrio fisheri (microplate format modification) for contact toxicity testing of whole sediments. The present study focused on river sediments from the Morava River basin, Czech Republic, repeatedly sampled during 2005 to 2006 and analyzed for geological and geochemical parameters, content of toxic metals, major organic pollutants, and toxicity. High natural variation in toxicity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] values ranging from 0.8 to >80 mg sediment dry wt/ml) was found (among different sampling periods and years, among sites), and this could be related to the sediment dynamics affected by spring high flows and summer droughts. From the 46 sediment descriptors, exchangeable protons (H(+)) was the only parameter that consistently correlated with toxicity. Three other descriptors (i.e., content of organic carbon plus two parameters from the detailed silicate analysis of sediments: percentage of SO(3) representing total sulfur content, structural water H(2)O+) also significantly correlated with toxicity. There were only minor and variable correlations with contamination. We propose sediment safety guideline categories for the V. fisheri kinetic test with severe toxicity threshold of IC50 < 1 mg dry wt/ml. Although sediments are considered a rather stable matrix in comparison with river water, we confirmed high variability and dynamics that should be reflected in monitoring plans and field studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.81DOI Listing
March 2010

Quantification of sources of PCBs to the atmosphere in urban areas: a comparison of cities in North America, Western Europe and former Yugoslavia.

Environ Pollut 2010 Oct 11;158(10):3230-5. Epub 2010 Aug 11.

Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA using an approach that combines multimedia mass balance modeling and measurement data. Our modeled per-capita emission estimates for Banja Luka are lower by a factor of ten than those for Zurich and Chicago, which are similar. This indicates that the sources of PCB emissions in Banja Luka are likely to be weaker than in the Western European and North American cities which show relatively high PCB emissions. Our emission rates from the three cities agree within a factor of ten with emission estimates from a global PCB emission inventory derived from production and usage estimates and emission factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.011DOI Listing
October 2010

Ecotoxicity of wastes in avoidance tests with Enchytraeus albidus, Enchytraeus crypticus and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta).

Waste Manag 2010 Apr 29;30(4):558-64. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, Brno CZ-62500, Czech Republic.

Unlabelled: Contact bioassays are important for testing the ecotoxicity of solid materials. However, survival and reproduction tests are often not practical due to their duration which may last for several weeks. Avoidance tests with soil invertebrates may offer an alternative or extension to the classic test batteries due to their short duration (days rather than weeks) and due to a sensitive sub-acute endpoint (behavior).

The Aims Of Our Study Were: (a) to evaluate the effects of three solid industrial wastes (incineration ash, contaminated wood chips and contaminated soil) on three Oligochaeta species (enchytraeids Enchytraeusalbidus, Enchytraeus crypticus and earthworm Eisenia fetida) in avoidance tests; (b) to compare the sensitivity among the species and to compare results of avoidance test to reproduction tests; (c) to elucidate if measuring the weight in the earthworm avoidance test could be reasonable additional endpoint. Avoidance mostly increased with the increasing percent of waste in the mixture showing a dose-response curve. E. fetida was the most sensitive species and E. crypticus the least one. An additional endpoint, (changes in weight after two-day exposure) was not found to be more sensitive than avoidance reaction, but it confirmed that earthworms staying in the highest concentrations of the waste mixture were affected showing apparent weight reduction. Our results indicate that avoidance tests with earthworms and enchytraeids are feasible for waste testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.11.024DOI Listing
April 2010

Spatially resolved distribution models of POP concentrations in soil: a stochastic approach using regression trees.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Dec;43(24):9230-6

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Background concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDT including metabolites) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in soils of the Czech Republic were predicted in this study, and the main factors affecting their geographical distribution were identified. A database containing POP concentrations in 534 soil samples and the set of specific environmental predictors were used for development of a model based on regression trees. Selected predictors addressed specific conditions affecting a behavior of the individual groups of pollutants: a presence of primary and secondary sources, density of human settlement, geographical characteristics and climatic conditions, land use, land cover, and soil properties. The model explained a high portion of variability in relationship between the soil concentrations of selected organic pollutants and available predictors. A tree for hexachlorobenzene was the most successful with 76.2% of explained variability, followed by trees for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (71%), polychlorinated biphenyls (68.6%), and p,p'-DDT and metabolites (65.4%). The validation results confirmed that the model is stable, general and useful for prediction. The stochastic model applied in this study seems to be a promising tool capable of predicting the environmental distribution of organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es902076yDOI Listing
December 2009

Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risks Part III. Quantification of the soil burdens and related health risks in the Czech Republic.

