Publications by authors named "Itamar Souza Oliveira-Junior"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Melatonin can be, more effective than N-acetylcysteine, protecting acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rat model.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021 5;76:e2513. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departamento de Cirurgia, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Dor e Medicina Intensiva, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR.

Objectives: The current study compared the impact of pretreatment with melatonin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the prevention of rat lung damage following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (iIR).

Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal ischemia induced by a 60 min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Animals were divided into the following groups (n=7 per group): sham, only abdominal incision; SS+iIR, pretreated with saline solution and iIR; NAC+iIR, pretreated with NAC (20 mg/kg) and iIR; MEL+iIR, pretreated with melatonin (20 mg/kg) and iIR. Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators were measured and histological analyses were performed in the lung tissues.

Results: Data showed a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and TNF-alpha in the animals pretreated with NAC or MEL when compared to those treated with SS+iIR (p<0.05). An increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the NAC- and MEL-pretreated animals as compared to the SS+iIR group (34±8 U/g of tissue; p<0.05) was also observed. TNF-α levels were lower in the MEL+iIR group (91±5 pg/mL) than in the NAC+iIR group (101±6 pg/mL). Histological analysis demonstrated a higher lung lesion score in the SS+iIR group than in the pretreated groups.

Conclusion: Both agents individually provided tissue protective effect against intestinal IR-induced lung injury, but melatonin was more effective in ameliorating the parameters analyzed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2021/e2513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075110PMC
May 2021

Gene expression is associated with virulence in murine macrophages infected with Leptospira spp.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(12):e0225272. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Production and Animal Health, São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Veterinary Medicine, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil.

Leptospira genus contains species that affect human health with varying degrees of pathogenicity. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the differences in the modulation of host gene expression by strains of Leptospira varying in virulence. Our data showed a high number of differentially expressed transcripts in murine macrophages following 6h of infection. Leptospira infection modulated a set of genes independently of their degree of virulence. However, pathway analysis indicated that Apoptosis, ATM Signaling, and Cell Cycle: G2/M DNA Damage Checkpoint Regulation were exclusively regulated following infection with the virulent strain. Taken together, results demonstrated that species and virulence play a role during host response to Leptospira spp in murine macrophages, which could contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225272PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892507PMC
March 2020

Effect of atenolol pre-treatment in heart damage in a model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.

Acta Cir Bras 2017 11;32(11):964-972

Full Professor, Division of Anesthesia, Pain and Intensive Medicine, Department of Surgery, and Associate Professor, Postgraduate Program in Translational Medicine, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil. Conception and design of the study, critical revision, final approval of the version to be published.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of atenolol in inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress in a myocardial injury by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rat model.

Methods: Adult Wistar male rats were randomly (n=8), anesthetized and divided in: Sham: submitted to operation only; group SS+IR: intravenous saline infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); group AT+IR: intravenous atenolol infusion (2 mg/kg) following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); and group AT+I+AT+R: intravenous atenolol infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and in the time 45 minutes other atenolol doses were administrated and the artery was open for 120 minutes (reperfusion), all animals were submitted to muscular relaxation for mechanical ventilation. In the end of experiment the animals were euthanized and the hearts tissue were morphology analyzed by histology and malondialdehyde by ELISA, and the plasma were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha by ELISA.

Results: The group SS+IR demonstrated the higher malondialdehyde levels when compared with the atenolol treated-groups (p=0.001) in the heart tissue. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in plasma decrease in the treated groups when compared with SS+IR group (p=0.001). Histology analyses demonstrate pyknosis, edema, cellular vacuolization, presence of inflammatory infiltrate and band contraction in the heart tissue of the rats.

Conclusion: Atenolol significantly reduce the degree of cardiac damage after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020170110000008DOI Listing
November 2017

[Pulmonary function alteration in laparoscopic surgery with pneumoperitoneum and abdominal wall elevation].

