Publications by authors named "Ivan Gitsov"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biofilm Removal by Reversible Shape Recovery of the Substrate.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 6;13(15):17174-17182. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, United States.

Bacteria can colonize essentially any surface and form antibiotic resistant biofilms, which are multicellular structures embedded in an extracellular matrix secreted by the attached cells. To develop better biofilm control technologies, we recently demonstrated that mature biofilms can be effectively removed through on-demand shape recovery of a shape memory polymer (SMP) composed of butyl acrylate (tBA). It was further demonstrated that such a dynamic substratum can sensitize the detached biofilm cells to antibiotics. However, this SMP can undergo shape change only once, limiting its application in long-term biofilm control. This motivated the present study, which aimed to prove the concept that biofilm can be effectively removed by repeated on-demand shape recovery. Reversible shape memory polymers (rSMPs) containing poly(ε-caprolactone) diisocyanatoethyl dimethacrylate (PCLDIMA) of varying molecular masses and butyl acrylate (BA) as a linker were synthesized by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermal initiator. By comparison of several combinations of PCLDIMA of different molecular masses, a 2:1 weight ratio mixture of 2000 and 15000 g/mol PCLDIMA was the most promising because it had a shape transition (at 36.7 °C) close to body temperature. The synthesized rSMP demonstrated good reversible shape recovery and up to 94.3 ± 1.0% removal of 48 h PAO1 biofilm cells after three consecutive shape recovery cycles. Additionally, the detached biofilm cells were found to be 5.0 ± 1.2 times more susceptible to 50 μg/mL tobramycin than the static control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153534PMC
April 2021

Novel Amphiphilic Dendronized Copolymers Formed by Enzyme-Mediated "Green" Polymerization.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Apr 8;22(4):1706-1720. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210, United States.

This study reports the first enzyme-mediated polymerization of dendritic macromonomers. The enzyme substrates are prepared by "click" conjugation between tyrosine and hydrophilic triethylene glycol (TrEG)-based dendrons of three generations (G1, G2, and G3). The resulting enzyme-polymerizable dendrons are defect-free as revealed by mass spectrometry, size-exclusion chromatography, and spectroscopic techniques. The phenol-containing macromonomers are water soluble and their polymerizations into dendronized polymers (denpols) are catalyzed by laccase (an oxidoreductase) under benign conditions (45 °C and aqueous medium at pH = 4.0) with copolymer yields between 30 and 40%. The resulting denpols consist of unnatural poly(tyrosine) backbones and dendritic poly(ether-ester) side chains and have molecular masses up to ∼13 000 Da (generation 1), ∼20 000 Da (generation 2), and ∼36 000 Da (generation 3) determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analyses. They display amphiphilic properties and self-assemble in aqueous solutions to form aggregates with generation-dependent morphologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00124DOI Listing
April 2021

Hydroxyapatite-poly(d,l-lactide) Nanografts. Synthesis and Characterization as Bone Cement Additives.

Molecules 2021 Jan 15;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

This paper reports the creation of hydroxyapatite/polyester nanografts by "graft-from" polymerization of d,l-lactide with [Ca(OH)(PO)] as the initiator and tin(II)-2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. Model polymerizations were performed with cyclooctanol as initiator to confirm the grafting on the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Polymers with the highest molecular mass (M) between 4250 Da (cyclooctanol) and 6100 Da (hydroxyapatite) were produced. In both cases the molecular mass distributions of the polymers formed were monomodal. The materials obtained were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal methods. Their suitability as additives for commercial bone cement (Simplex P Speedset, Stryker Orthopaedics) has been confirmed by thermal analysis techniques and mechanical testing. The results obtained show that addition of the hydroxyapatite/ polyester nanografts improved both thermal and mechanical properties of the bone cement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830310PMC
January 2021

A Single Enzyme Mediates the "Quasi-Living" Formation of Multiblock Copolymers with a Broad Biomedical Potential.

Biomacromolecules 2020 06 13;21(6):2132-2146. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York - ESF, Syracuse, New York 13210, United States.