Sci Total Environ 2010 Jan 10;408(3):486-94. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (RECETOX), Faculty of Science of Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A total number of 471 soil samples collected during the period of 1996-2006 from the agricultural and forest areas of the Czech Republic were analyzed for their content of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Spatial variability of the POP concentrations was assessed using an IDW spatial GIS model analysis. For every grid of the network, resulting modeled levels of contamination allowed for estimation of the total burden of POPs in soils. Potential risks associated with contaminated soils were assessed as well. Database of the old ecological burdens counting 3061 sampling sites was used to adjust the model and incorporate the risks of heavily contaminated sites. The high levels of health risks were only found at less than 1% of the area of interest. The IDW modeling proved to be a useful tool for screening of the health risks in the large areas with scarce monitoring data. Presented approach can be applied in the risk management, to support an efficient targeting of the risk reduction measures, or to improve a design of the national monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.049DOI Listing
January 2010

Field calibration of polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers for PBDEs.

J Environ Monit 2009 Oct 20;11(10):1859-65. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK.

A field study was performed to derive uptake rates of airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) and to investigate the influence of deployment location and device design. Data are presented on the gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs, since atmospheric phase distribution was considered to be a variable which could affect sampler performance. Uptake rates for these compounds were similar to those derived previously for other classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (approximately 2-6 m(3)/day), with rates higher for the higher brominated species. Whilst other compound classes (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) are predominantly present in the air in the gas phase, heavier PBDEs have an association with particulates in the atmosphere at ambient temperatures. In this study, the PUF disk PAS therefore sampled PBDEs present in the gas phase and on fine aerosols with a similar sampling efficiency to those which are predominantly gas phase compounds. Compounds which are exclusively on particles are sampled less efficiently. A comparison of the three most commonly used PUF deployment configurations, used by different research groups, indicated little difference in uptake rates. The ranges of derived air concentrations for BDE-47, -99, and -183 between three sampler designs were 7.5-9.8, 7.4-12.4, and 4.7-6.6 pg/m(3), respectively. This suggests the robustness of this sampler in comparisons between regional and global campaigns where these three designs are employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b903152aDOI Listing
October 2009

Which compounds contribute most to elevated airborne exposure and corresponding health risks in the Western Balkans?

Environ Int 2009 Oct 9;35(7):1066-71. Epub 2009 Jul 9.

RECETOX - Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3/126, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A majority of ongoing monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is currently focused on chemicals emphasized in the Stockholm Convention. Quantitative detection of other substances (especially those with numerous anthropogenic sources such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) is, however, also needed since their concentrations are usually several orders of magnitude higher. A goal of this study was to determine how various groups of compounds contribute to total human health risks at the variety of sampling sites in the region of Western Balkan. Distribution of the risks between the gas and particulate phases was also addressed. Results showed that inhalation exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) does not represent a significant risk to humans, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) re-volatilized to the atmosphere from contaminated soils and buildings can pose a problem. PCB evaporation from primary sources (currently used PCB-filled transformers or non-adequate storage facilities) generally resulted in much higher atmospheric concentrations than evaporation from the secondary sources (soils at the sites of war destructions). A majority of the human health risks at the urban sites were associated with PAHs. Between 83 and 94% of the cumulative risk at such sites was assigned to chemicals sorbed to particles, and out of it, PAHs were responsible for 99%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2009.06.005DOI Listing
October 2009

Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants: their levels, fate, and risks. Part iv. Quantification of volatilization fluxes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated soil surfaces.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 May;43(10):3588-95

RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3/126, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A volatilization chamber, designed for direct measurements of the soil-air exchange of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was applied for determination of the volatilization fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The volatilization fluxes were determined for 13 model compounds at 3-5 concentration levels, for two soil organic carbon contents, and two wind velocities. The flux values were strongly correlated with physicochemical properties of the compounds. The higher fluxes were measured for soils with lower organic carbon contents, for higher contamination, and higher wind velocities. Experimentally derived values were compared to those predicted by the fugacity model. In general, the fugacity model underestimated the volatilization fluxes, especially for the compounds with higher molecular weights, and soils with higher organic carbon contents. It has been demonstrated that variability of the wind velocities as an important parameter for quantification of the soil-air exchange should be better considered in current models. Presented results draw the attention to often overlooked secondary sources of the atmospheric pollution and point out that their impact can be much greater than indicated by the fugacity models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es9003944DOI Listing
May 2009

Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part II. Are there any trends in PCDD/F levels in mountain soils?

Environ Pollut 2009 Dec 18;157(12):3255-63. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Good quality data apt for an assessment of temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) in soils are difficult to obtain since there is a general lack of information on their residues in soils. Variability of soil profiles, non-homogeneity of samples, and often also inconsistency of applied sampling procedures further complicate this problem. To assess spatial and temporal trends of contamination, three soil sampling campaigns have been performed over the period of 12 years at the mountain forest sites in the Czech Republic. Relation between the air, needle and soil contaminations was addressed in addition to time-related variability of soil. It has been confirmed that soil is a good matrix for evaluation of spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but difficult for establishment of temporal trends. A slow rate of the soil-forming processes and their site-specificity was generally the major source of uncertainties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.029DOI Listing
December 2009

Can pine needles indicate trends in the air pollution levels at remote sites?

Environ Pollut 2009 Dec 17;157(12):3248-54. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Data from ten years of integrated monitoring were used here to evaluate whether pine needles are a feasible tool for an assessment of long-term trends of the atmospheric contamination. Pine needles collected once a year were compared to high volume air samples collected for 24 h, every 7 days, and passive air samples integrated over 28-day periods. Results showed the same concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) captured in needles and high volume samples. Passive air samplers were less efficient in sampling the particle-bound compounds. Theoretical air volume equivalent to each needle sample (V(EQ)) was calculated as a ratio of the needle concentration over the mean air concentration. Results indicated different equivalent volumes for PAHs and organochlorines, possibly due to the faster degradation rates of PAHs in needles. The most important finding is that in the long term a needle monitoring gives very similar information on temporal trends of the atmospheric pollution as does a high volume air monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.030DOI Listing
December 2009

Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part I. Variation of concentration ranges according to different soil uses and locations.

Environ Pollut 2009 Dec 12;157(12):3207-17. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX and National POPs Centre, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Detailed soil screening data from the Czech Republic as a typical Central European country are presented here. Determination of a wide selection of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as an assessment of specific soil parameters allowed us to study the soil contamination in relation to the land use and soil properties. While HCHs and HCB were found at highest levels in arable soils, the higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, PAHs and DDTs were observed in high altitude forest soils. Concentrations of these compounds strongly correlated with the soil organic carbon content. Several possible reasons have been suggested for the observed higher concentrations in mountain forest soils but the impact of each of these influencing factors remains to be identified. An inventory of the soil contamination is needed as a first step in our effort to estimate an extent to which the secondary sources contribute to the enhanced atmospheric levels of POPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.031DOI Listing
December 2009

Distribution pattern of PCBs, HCB and PeCB using passive air and soil sampling in Estonia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2010 Mar 7;17(3):740-9. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

Estonian Environmental Research Institute (under Estonian Environmental Research Centre), Tallinn, Estonia.

