Publications by authors named "Itamar Loewenstein"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin for the Assessment of Reversible versus Persistent Renal Tubular Damage in ST-Segment Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Blood Purif 2021 Mar 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel,

Background: Most studies investigated the value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a marker of renal tubular injury only at a single time point. We investigated the possible utilization of NGAL level dynamics for the identification of different renal injury patterns in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Methods: Blood samples for plasma NGAL in 132 STEMI patients were drawn immediately before and 24 h following primary coronary intervention. Abnormal elevation of NGAL levels was defined using the cardiac surgery-associated NGAL score with NGAL levels ≥100 ng/mL suggesting renal tubular damage. According to NGAL levels at 0 and 24 h, patients were stratified into 3 groups: no tubular damage (NGAL <100 ng/mL in both exams), reversible tubular damage (NGAL >100 ng/mL at 0 h but <100 ng/mL at 24 h), and persistent tubular damage (NGAL >100 ng/mL at both 0 and 24 h).

Results: Mean age was 62 ± 13 years, and 78% were men. Of these patients, 29/132 (22%) demonstrated reversible tubular damage, and 36/132 (27%) persistent tubular damage. Only 13/132 patients (10%) progressed to clinical acute kidney injury during hospitalization, all of whom had persistent tubular injury. In multivariate regression model, symptom duration was independently associated with persistent tubular damage, both as continues variable (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.04; p = 0.04) and for symptom duration >360 min (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.07-6.63; p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Renal tubular damage is common among STEMI patients. Dynamic NGAL measurement may differentiate between reversible and persistent tubular damage. Further trials are needed in order to assess the complex cardiorenal interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513943DOI Listing
March 2021

Natural History of Moderate Aortic Stenosis with Preserved and Low Ejection Fraction.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Tel Aviv Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: There is a shortage of data concerning the natural history of patients with moderate aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of moderate AS on mortality in the general population and in the subgroups of patients with moderate AS and reduced ejection fractions (EF) and patients with moderate AS and low aortic valve gradients. The study was not designed to address the applicability of treatment in this population.

Methods: Outcomes were compared between patients with moderate AS and a propensity-matched cohort (1:3 ratio) without AS. The primary outcome was survival until end of follow-up.

Results: Among approximately 40,000 patients who underwent echocardiographic evaluations between 2011 and 2016, 952 had moderate AS. Median follow-up duration was 181 weeks (interquartile range, 179-182 weeks) for the entire cohort and 174 weeks (interquartile range, 169-179 weeks) for the propensity-matched groups. Propensity matching successfully balanced most preexisting clinical differences. Increased mortality was observed in the group of patients with moderate AS before propensity matching and persisted following propensity matching (median survival 4.1 vs 5.2 years, P = .008). Survival rates and corresponding standard errors at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 80 ± 1% versus 82 ± 0.7%, 70 ± 1.5% versus 74 ± 0.8%, 62 ± 1.7% versus 66 ± 0.9%, and 47 ± 2.4% versus 52 ± 1.3%, respectively. A survival difference was similarly observed for the subgroup analyses of moderate AS and reduced ejection fraction (P = .028) and moderate AS and low aortic valve gradients (P = .039).

Conclusions: Moderate AS is associated with increased mortality. The increased mortality was also observed in the subgroups of patients with either reduced ejection fraction or low aortic valve gradients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.02.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcatheter Replacement of Transcatheter Versus Surgically Implanted Aortic Valve Bioprostheses.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jan;77(1):1-14

Centres for Heart Valve and Cardiovascular Innovation, St. Paul's and Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are now both used to treat aortic stenosis in patients in whom life expectancy may exceed valve durability. The choice of initial bioprosthesis should therefore consider the relative safety and efficacy of potential subsequent interventions.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare TAVR in failed transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) versus surgical aortic valves (SAVs).

Methods: Data were collected on 434 TAV-in-TAV and 624 TAV-in-SAV consecutive procedures performed at centers participating in the Redo-TAVR international registry. Propensity score matching was applied, and 330 matched (165:165) patients were analyzed. Principal endpoints were procedural success, procedural safety, and mortality at 30 days and 1 year.