This study describes a unique "quasi-living" block copolymerization method based on an initiation by a single enzyme. We use this term to describe a process where a preformed polymer chain can be reactivated to continue propagating with a second or third comonomer without addition of new catalyst. The presented strategy involves a laccase (oxidoreductase) mediated initial polymerization of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to a homopolymer containing phenolic terminal units, which in turn can be easily reactivated by the same enzyme in the same reaction vessel to continue propagation with a second monomer (tyramine). Increased copolymer yield (up to 26.0%) and polymer molecular mass (up to = 116 000 Da) are achieved through the addition of previously developed micellar and hydrogel enzyme complexing agents. The produced poly(tyramine)--poly(4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)--poly(tyramine) is water-soluble and able to self-assemble in aqueous solution. Both tyramine blocks were successfully modified with ibuprofen moieties (up to 24.6% w/w load) as an example for potential polymer drug conjugation. The copolymerization could be further extended with addition of a third (fluorescent) comonomer in the same reaction vessel to yield a fluorescent pentablock copolymer. The successful modifications and advantageous solution behavior of the produced copolymers demonstrate their viability as versatile drug delivery and/or bioimaging agents, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c00126DOI Listing
June 2020

Synthesis and Characterization of Zwitterionic Polymer Brush Functionalized Hydrogels with Ionic Responsive Coefficient of Friction.

Langmuir 2020 04 3;36(14):3932-3940. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, United States.

Freeze-thaw poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels (PVA-H) offer great potential for several biomedical applications due to their biomimetic mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Despite these advantages, the use of PVA-H for load bearing applications has been limited due to poor performance in boundary lubrication compared to natural tissue such as articular cartilage. Recently, zwitterionic polymer brushes have been shown to act as effective boundary lubricants on rigid substrates; however, to the best of our knowledge, the synergistic effects of zwitterionic brushes coupled with the biomimetic fluid load support exhibited by hydrogels have not been reported. We report here on our investigation involving the synthesis and characterization of two unique types of polymer brush functionalized PVA hydrogels. The zwitterionic polymers that were compared contained either [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-3-sulfopropylammonium hydroxide, PMEDSAH, or 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine, PMPC, repeating units. Both hydrogels coated with zwitterionic polymers were found to be cytocompatible. We report further on micrometer-scale surface properties via water contact angle goniometry, surface roughness measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the impact of brush functionalization on the mechanics of the tribologically enhanced gels is reported with comparison to natural articular cartilage within the context of Hertzian contact theory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03566DOI Listing
April 2020

Controlled ATRP Synthesis of Novel Linear-Dendritic Block Copolymers and Their Directed Self-Assembly in Breath Figure Arrays.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Mar 21;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York⁻College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

Herein, we report the formation and characterization of novel amphiphilic linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) composed of hydrophilic dendritic poly(ether-ester), PEE, blocks and hydrophobic linear poly(styrene), PSt. The LDBCs are synthesized via controlled atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiated by a PEE macroinitiator. The copolymers formed have narrow molecular mass distributions and are designated as LGn-PSt M, in which LG represents the PEE fragment, n denotes the generation of the dendron ( = 1⁻3), and M refers to the average molecular mass of the LDBC ( = 3.5⁻68 kDa). The obtained LDBCs are utilized to fabricate honeycomb films by a static "breath figure" (BF) technique. The copolymer composition strongly affects the film morphology. LDBCs bearing acetonide dendron end groups produce honeycomb films when the PEE fraction is lower than 20%. Pore uniformity increases as the PEE content decreases. For LDBCs with hydroxyl end groups, only the first generation LDBCs yield BF films, but with a significantly smaller pore size (0.23 μm vs. 1⁻2 μm, respectively). Although higher generation LDBCs with free hydroxyl end groups fail to generate honeycomb films by themselves, the use of a cosolvent or addition of homo PSt leads to BF films with a controllable pore size (3.7⁻0.42 μm), depending on the LDBC content. Palladium complexes within the two triazole groups in each of the dendron's branching moieties can also fine-tune the morphology of the BF films.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11030539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473431PMC
March 2019

Unprecedented Enzymatic Synthesis of Perfectly Structured Alternating Copolymers via "Green" Reaction Cocatalyzed by Laccase and Lipase Compartmentalized within Supramolecular Complexes.

Biomacromolecules 2019 02 11;20(2):927-936. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Chemistry , State University of New York-ESF , Syracuse , New York 13210 , United States.