Background, Aim, And Scope: Passive air sampling survey of the Central and Eastern Europe was initiated in 2006. This paper presents data on toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorocyclohexane compounds (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH,gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) compounds (p,p'DDE, p,p'DDD, p,p'DDT, o,p'DDE, o,p'DDD, and o,p'DDT) determined in ambient air and soil samples collected at Estonian monitoring stations.

Materials And Methods: Ambient air and soil samples were collected in five sites in northern Estonia. Passive air samplers were deployed four times over 4-week periods covering the period April-August 2006. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (HP 5890) supplied with a Quadrex fused silica column 5% Ph for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Local ground-boundary wind field was modeled for each monitoring station and sampling period on the basis of observed wind data from the nearest meteorological station with a high quality of time series and compared with upper air (at 850- and 500-hPa level) data from Tallinn-Harku aerological station.

Results: Median levels of PCB at Estonian stations varied between 3 and 9 ng/filter, although the maximum in Kohtla-Järve reached as high as 28 ng/filter. Sampling rates about 3.5 m(3)/day were determined by empirical measurements, making approximately 100 m(3) for a 28-day sampling cycle. In general, OCP levels in soil were at the limit of detection, except Tallinn site and Muuga Port affected mainly by local sources. However, the atmospheric PCB concentrations are in agreement with the soil analyses where highest PCB levels were found in the soil sample for Tallinn (12.0 ng/g dry weight). For HCB, the atmospheric distribution was quite uniform, with the background levels sometimes higher than the urban ones. HCB and PeCB concentrations were very low in May and June when meridional airflow from the southern sector dominated, and concentrations were slightly higher in July and August, most probably due to revolatilization of adsorbed HCB (with PeCB impurities) from former industrial applications during the summer month and possibly enhanced by forest fires in Russia. Also, the highest summary HCH and DDT levels (63.5 and 2.5 ng/filter, respectively) in Estonian monitoring stations were determined at the end of July and beginning of August when the ground-boundary wind direction was from NE with relatively high speed (4-7 m/s). The highest DDT levels in ambient air (3.5 ng/filter) were determined in the spring samples. For DDT and HCH, long-range atmospheric transport clearly dominates persistent OCP, atmospheric input to Estonia as well as for the Scandinavian countries. The DDE/DDT ratio was >1, indicating no fresh input.

Discussion: The passive air sampling demonstrates uniform distribution of OCPs. In the regional context, there is no indication of increased levels of concentrations of OCPs in the industrial Northeast Estonia where the oil shale processing causes certain pollution impacts. Though the passive sampling does not apply for monitoring of short-term fluxes, the method is capable of reflecting background levels in long-term prospective for potential effect on human health due to long-term exposition of OCPs.

Conclusions: PCB and its congeners, HCB, PeCB, HCH, and DDT were very low in Estonia. None of the persistent organochlorine pesticides have ever been produced in Estonia, and as of today, all old OCP stocks in the country have been destroyed. Highest concentrations could be expected in March and April when southwestern airflow is still strong and dominant, but air humidity is lower and deposition takes place far from the place of origin of OCPs. In summer, the share of locally formed organic compounds increases and deposition depends strongly on weather conditions. In some cases in Tallinn and Muuga where local anthropogenic impact occurs, HCB and PeCB stem from revolatilization of industrial application.

Recommendations And Perspectives: The passive air sampling could be employed more widely to explore long-term human exposure to OCP deposition and assess potential health risks. The survey based on passive air sampling could be extended from Central and Eastern Europe to other European regions to get methodically adjusted cross-European data coverage. Based on the results of the survey, the Lahemaa reference station is a feasible option to represent background monitoring of persistent organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0147-zDOI Listing
March 2010

Application of an unsteady state environmental distribution model to a decadal time series of PAH concentrations in Central Europe.