Results: For TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV, procedural success was observed in 120 (72.7%) versus 103 (62.4%) patients (p = 0.045), driven by a numerically lower frequency of residual high valve gradient (p = 0.095), ectopic valve deployment (p = 0.081), coronary obstruction (p = 0.091), and conversion to open heart surgery (p = 0.082). Procedural safety was achieved in 116 (70.3%) versus 119 (72.1%) patients (p = 0.715). Mortality at 30 days was 5 (3%) after TAV-in-TAV and 7 (4.4%) after TAV-in-SAV (p = 0.570). At 1 year, mortality was 12 (11.9%) and 10 (10.2%), respectively (p = 0.633). Aortic valve area was larger (1.55 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.37 ± 0.5 cm; p = 0.040), and the mean residual gradient was lower (12.6 ± 5.2 mm Hg vs. 14.9 ± 5.2 mm Hg; p = 0.011) after TAV-in-TAV. The rate of moderate or greater residual aortic regurgitation was similar, but mild aortic regurgitation was more frequent after TAV-in-TAV (p = 0.003).

Conclusions: In propensity score-matched cohorts of TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV patients, TAV-in-TAV was associated with higher procedural success and similar procedural safety or mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.053DOI Listing
January 2021

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for the prediction of acute kidney injury in chronic kidney disease patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Feb 17;32:100695. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Cardiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Elevated plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker of tubular damage and aid in the early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated NGAL levels for identification of AKI superimposed on chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs. "de novo" AKI among ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: 217 STEMI patients treated with PCI were prospectively included, 34 (16%) had baseline CKD. Plasma NGAL levels were drawn 24 h following PCI. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) methods were used to identify optimal sensitivity and specificity for the observed NGAL range in AKI patients with and without CKD.

Results: Overall AKI incidence was 13%. NGAL levels were significantly higher for patients with AKI compared to no-AKI, irrespective of CKD. Different optimal cutoff value for NGAL to predict AKI were found for patients with CKD (133 ng/ml, sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 75%; AUC: 0.837, p < 0.001) and for non-CKD (104 ng/ml with sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 82%; AUC: 0.844, p < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, NGAL levels were independently associated with AKI in patients with and without CKD (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08; p = 0.024; and HR 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04; p = 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: Elevated plasma NGAL levels identify patients who are at high-risk to develop AKI following primary PCI. Determining different cutoff values of plasma NGAL for de novo AKI and AKI superimposed on CKD may be necessary for accurate AKI diagnosis and risk stratification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753140PMC
February 2021

The Israeli Physician Assistant in a Tertiary Medical Center Emergency Department.

Isr Med Assoc J 2020 Jul;22(7):409-414

Department of Emergency Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is associated with worse patient outcomes.

Objectives: To determine whether physician assistants (PAs), fairly recently integrated into the Israeli healthcare system, improve patient outcomes and ED timings.

Methods: We compared patients seen by physicians with patients seen by PAs and then by physicians between January and December 2018 using propensity matching. Patients were matched for age, gender, triage level, and decision to hospitalize. Primary endpoints included patient mortality, re-admittance. and leaving on own accord rates. Secondary endpoints were ED timing landmarks.

Results: Patients first seen by PAs were less likely to leave on their own accord (MD1 1.5%, PA 1.0%, P = 0.015), had lower rates of readmission within 48 hours (MD1 2.1%, PA 1.5%, P= 0.028), and were quicker to be seen, to have medications prescribed, and to undergo imaging without differences in timings until decisions were made or total length of stay. Patients seen by a physician with the assistance of a PA were attended to quicker (MD2 47.79 minutes, range 27.70-78.82 vs. MD + PA 30.59 minutes, range 15.77-54.85; P < 0.001) without statistically significant differences in primary outcomes. Mortality rates were similar for all comparisons.

Conclusions: Patients first seen by PAs had lower rates of re-admittance or leaving on their own accord and enjoyed shorter waiting times. Pending proper integration into healthcare teams, PAs can further improve outcomes in EDs and patient satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2020

Acute cardiorenal anemia syndrome among ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients treated by primary percutaneous intervention.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 Oct 13. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Departments of Cardiology.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and anemia have been extensively studied in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), yet the precise nature of their reciprocal relationship has not been elucidated in STEMI patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2096 consecutive patients admitted for STEMI between January 2008 and December 2018 and treated with primary coronary intervention. Patients were stratified into four groups according to the presence of baseline anemia and occurrence of AKI: without anemia or AKI, baseline anemia without AKI, AKI without baseline anemia and acute cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS), defined as the occurrence of AKI in patients with baseline anemia. Patients' medical records were reviewed for in-hospital complications, 30-day and long-term mortality.

Results: The mean age was 61 ± 13 years and 1682 patients (80%) were men. Ten percent of patients had baseline anemia without AKI, 7% had AKI without baseline anemia and 3% were classified as CRAS. We found increments between the four groups for occurrence of new onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure rates, presence of a critical state, and both 30-day and long-term mortality (P < 0.001 for all). Logistic regression models demonstrated that as compared to AKI alone, CRAS was associated with a higher risk for long-term mortality (HR 10.49; 95% CI 6.5-17.1) as compared to anemia (HR 3.32, 95% CI 2.1-5.2) and AKI (HR 7.71, 95% CI 5.1-11.7) alone (P < 0.001 for all).