This study describes the first use of laccase-lipase enzymatic reaction for the synthesis of novel perfectly structured alternating copolymers. Initially, six types of complexing agents, linear-linear, linear-linear-linear, linear-dendritic, dendritic-linear-dendritic, linear-hyperbranched, and hyperbranched-linear-hyperbranched amphiphilic block copolymers, are proven to significantly enhance enzyme activity of three different types of lipases - Penicillium camemberti, Candida rugosa, and Burkholderia cepacia (up to 1400%, 1700%, and 870% increase with respect to the native enzymes). The copolymerization is performed in several consecutive steps: (a) lipase and laccase are dissolved in aqueous medium at neutral pH; (b) a complexing agent is added leading to cocompartmentalization of the two enzymes within a micelle or physical network; (c) the two comonomers are introduced simultaneously to the tandem enzyme complex. The reaction proceeds in the following pathway: laccase catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone followed by lipase comediated Michael addition of a diamine. While laccase could catalyze the entire process, addition of lipase is able to increase copolymer yield up to 30.7%. Addition of a complexing agent improves the yield further up to 67.9% (23.2% yield obtained for native laccase). Complexing agents significantly increase polymer molecular mass ( M = 130 900 vs 35 500 Da for the native enzymes reaction system). The resulting copolymers are highly fluorescent (quantum yield up to 0.733) and demonstrate pH sensitive behavior, properties that hint toward their potential as imaging agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01567DOI Listing
February 2019

Polymer-Assisted Biocatalysis: Effects of Macromolecular Architectures on the Stability and Catalytic Activity of Immobilized Enzymes toward Water-Soluble and Water-Insoluble Substrates.

ACS Omega 2018 Feb 9;3(2):1700-1709. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210, United States.

The aim of this study is to develop efficient enzyme immobilization media that will enable the reuse of the biocatalysts over multiple cycles, increase their thermal stability, and attenuate their activity toward hydrophobic substrates for "green" transformations in aqueous media. For this purpose, amphiphilic AB and ABA block copolymers were synthesized and tested with laccase (a multicopper oxidase). In all cases, the hydrophilic B block consisted of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, with molecular masses of 3, 5, 13, 20, or 13 kDa poly(ethylene oxide). The hydrophobic A blocks were made of linear poly(styrene), PS; hyperbranched poly(-chloromethyl styrene); or dendritic poly(benzyl ether)s of generations 2, 3, and 4 (G2, G3, and G4) with molecular masses ranging from 1 to 24 kDa. A total of 23 different copolymers (self-assembling into micelles or physical networks) were evaluated. Notable activity enhancements were achieved with both micelles (up to 253%) and hydrogels (up to 408%). The highest enzymatic activity and thermal stability were observed with laccase immobilized in hydrogels consisting of the linear ABA block copolymer PS2.7k-PEG3k-PS2.7k (13 290 μkat/L, 65 °C, ABTS test). This represents a 1245% improvement over native laccase at the same conditions. At 25 °C, the same complex showed a 1236% higher activity than the enzyme. The highest polymerization yield for a water-insoluble monomer was achieved with laccase immobilized in hydrogels composed of linear-dendritic ABA copolymer G3-PEG5k-G3 (85.5%, 45 °C, tyrosine monomer). The broad substrate specificity and reusability of the immobilized laccase were also demonstrated by the successful discoloration of bromophenol blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B over eight repetitive cycles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b01721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045370PMC
February 2018

"Green" synthesis of unnatural poly(Amino Acid)s with Zwitterionic character and pH-responsive solution behavior, mediated by linear-dendritic laccase complexes.

Biomacromolecules 2014 Nov 28;15(11):4082-95. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

The Michael M. Szwarc Polymer Research Institute and ‡Department of Chemistry, State University of New York - College of Environmental Science and Forestry , Syracuse, New York 13210, United States.