J Environ Monit 2009 Feb 9;11(2):269-76. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

To explain observed decadal trends in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at the Kosetice observatory, Czech Republic, an environmental distribution model for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) based on the fugacity approach was developed. Weekly air concentrations were used as input data for the unsteady state model and concentrations in soil were calculated. In general, agreement between measured and predicted soil concentrations of PAHs was observed. Temporal trends in PAH concentrations in Kosetice can be related to changes in residential heating. Predicted soil concentrations of volatile PAHs namely acenaphthylene, fluorene and phenanthrene are in better correspondence with observed data than concentrations of less volatile PAHs i.e. dibenzo(ah)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene. These discrepancies between model results and field data are probably a result of a simplified description of degradation and aging processes in soil. The results from our dynamic multicompartmental model confirmed our hypothesis about unsteady state conditions between the air and soil, and suggested that a commonly used simple steady state model should be only applied as a predictive tool in a small region when local sources and sinks are well described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b815719gDOI Listing
February 2009

Avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus in relation to carbendazim ageing.

Environ Pollut 2009 Feb 7;157(2):704-6. Epub 2008 Nov 7.

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, Brno CZ-62500, Czech Republic.

In this study, avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus to LUFA 2.2 soil contaminated with pesticide carbendazim was investigated. The aim was to clarify minimal test duration and temporal changes in avoidance response due to contamination ageing. Firstly, the concentration causing 50% avoidance (EC(50)) was determined as 7.6 mg/kg. Then, test duration needed to reach this value (ET(50)=approximately 18 h) was identified. Finally, the capability of E. albidus avoidance test to reflect the changes of pollutant bioavailability was tested. The soil was spiked with carbendazim at the EC(50) concentration 1, 14, or 28 days before the test started and avoidance effects of fresh versus aged contamination were compared. The results indicated that enchytraeids preferred soil contaminated for 28 days prior to assay where carbendazim was probably less bioavailable than in freshly spiked soil. Our results open an interesting research area of potential use of avoidance tests for contaminant bioavailability assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.09.032DOI Listing
February 2009

Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites--contemporary and future relevance and challenges: overview on background, aims and scope of the series.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2008 Jul 3;15(5):363-93. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

POPs Environmental Consulting, Ulmenstrasse 3, 73035 Göppingen, Germany.

Background, Aim And Scope: Once they have been generated, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can persist in soils and sediments and in waste repositories for periods extending from decades to centuries. In 1994, the US EPA concluded that contaminated sites and other reservoirs are likely to become the major source of contemporary pollution problems with these substances. With this in mind, this article is the first in a new series in ESPR under the title 'Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites--Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges', which will address this important issue. The series will document various experiences from sites contaminated with PCDD/F and other POPs. This article provides an overview of the content of the articles comprising the series. In addition, it provides a review of the subject in its own right and identifies the key issues arising from dioxin/POP-contaminated sites. Additionally, it highlights the important conclusions that can be drawn from these examples. The key aim of this article and of the series as a whole is to provide a comprehensive overview of the types of PCDD/F contaminated sites that exist as a result of historical activities. It details the various processes whereby these sites became contaminated and attempts to evaluate their contemporary relevance as sources of PCDD/Fs and other POPs. It also details the various strategies used to assess these historical legacies of contamination and the concepts developed, or which are under development, to effect their remediation.

Main Features: Special sessions on 'Contaminated sites--Cases, remediation, risk and policy' were held at the DIOXIN conferences in 2006 and 2007, and this theme will be continued at DIOXIN 2008 to be held in Birmingham. Selected cases from the approximately 70 contributions made to these sessions, together with some additional invited case studies are outlined together with the key issues they raise. By evaluating these cases and adding details of experiences published in the current literature, an overview will be given of the different features and challenges of dioxin and POP-contaminated sites.