Conclusions: Among STEMI patients, the interaction between anemia and AKI is associated with worse short and long-term outcomes and reflects the reciprocity of cardiac and renal exacerbations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000973DOI Listing
October 2020

Long-Term Outcomes in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Isr Med Assoc J 2020 Jun;22(6):352-356

Department of Cardiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for primary reperfusion in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has largely been superseded byf primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is estimated to be performed in ≤ 5% of STEMI cases.

Objectives: To compare early CABG (within 30 days following admission) and primary PCI outcomes following STEMI.

Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with acute STEMI for early reperfusion therapy between January 2008 and June 2016. Short- and long-term outcomes were assessed for patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI vs. early CABG as reperfusion therapy.

Results: The study comprised 1660 STEMI patients, 38 of whom (2.3%) underwent CABG within 30 days of presentation. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was more than twice as high in the CABG group (7.5%) than in the PCI group (3.3%); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Similar results were demonstrated for mortality rates beyond 30 days (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.463). All patients undergoing CABG beyond 72 hours following admission survived past 2 years. Multivariate analysis found no differences between the two groups in long-term mortality risk. propensity score matched long-term mortality comparison (30 days-2 years) yielded a 22% mortality rate in the CABG groups compared with 14% in the PCI group (P < 0.293).

Conclusions: Early CABG was performed in only a minority of STEMI patients. This high-risk patient population demonstrated worse outcomes compared to patients undergoing PCI. Performing surgery beyond 72 hours following admission may be associated with lower risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2020

Echocardiographic L-wave as a prognostic indicator in transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Oct 17;36(10):1897-1905. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated to the Tel-Aviv University, 6 Weizzman St, 64239, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

This study applies L-wave measurements of mid-diastolic trans-mitral flow. Although considered to be a marker of elevated filling pressure or delayed myocardial relaxation, its clinical and prognostic value is yet to be completely elucidated. It has been shown that transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) induces reverse remodeling and improves diastolic function and prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic value of L-wave following TAVR. We examined clinical and echocardiographic data of patients undergoing TAVR. L-Wave presence and velocity were recorded at baseline and at 1 month and 6 months following TAVR. The effect of the procedure on L-wave measurements and its impact on mortality and other clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 502 patients (mean age 82.58 ± 5.9) undergoing TAVR were included. Patients with baseline L-wave (n = 68, 12%) had a smaller stroke volume index by 5.7 ± 2.3 ml/m (p = 0.01) as compared to patients without L-wave at baseline. L-waves disappeared In 35% and 70% of patients at 1 month and at 6 months respectively. Baseline L-wave velocity was 34.8 ± 11.5 (cm/s) and decreased significantly at follow-up examinations. Patients with persistent L-wave following TAVR had higher 3-year adjusted mortality rates (HR 5.7, 95% CI 3.7-8.9, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of survival was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). TAVR induces L-wave disappearance and a decrease in L-wave velocity in patients with severe AS. L-wave persistence following TAVR is an independent risk factor for mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01903-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Repeat Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Transcatheter Prosthesis Dysfunction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(16):1882-1893

A.O.U. Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/barbanti_marco.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) use is increasing in patients with longer life expectancy, yet robust data on the durability of transcatheter heart valves (THVs) are limited. Redo-TAVR may play a key strategy in treating patients in whom THVs fail.

Objectives: The authors sought to examine outcomes following redo-TAVR.

Methods: The Redo-TAVR registry collected data on consecutive patients who underwent redo-TAVR at 37 centers. Patients were classified as probable TAVR failure or probable THV failure if they presented within or beyond 1 year of their index TAVR, respectively.