Braz J Anesthesiol 2018 Mar - Apr;68(2):215-216. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), Escola Paulista de Medicina, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Dor e Medicina Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjan.2017.08.004DOI Listing
October 2018

Intravenous clonidine administration and its ability to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure in patients undergoing heart surgery.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 Jan-Feb;64(1):40-8. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Evaluate the ability of clonidine to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing heart surgery, either by reducing the pressure values from the direct measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure or by reducing or eliminating the need for intraoperative dobutamine and nitroprusside.

Method: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study conducted in 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension type 2 undergoing cardiac surgery. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and dosage of dobutamine and sodium nitroprusside were assessed four times: before intravenous administration of clonidine (2 μg/kg) or placebo (T0), 30 min after tested treatment and before cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), immediately after CPB (T2), 10 min after protamine injection (T3).

Results: There were no significant differences regarding mean pulmonary arterial pressure at any time of evaluation. There was no significant difference between groups regarding other variables, such as mean systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, total dose of dobutamine, total dose of sodium nitroprusside, and need for fentanyl.

Conclusion: Data analysis from patients included in this study allows us to conclude that intravenous clonidine (2 μg/kg) was not able to reduce the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension in group 2 (pulmonary venous hypertension), undergoing heart surgery, or reduce or eliminate the need for intraoperative administration of dobutamine and sodium nitroprusside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.03.019DOI Listing
April 2015

Ischemic preconditioning and the gene expression of enteric endothelial cell biology of rats submitted to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Acta Cir Bras 2013 Mar;28(3):167-73

UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic genes in rat endothelial cells undergoing enteric ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R).

Methods: Thirty rats underwent clamping of the superior mesenteric vessels. Sham group (GS) laparotomy only; Ischemia (GI): intestinal ischemia (60 min); Ischemia and Reperfusion (GIR): ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion (120 min); Ischemia and intestinal ischemic preconditioning (GI + IPC) : 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60 min) ischemia and reperfusion and IPC (GIR + IPC): 5 min ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60min) and reperfusion (120 min). Rat Endothelial Cell Biology (PCR array) to determine the expression of genes related to endothelial cell biology.

Results: Gene expression of pro-apoptotic markers (Casp1, Casp6, Cflar, Fas, and Pgl) was down regulated in GI+IPC and in GIR + IPC. In contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Naip2), was up-regulated in GI + IPC and in GIR + IPC.

Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning may protect against cell death caused by ischemia and reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502013000300002DOI Listing
March 2013

A comparative study of pentoxifylline effects in adult and aged rats submitted to lung dysfunction by thermal injury.

Acta Cir Bras 2013 Feb;28(2):154-9

Department of Surgery, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of pentoxifylline against lung injury observed after dorsal scald in aged animals.

Methods: Adult (eight months old) and aged (20 months old) rats were subjected to thermal injury or sham procedure. The six hours post-trauma animals received pentoxifylline and after 24 hours were euthanatized and lung tissue samples collected. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evaluated for total protein content and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine. Malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung homogenate were measured and a histological lung examination was undertaken.

Results: Burn injury induced oxidative stress in lung homogenate was higher in elderly-burned rats compared to adult-burned rats (p<0.001). Total protein and cytokine in bronchoalveolar lavage increased in the elderly-burned group when compared to the adult-burned group (p<0.001). All parameters decreased in both groups treated with pentoxifylline (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The injury was augmented in elderly rats when compared to adult rats. Damage was reduced with the use of pentoxifylline, however further studies are needed to evaluate the dose-response of the drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502013000200012DOI Listing
February 2013

Pretreatment with pentoxifylline attenuates lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Dec;26(6):438-44

Division of Anesthesiology, Pain and Intensive Therapy, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline against the lung injury observed after intestinal ischemia (I) followed by a period of reperfusion (R).