This article describes the enzyme-catalyzed "green" synthesis of an unnatural poly(amino acid). dl-Tyrosine was polymerized under environmentally friendly conditions using linear-dendritic laccase complexes as initiators and water as solvent. The influence of the dendron generation in the linear-dendritic copolymers, the monomer concentration, and time and temperature on the polymer yields and molecular masses was investigated. Depending on the reaction conditions poly(tyrosine) with molecular mass (Mw) up to 82 kDa could be obtained in yields ranging between 45 and 69%. It was found that the linear-dendritic laccase complexes can induce further chain growth upon addition of fresh monomer to the preformed poly(tyrosine) in a fashion resembling the classic "living" polymerization. The structure of the poly(tyrosine) was investigated by NMR, FT-IR, and MALDI-TOF and it was discovered that the polymer chains consist of phenol repeating units linked together by C-C and C-O bonds randomly distributed along the backbone of the polymers. The materials formed are completely water-soluble and behave as typical poly(zwitterions) changing charge and size with the medium pH. DLS measurements reveal that the zeta potential of the polymers can vary between +15 mV at pH 1.2 with hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) = 6.7 nm to -35 mV at pH 11.8 and Dh = 10 nm. The isoelectric point was found at pH = 2.3-2.6, where Dh of the polymer is at the minimum (2.4 nm).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm501126aDOI Listing
November 2014

Linear-dendritic supramolecular complexes as nanoscale reaction vessels for "green" chemistry. Diels-Alder reactions between fullerene C60 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous medium.

Langmuir 2008 Oct 10;24(20):11431-41. Epub 2008 Sep 10.

Department of Chemistry, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

This study describes the first Diels-Alder (DA) reaction performed in aqueous medium with highly hydrophobic compounds-fullerene (C 60) as the dienophile and anthracene (An) or tetracene (Tet) as the dienes, respectively. The reactions are performed in nanocontainers, constructed by self-assembly of linear-dendritic amphiphilic copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol), PEG or poly(ethylene oxide), PEO as the hydrophilic blocks and poly(benzyl ether) monodendrons as the hydrophobic fragments: G3PEO13k, dG3 and dG2. Comparative studies under identical conditions are carried out with an amphiphilic linear-linear copolymer, poly(styrene)1800- block-PEO2100, PSt-PEO, and the nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-720, IP720. The binding affinity of supermolecules built of these amphiphiles toward the DA reagents decreases in the following order: G3PEO13k > dG3 > PSt-PEO > dG2 > IP720. The kinetic constant of binding is evaluated for tetracene and decreases in a similar fashion: 5 x 10 (-7) M/min (G3PEO13k), through 4 x 10 (-7) M/min (PSt-PEO) down to 1.5 x 10 (-7) M/min for IP720. The mobility of substrates encapsulated in the micellar core, estimated by pyrene fluorescence decay, is 95-121 ns for the micelles of the linear-dendritic copolymers and notably higher for PSt-PEO (152 ns), revealing the much denser interior of the linear analogue. The apparent kinetic constant for the DA reaction of C 60 and Tet within the G3PEO13k supermolecule in aqueous medium is markedly higher than in organic solvent (toluene), 208 vs 1.82 M /min. With G3PEO13k the conversions reach 49% for the DA reaction between C 60 and An, and 55% for C 60 and Tet. Besides the monoadduct (26.5% yield) the reaction with An produces exclusively increasing amounts of D 2 h -symmetric antipodal bis-adduct, whose yield reaches up to 22.5% after 48 h. In addition to the environmentally friendly conditions notable advantages of the synthetic strategy described are the extended stability of the linear-dendritic nanovessels, the easy collection of the products formed, and the recovery and reuse of unreacted reagents and linear-dendritic copolymers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la801593yDOI Listing
October 2008

Enzymatic nanoreactors for environmentally benign biotransformations. 1. Formation and catalytic activity of supramolecular complexes of laccase and linear-dendritic block copolymers.

Biomacromolecules 2008 Mar 8;9(3):804-11. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

The Michael M. Szwarc Polymer Research Institute, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

We describe the construction of enzymatic nanoreactors through noncovalent envelopment of a glycoprotein by amphiphilic linear-dendritic AB or ABA copolymers. The synthetic procedure is based on the regioselective adsorption of dendritic poly(benzyl ether)-block-linear poly(ethylene glycol)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) or linear poly(ethylene oxide)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) copolymers onto the oxidative enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous medium. The complexes formed have improved catalytic activity compared with the native enzyme (77-85 nkat/mL vs 60 nkat/mL, respectively) and are more stable at elevated temperatures up to 70 degrees C. Experiments with deglycosylated laccase confirm that the glycoside fragments in the native enzyme serve as the anchor sites for the linear-dendritic copolymers. The enzymatic nanoreactors are able to effectively oxidize series of substrates: phenolic compounds (syringaldazine) and hydrophobic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) under "green" chemistry conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm701081mDOI Listing
March 2008

Surface-supported bilayers with transmembrane proteins: role of the polymer cushion revisited.