Results: This article provides a systematic categorisation of types of PCDD/F and POP-contaminated sites. These are categorised according to the chemical or manufacturing process, which generated the PCDD/Fs or POPs and also includes the use and disposal aspects of the product life cycle in question. The highest historical PCDD/F and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination burdens have arisen as a result of the production of chlorine and of chlorinated organic chemicals. In particular, the production of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and the related contaminated waste streams are identified being responsible for historical releases of toxic equivalents (TEQs) at a scale of many tonnes. Along with such releases, major PCDD/F contaminated sites have been created through the application or improper disposal of contaminated pesticides, PCBs and other organochlorine chemicals, as well through the recycling of wastes and their attempted destruction. In some extreme examples, PCDD/F contaminated sites have also resulted from thermal processes such as waste incinerators, secondary metal industries or from the recycling or deposition of specific waste (e.g. electronic waste or car shredder wastes), which often contain chlorinated or brominated organic chemicals. The examples of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB contamination of fish in European rivers or the impact of contaminated sites upon fishing grounds and upon other food resources demonstrate the relevance of these historical problems to current and future human generations. Many of the recent food contamination problems that have emerged in Europe and elsewhere demonstrate how PCDD/F and dioxin like PCBs from historical sources can directly contaminate human and animal feedstuffs and indeed highlight their considerable contemporary relevance in this respect. Accordingly, some key experiences and lessons learnt regarding the production, use, disposal and remediation of POPs from the contaminated sites are summarised.

Discussion: An important criterion for evaluating the significance and risks of PCDD/Fs and other POPs at contaminated sites is their present or future potential for mobility. This, in turn, determines to a large degree their propensity for off-site transport and environmental accessibility. The detailed evaluation of contaminated site cases reveals different site-specific factors, which influence the varied pathways through which poor water-soluble POPs can be mobilised. Co-contaminants with greater water solubility are also typically present at such sites. Hence, pumping of groundwater (pump and treat) is often required in addition to attempting to physically secure a site. At an increasing number of contaminated sites, securing measures are failing after relatively short time spans compared to the time horizon, which applies to persistent organic pollutant contamination. Due to the immense costs and challenges associated with remediation of contaminated sites 'monitored natural attenuation' is increasingly gaining purchase as a conceptual remediation approach. However, these concepts may well prove limited in their practical application to contaminated sites containing persistent organic pollutants and other key pollutants like heavy metals.

Conclusions: It is inevitable, therefore, that dioxin/POP-contaminated sites will remain of contemporary and future relevance. They will continue to represent an environmental issue for future generations to address. The securing and/or remediation of dioxin/POP-contaminated sites is very costly, generally in the order of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. Secured landfills and secured production sites need to be considered as constructions not made for 'eternity' but built for a finite time scale. Accordingly, they will need to be controlled, supervised and potentially repaired/renewed. Furthermore, the leachates and groundwater impacted by these sites will require ongoing monitoring and potential further remediation. These activities result in high maintenance costs, which are accrued for decades or centuries and should, therefore, be compared to the fully sustainable option of complete remediation. The contaminated site case studies highlight that, while extensive policies and established funds for remediation exist in most of the industrialised western countries, even these relatively well-regulated and wealthy countries face significant challenges in the implementation of a remediation strategy. This highlights the fact that ultimately only the prevention of contaminated sites represents a sustainable solution for the future and that the Polluter Pays Principle needs to be applied in a comprehensive way to current problems and those which may emerge in the future.

Recommendations And Perspectives: With the continuing shift of industrial activities in developing and transition economies, which often have poor regulation (and weak self-regulation of industries), additional global challenges regarding POPs and other contaminated sites may be expected. In this respect, a comprehensive application of the "polluter pays principle" in these countries will also be a key to facilitate the clean-up of contaminated areas and the prevention of future contaminated sites. The threats and challenges of contaminated sites and the high costs of securing/remediating the problems highlight the need for a comprehensive approach based upon integrated pollution prevention and control. If applied to all polluting (and potentially polluting) industrial sectors around the globe, such an approach will prove to be both the cheapest and most sustainable way to underpin the development of industries in developing and transition economies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-008-0024-1DOI Listing
July 2008

Kosetice, Czech Republic--ten years of air pollution monitoring and four years of evaluating the origin of persistent organic pollutants.