Methods: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were equally divided into 4 experimental groups and operated under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. (1) Sham: falsely-operated animals; (2) SS+IR: intestinal ischemia was accomplished by clipping the superior mesenteric artery during 60 minutes, with an administration of a standard volume of saline solution (SS) 5 min before the end of the ischemia period; the clip was then releases or a 120-min period of reperfusion; (3) I+PTX+R: ischemia as above, PTX was administered (25 mg/kg) and the gut reperfused as above; (4) PTX+I+PTX+R: Five minutes before arterial occlusion PTX was administered; the superior mesenteric artery was then clipped for 60 minutes. After 55-min ischemia, an additional dosis of PTX was administered; the clip was removed for reperfusion as above. At the 60th min of reperfusion a third dosis of PTX was administered.

Results: PTX markedly attenuated lung injury as manifested by significant decreases (all P<0.001 as compared with the SS+IR group) of pulmonary wet/dry tissue weight ratio, total protein content, myeloperoxidase activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Moreover, it was apparent that in the group PTX+I+PTX+R the improvements have been even more significant.

Conclusion: PTX exerted a protective effect on the lung from the injuries caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502011000600006DOI Listing
December 2011

Short courses of mechanical ventilation with high-O2 levels in elderly rat lungs.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Apr;26(2):107-13

Department of Preventive Medicine, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) of high-oxygen concentration in pulmonary dysfunction in adult and elderly rats.

Methods: Twenty-eight adult (A) and elderly (E), male rats were ventilated for 1 hour (G-AV1 and G-EV1) or for 3 hours (G-AV3 and G-EV3). A and E groups received a tidal volume of 7 mL/kg, a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O, respiratory rate of 70 cycles per minute, and an inspiratory fraction of oxygen of 1. We evaluated total protein content and malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and performed lung histomorphometrical analyses.

Results: In G-EV1 animals, total protein in BAL was higher (33.0±1.9 µg/mL) compared with G-AV1 (23.0±2.0 µg/mL). Upon 180 minutes of MV, malondialdehyde levels increased in elderly (G-EV3) compared with adult (G-AV3) groups. Malondialdehyde and total proteins in BAL after 3 hours of MV were higher in elderly group than in adults. In G-EV3 group we observed alveolar septa dilatation and significative increase in neutrofiles number in relation to adult group at 60 and 180 minutes on MV.

Conclusion: A higher fraction of inspired oxygen in short courses of mechanical ventilation ameliorates the parameters studied in elderly lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502011000200006DOI Listing
April 2011

Effects of pentoxifylline on inflammation and lung dysfunction in ventilated septic animals.

J Trauma 2010 Apr;68(4):822-6

Division of Histology and Structural Biology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Pedro de Toledo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of ventilatory strategy and the modulating activity of pentoxifylline in a sepsis-induced lung dysfunction model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, undergoing two different ventilatory strategies. Rats received live Escherichia coli or saline intraperitoneally. After 6 hours, the septic animals were treated with either pentoxifylline (25 mg/kg for 20 minutes) or normal saline infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg; septic animals with E. coli intraperitoneal [IP] infusion, PTX-treated and ventilated with low tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume, respectively) or high tidal volume (12 mL/kg; septic animals with E. coli IP infusion, PTX-treated and ventilated with high tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume, respectively) for 3 hours. The control animals received normal saline infusion and, after 6 hours, were ventilated with low or high tidal volume (control animals with saline infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume and control animals with saline infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume, respectively). Lung dysfunctions were assessed by wet-to-dry lung ratios, total cell count, total protein, malondialdehyde, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume presented increased wet-to-dry lung ratios, total cell count, total protein, and malondialdehyde in BAL compared with the septic animals ventilated with low tidal volume. Septic animals treated with pentoxifylline presented higher arterial oxygenation and lower cellular influx, protein leakage, malondialdehyde concentration, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in BAL compared with septic animals undergoing the same ventilatory support strategies (septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with low tidal volume and septic animals with E. coli IP infusion and ventilated with high tidal volume). Ventilatory strategy modulated the inflammatory response and pulmonary alterations in a sepsis-induced acute lung injury model, and these effects are improved by pentoxifylline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e3181a5f4b5DOI Listing
April 2010

[Histomorphologic and respiratory aspects of acute lung injury in rats induced by experimental sepsis and under pentoxifylline treatment].