Langmuir 2006 Nov;22(24):10145-51

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

Protein lateral mobility in surface-supported bilayers is often much lower than the mobility of the lipids. In the present study we explore whether the incorporation of a PEG cushion between the bilayer and the substrate increases the lateral mobility of transmembrane proteins in bilayers produced via directed assembly, a method based on Langmuir-Blodgett deposition techniques. In our experiments, the PEG cushions were incorporated by adding PEG lipids to the protein/lipid monolayer at the air/water interface, at the first step of bilayer assembly. The protein and lipid mobilities in 160 different bilayers, with various PEG molecular weights and PEG lipid concentrations, were measured and compared. We found that the measured diffusion coefficients do not depend on the PEG molecular weight or the PEG lipid concentration and are very similar to the values measured in the absence of PEG. Therefore, contrary to our expectations, we found that a PEG cushion does not necessarily increase protein mobility, suggesting that the low protein mobility is not a consequence of protein-substrate interactions. Furthermore, we showed that the low protein mobility is not due to protein aggregation. The major determinant of protein mobility in surface-supported bilayer systems appears to be the method of bilayer assembly. While proteins were always mobile if the bilayers were prepared using the directed assembly method, in the presence and absence of a PEG cushion, other bilayer assembly protocols resulted in complete lack of protein mobility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la061976dDOI Listing
November 2006

Novel functionally grafted pseudo-semi-interpenetrating networks constructed by reactive linear-dendritic copolymers.

J Am Chem Soc 2003 Sep;125(37):11228-34

Michael M. Szwarc Polymer Research Institute and Department of Chemistry, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

This paper describes the synthesis of amphiphilic pseudo-semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (pseudo-semi-IPNs) containing linear poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) cross-linked through monodendritic fragments. A unique feature of the synthetic strategy is the permanent attachment of the linear segment to the PEG network by a transesterification reaction between the hydroxyl groups at both ends of the PEG and peripheral ethyl ester moieties in the monodendron portion of a linear poly(styrene)-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) AB block copolymer. The proceeding of the reaction is monitored by (1)H NMR and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The formation of an interlock structure between the linear block and the network matrix in the pseudo-semi-IPN is evidenced by the results from spectroscopic analyses and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The accessibility of functional centers in the grafted semi-IPN is confirmed by model reactions with fluorescent markers, fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR techniques and shows the potential of these novel materials as sequestering reagents for resin capture-release applications in parallel synthesis, combinatorial chemistry, and advanced drug design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0345625DOI Listing
September 2003

Immobilization of aminothiols on poly(oxyalkylene phosphates). Formation of poly(oxyethylene phosphates)/cysteamine complexes and their radioprotective efficiency.

J Med Chem 2002 Dec;45(26):5797-801

Department of Radiobiology, National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kl. Ohridski Boulevard, Sofia 1756, Bulgaria.

The necessity to apply near-toxic amounts of radioprotective drugs to achieve adequate protection during radiation treatments represents a major problem in human medicine. One of the promising strategies to suppress the toxicity of these drugs involves their incorporation into biocompatible polymers. In this study cysteamine (Cy) was attached to poly(oxyethylene phosphate), POEP, via an ionic bond. Radioprotection of E. coli B cells by this substance and its acute toxicity on male C57 BL mice were measured. The toxicity of Cy immobilized within the poly(oxyethylene phosphate) was significantly lower in comparison to pure Cy while its radioprotective efficiency remained high at half the maximum tolerable dose. The high radioprotective efficiency of the Cy/POEP complexes was further confirmed on mice at different polymer molecular weight characteristics, drug immobilization degrees, application times, and doses. It was found that POEP with molecular weight 4700 Da and containing 24% repeating units with attached Cy has the highest protection potential combined with a depot effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm020309oDOI Listing
December 2002