Environ Pollut 2008 Nov 20;156(2):403-8. Epub 2008 May 20.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3/126, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The regional observatory Kosetice is a central European background station. Unique continuous monitoring from 1988 on is held here. POP (persistent organic pollutant) concentration values of air samples from Kosetice taken between 1996 and 2005 were statistically processed. Values of Czech ambient air quality standards were not exceeded. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reached two maxima, in 1996 and 2001-2002. Polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations reached the highest values in 1997 and 1998 and hexachlorocyclohexanes concentrations in 1998. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene were analysed as well. Long-range transport of pollutants between 2002 and 2005 was evaluated using the Potential Source Contribution Function hybrid receptor model. Indicated potential source areas of PCBs coincide with many well-known urban and industrialised areas, while the indicated potential source areas of HCHs and DDTs coincide with many agricultural and/or forested regions and the potential source areas of HCB comprise all land use types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.01.034DOI Listing
November 2008

Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides.

Environ Pollut 2008 Dec 13;156(3):1290-7. Epub 2008 May 13.

Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA14YQ, UK.

Different passive air sampler (PAS) strategies have been developed for sampling in remote areas and for cost-effective simultaneous spatial mapping of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) over differing geographical scales. The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based PAS is probably the most widely used. In a PUF-based PAS, the PUF disk is generally mounted inside two stainless steel bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and light. The field study described in this manuscript was conducted to: compare performance of 3 different designs of sampler; to further calibrate the sampler against the conventional active sampler; to derive more information on field-based uptake rates and equilibrium times of the samplers. Samplers were also deployed at different locations across the field site, and at different heights up a meteorological tower, to investigate the possible influence of sampler location. Samplers deployed <5m above ground, and not directly sheltered from the wind gave similar uptake rates. Small differences in dimensions between the 3 designs of passive sampler chamber had no discernable effect on accumulation rates, allowing comparison with previously published data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.03.016DOI Listing
December 2008

An assessment of air-soil exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides across central and southern Europe.

Environ Sci Technol 2008 Jan;42(1):179-85

Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3/126, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Estimating the net flux direction of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides is importantfor understanding the role of soil as a sink or source of these chemicals to the atmosphere. In this study, the soil-air equilibrium status was investigated forvarious soil categories in Central and Southern Europe using an extensive database of coupled soil and time-integrated air samples. Samples were collected from 47 sites over a period of 5 months to assess both site-specific as well as seasonal variations in fugacity fractions, calculated as a potential measure of soil-air exchange. Sampling sites were carefully selected to represent a variety of background, rural, urban, and industrial areas. Special attention was given to sites in the former Yugoslavia, a country affected by recent conflicts, where soils were found to be highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Industrial soils from the Czech Republic, heavily polluted as a result of previous pesticide production, were also included in the survey. Soil was found to be a sink for highly chlorinated PCBs and for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the status was closer to equilibrium, with a tendency for net deposition during winter and net volatilization during summer. For lower-molecular-weight PCB congeners, as well as for alpha-HCH, soil tends to be a source of pollution to the air, especially, but not exclusively, during summer. Fugacity fractions were found to decrease during the colder seasons, especially for the more volatile compounds, although in both the war-damaged areas and the heavily contaminated industrial sites, seasonal variability was very low, with fugacity fractions close to 1, indicating strong net soil-to-air transfer for all seasons. The original assumption that residents of the Western Balkans are still exposed to higher levels of PCBs due to the recent wars was confirmed. In general, the soil-air transfer of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides was found to be site-specific and dependent on the physicochemical properties of the contaminant in question, the soil properties, the historical contamination record and a site's vicinity to sources, and the local meteorological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071406fDOI Listing
January 2008

Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2007 Jun;41(11):3850-5

Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition (delta13C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19 per thousand, whereas delta14C values ranged from -568 per thousand for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288 per thousand for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these delta14C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0628957DOI Listing
June 2007

Determination of D- and L-amino acids produced by cyanobacteria using gas chromatography on Chirasil-Val after derivatization with pentafluoropropyl chloroformate.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Aug 30;388(8):1815-22. Epub 2007 Jun 30.

Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovská 31, 370 05, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.