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2009 Mar-Apr;55(2):127-31

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP.

Objective: Respiratory repercussion on acute lung injury in a model of induced sepsis intraperitoneally.

Methods: Fifteen animals taken at random were submitted to adult male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=15): Group C - control group received only mechanical ventilation; Group S - rats received live Escherichia coli (E. coli) intraperitoneally (septic) and after 6 hours they were treated with normal saline infusion and ventilated with a low tidal volume. Group S+PTX - rats received live Escherichia coli intraperitoneally (septic) and after 6 hours they were treated with pentoxifylline (PTX) infusion and ventilated with a low tidal volume. All animals were ventilated during 180 minutes. We analyzed the arterial blood gases, gravimetric indices and histomorphometric analysis.

Results: Blood gases, wet to dry ratios, and total protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage were analyzed in all experimental groups. In the end of the experiment the partial pressure of oxygen was higher in the GS+PTX (460,0 +/- 38,2 mmHg) compared with GS (336,0 +/- 14,6 mmHg). Pentoxifylline with low tidal volume attenuated significantly total protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The septal diameter was significantly reduced in the group GS compared with group GS+PTX (P < 0,05).

Conclusions: The pentoxifylline ameliorated the oxygenation and decreased the deleterious effects of sepsis in the associated mechanical ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0104-42302009000200013DOI Listing
May 2010

Pulmonary disease in hamsters infected with Leptospira interrogans: histopathologic findings and cytokine mRNA expressions.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009 May;80(5):832-6

Department of Animal Health and Production, Microbiology Laboratory FOA, Unesp-Estadual Paulista University, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Our aim was to evaluate the pulmonary changes induced by Leptospira interrogans infection in hamsters, and the gene expression of endogenous mediators in lung fragments during 28 days of observation. The animals were euthanized on days 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-inoculation. Histopathologic lung analysis showed hemorrhage, pneumonia, alveolar congestion, and infiltrated cellular areas, with increasing severity until day 21 post-inoculation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression enhanced in first days with peak on day 4 and slightly decreased in the final phase. The interleukin (IL)-10 remained relatively constant throughout the period, with the exceptions of days 4 and 14. The endothelial nitric-oxide synthesis (eNOS) showed an increased expression on day 4, followed by an augment on days 7 and 14, and remaining constant up to day 28 post-infection. Our results demonstrate that inoculation of L. interrogans sorovar Icterohaemorrhagiae induced pulmonary lesions, including pulmonary hemorrhage, supporting that the lung is a target organ.
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May 2009

Effects of prone and supine position on oxygenation and inflammatory mediator in a hydrochloric acid-induced lung dysfunction in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2008 Sep-Oct;23(5):451-5

Division of Experimental and Technical, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation of supine versus prone position in hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung dysfunction.

Methods: Twenty, adult, male, Wistar-EPM-1 rats were anesthetized and randomly grouped (n=5 animals per group) as follows: CS-MV (mechanical ventilation in supine position); CP-MV (mechanical ventilation in prone position); bilateral instillation of HCl and mechanical ventilation in supine position (HCl+S); and bilateral instillation of HCl and mechanical ventilation in prone position (HCl+P). All groups were ventilated for 180 minutes. The blood partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in the time points 0 (zero; 10 minutes before lung injury for stabilization), and at the end of times acid injury, 60, 120 and 180 minutes of mechanical ventilation. At the end of experiment the animals were euthanized, and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were taken to determine the contents of total proteins, inflammatory mediators, and lungs wet-to-dry ratios.

Results: In the HCl+P group the partial pressure of oxygen increased when compared with HCl+S (128.0+/-2.9 mmHg and 111.0+/-6.7 mmHg, respectively) within 60 minutes. TNF-alpha levels in BAL do not differ significantly in the HCl+P group (516.0+/-5.9 pg/mL), and the HCl+S (513.0+/-10.6 pg/mL).

Conclusion: The use of prone position improved oxygenation, but did not reduce TNF-alpha in BAL upon lung dysfunction induced by HCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502008000500011DOI Listing
August 2009

[Melatonin effects on the female genital system: a brief review].