A rapid and simple method was developed for the determination of free amino acids (AAs) released from cyanobacteria. The procedure involves trapping of AAs from the centrifuged cyanobacterial culture fluid on a cation-exchange resin, their release together with the resin by direct treatment with the reaction medium, followed by immediate derivatization with a corresponding chloroformate. The extractive alkylation transfers the analytes into an organic phase, an aliquot of which is subjected to GC analysis. Identification and quantification of AAs was performed by GC/MS and GC/FID, respectively, using propyl chloroformate (PCF) as the derivatization reagent. For chiral analysis, the cyanobacteria extracts were treated with 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl chloroformate (PFPCF) to create more volatile analytes. Separation of the AA enantiomers was accomplished on a Chirasil-Val capillary column and the D/L enantiomeric ratios were determined. AAs of cyanobacteria are considered to be important for the assessment of energy flow in an aquatic food web, nutrition value of cyanobacteria in a food web and for cell-cell communication within cyanobacteria. The highest levels of AAs were found in the summer period at the beginning of the season (July). In the September and October samples, the amount of AAs was lower, the number of D-AAs decreased and the D/L ratio was higher than in the July sample. Based on the obtained results it can be assumed that young populations excrete AAs in higher concentrations and a different composition compared to actively growing populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1411-zDOI Listing
August 2007

Trends in background levels of persistent organic pollutants at Kosetice observatory, Czech Republic.2) Part II. Aquatic and terrestrial environments 1996-2005.

J Environ Monit 2007 Jun 22;9(6):564-71. Epub 2007 May 22.

RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A multimedia sampling of ambient air, wet deposition, surface water, sediment, soil and biota has been performed at Kosetice background observatory in the southern Czech Republic since 1988. An integrated monitoring approach was applied to assess the current state, anthropogenic impacts, and possible future changes of terrestrial and freshwater environments. Average PCB concentrations in the individual matrices calculated from ten years of sampling on multiple sites varied between 2 ng g(-1) in sediment and 7 ng g(-1) in soil or moss. DDT concentrations were lower in moss and needles (2 ng g(-1) and 4 ng g(-1), respectively) than in sediment (11 ng g(-1)) and soil (20 ng g(-1)), while the HCH level was higher in moss and needles (5 ng g(-1) and 6 ng g(-1), respectively) than in soil or sediment (1 ng g(-1) and 2 ng g(-1), respectively). The highest average level of PAHs was found in soil (600 ng g(-1)), while it was lower in needles (230 ng g(-1)), moss (210 ng g(-1)) or sediment (210 ng g(-1)). Time related trends of concentration levels of persistent organic pollutants in all matrices were investigated. Moss and needle trend patterns resembled those of the ambient air, showing a slight concentration decrease of all compounds, except for hexachlorobenzene. The soil, water and sediment concentrations showed a similar decrease of PAHs, PCBs, and HCHs, but there was no clear trend for DDTs and HCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b701096fDOI Listing
June 2007

Trends in background levels of persistent organic pollutants at Kosetice observatory, Czech Republic.1) Part I. Ambient air and wet deposition 1996-2005.

J Environ Monit 2007 Jun 21;9(6):557-63. Epub 2007 May 21.

RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Kosetice observatory is a facility of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, which is a part of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) network. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, PAHs) have been monitored in all environmental matrices using the integrated monitoring approach. Generally, the atmospheric levels of POPs in this Central European background station (mean values: 0.115 ng m(-3) for SigmaPCBs, 0.040 ng m(-3) for SigmaDDTs, 0.077 ng m(-3) for SigmaHCHs, and 17 ng m(-3) for SigmaPAHs) are significantly higher than those in other EMEP stations localized mostly in Northern and Western Europe. Long-term trends of POP concentrations in the ambient air and wet deposition are presented in this article and they show a slow decline in the last decade for most of the investigated compounds. Temporally increased levels of certain chemicals were associated with some local climatic (floods) or socio-economic (fuel prices) factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b700750gDOI Listing
June 2007