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2008 May-Jun;54(3):267-71

Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP.

Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle. It is an antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the jet-lag stage, in several physiological reactions and in control of the biologic rhythm. Human melatonin has an important influence on the female genital system. In fact, melatonin may influence production and action of steroids, modifying cellular signalization on the target tissue. There are many evidences that the melatonin therapy may be interfering with neoplasia development, mainly of the estrogen-dependent tumor. This paper aims to analyze the actions of melatonin on the neuroendocrine, immunological and cardiovascular systems, as well as on the reproductive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0104-42302008000300022DOI Listing
May 2009

Effects of pentoxifylline on TNF-alpha and lung histopathology in HCL-induced lung injury.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2008 Feb;63(1):77-84

Surgery Center, Department of Surgery, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline on hydrochloric acid-induced lung lesions in rats subjected to mechanical ventilation.

Methods: Twenty male, adult Wistar-EPM-1 rats were anesthetized and randomly grouped (n=5 animals per group) as follows: control-MV (mechanical ventilation, MV group); bilateral instillation of HCl (HCl group); bilateral instillation of HCl followed by pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg bw) infusion (HCl+PTX group) and pentoxifylline infusion followed by bilateral instillation of HCl (PTX+HCl group). At 20, 30, 90 and 180 min after treatments, the blood partial pressures of CO2 and O2 were measured. The animals were euthanized, and bronchoalveolar lavages were taken to determine the contents of total proteins, corticosterone [corrected] and TNF-alpha. Samples of lung tissue were used for histomorphometric studies and determining the wet-to-dry (W/D) lung weight ratio.

Results: In the MV group, rats had alveolar septal congestion, and, in the HCl group, a remarkable recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the alveoli was noticed; these events were reduced in the animals with PTX+HCl. The partial pressure of oxygen increased in PTX+HCl animals (121+/-5 mmHg) as compared with the HCl (62+/-6 mmHg) and HCl+PTX (67+/-3 mmHg) groups within 30 minutes. TNF-alpha levels in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly higher in the HCl group (458+/-50 pg/mL), reduced in the HCl+PTX group (329+/-45 pg/mL) and lowest in the PTX+HCl group (229+/-41 pg/mL). The levels of corticosterone [corrected] in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly lower in the HCl (8+/-1.3 ng/mL) and HCl+PTX group (16+/-2 ng/mL) and were highest in the PTX+HCl (27+/-1.9 ng/mL).

Conclusion: Pretreatment with PTX improves oxygenation, reduces TNF-alpha concentration and increases the concentration of corticosterone [corrected] in bronchoalveolar lavage upon lung lesion induced by HCl.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664181PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1807-59322008000100014DOI Listing
February 2008

Use of the histopathology in the differential diagnosis of drowning in fresh and salty water: an experimental model establishment in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2006 Jul-Aug;21(4):203-6

Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, Division of Infection Diseases, Department of Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, 04039-062 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To develop a method of differential diagnosis to drowning, due to analysis of the alveolar macrophages quantitative, in rats submitted to induced drowning in fresh water and salty water.

Methods: Were used 15 male adult rats Wistar EPM-1, weight 360g (SD=21,3), randomized in three groups: G1--Control; G2--Fresh water; G3--Salty water, each one with n=5. The animals have been anesthetized and tracheostomized to insert a cannula inside the trachea, for drowning induction. The lungs have been removed, weighed, prepared for histology and colored by immunohistochemistry. The macrophages have been counted in both lungs (right and left) of each animal. The statistical test used was ANOVA (SPSS.10) with p<0,05.

Results: The amount of macrophages was G3>G2>G1 with p=0,0001 in each comparison. The weight of lungs of G3 and G2 was higher than G1, with p>0,0001, however G3 and G2 do not possess difference statistics in the weight of lungs.

Conclusion: The developed diagnostic method was efficient in rats. The results, if expanded, will be able to assist the Forensic Pathology for technique of low cost and high trustworthiness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502006000400003DOI Listing
April 2007