Results: Among 63,876 TAVR procedures, 212 consecutive redo-TAVR procedures were identified (0.33%): 74 within and 138 beyond 1 year of the initial procedure. For these 2 groups, TAVR-to-redo-TAVR time was 68 (38 to 154) days and 5 (3 to 6) years. The indication for redo-TAVR was THV stenosis in 12 (16.2%) and 51 (37.0%) (p = 0.002) and regurgitation or combined stenosis-regurgitation in 62 (83.8%) and 86 (62.3%) (p = 0.028), respectively. Device success using VARC-2 criteria was achieved in 180 patients (85.1%); most failures were attributable to high residual gradients (14.1%) or regurgitation (8.9%). At 30-day and 1-year follow-up, residual gradients were 12.6 ± 7.5 mm Hg and 12.9 ± 9.0 mm Hg; valve area 1.63 ± 0.61 cm and 1.51 ± 0.57 cm; and regurgitation ≤mild in 91% and 91%, respectively. Peri-procedural complication rates were low (3 stroke [1.4%], 7 valve malposition [3.3%], 2 coronary obstruction [0.9%], 20 new permanent pacemaker [9.6%], no mortality), and symptomatic improvement was substantial. Survival at 30 days was 94.6% and 98.5% (p = 0.101) and 83.6% and 88.3% (p = 0.335) at 1 year for patients presenting with early and late valve dysfunction, respectively.

Conclusions: Redo-TAVR is a relatively safe and effective option for selected patients with valve dysfunction after TAVR. These results are important for applicability of TAVR in patients with long life expectancy in whom THV durability may be a concern.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.051DOI Listing
April 2020

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin for the Early Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Cardiorenal Med 2020 10;10(3):154-161. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Cardiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel,

Introduction And Objective: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a glycoprotein released by renal tubular cells, can be used as a marker of early tubular damage. We evaluated plasma NGAL level utilization for the identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: 131 STEMI patients treated with PCI were prospectively included. Plasma NGAL levels were drawn prior to PCI (0 h) and 24 h afterwards. AKI was defined per KDIGO criteria of serum creatinine increase. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methods were used to identify optimal sensitivity and specificity for the observed NGAL range.

Results: Overall AKI incidence was 14%. NGAL levels were significantly higher for patients with AKI at both 0 h (164 ± 42 vs. 95 ± 30; p < 0.001) and 24 h (142 ± 41 vs. 93 ± 36; p < 0.001). Per ROC curve analysis, an optimal cutoff value of NGAL (>120 ng/mL) predicted AKI with 80% sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.881, 95%, CI 0.801-0.961, p < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, NGAL levels were independently associated with AKI at 0 h (OR 1.044, 95% CI 1.013-1.076; p = 0.005) and 24 h (OR 1.018, 95% CI 1.001-1.036; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Elevated NGAL levels, suggesting renal tubular damage, are independently associated with AKI in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506378DOI Listing
March 2020

Effectiveness and Safety of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Aortic Stenosis and Variable Ejection Fractions (<40%, 40%-49%, and >50%).

Am J Cardiol 2020 02 23;125(4):583-588. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Cardiology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

We evaluated the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in aortic stenosis patients with mid-range ejection fraction (ASmrEF) and compared it to aortic stenosis patients with reduced ejection fraction (ASrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (ASpEF). TAVI cases were stratified by baseline ejection fraction (ASrEF, ASmrEF, ASpEF) and compared for characteristics, procedural outcomes, and change in echocardiographic parameters at 1 year and mortality over a 5-year follow-up. The final study population included 708 patients who underwent TAVI. ASmrEF patients presented with improved EF at 1-year after procedure (49.0 ± 9.8 at 1 year vs 43.0 ± 2.5 at baseline, p <0.001) and showed improvements in left ventricular (LV) diameters (LV end-diastolic diameter: 50.4 ± 6.0 at 1 year vs 53.0 ± 5.5 at baseline and LV end-systolic diameter 34.7 ± 7.8 at 1 year vs 39.5 ± 5.9 at baseline, p <0.001 for both). LVEF improved for patients with ASrEF but not in ASpEF patients. LV diameters did not improve for patients in either group. Procedural safety and success rates were similar between all heart failure groups. Survival rates over a 5-year follow-up post-TAVI were not different between patients with ASmrEF, ASrEF, and ASpEF (ASrEF 78.4%, ASmrEF 81.9%, ASpEF 78.3%, p = 0.327). TAVI for patients with ASmrEF is safe and effective and results in marked improvement of LV function and structure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.10.059DOI Listing
February 2020

ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AGENTS IN REAL LIFE: What Is Actually in the Syringe?

Retina 2019 Jul;39(7):1385-1391

Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor volume delivery by intravitreal injections in the clinical setup.

Methods: Volume output was measured in 669 intravitreal injections administered to patients, calculated from the difference in syringe weight before and after expelling the drug. Three groups were included: prefilled bevacizumab 1.0 mL syringe (Group 1, n = 432), pre-filled ranibizumab in a small-volume syringe with low dead-space plunger design (Group 2, n = 125), and aflibercept drawn and injected using a 1.0-mL syringe (Group 3, n = 112). Accuracy was analyzed by mean absolute percentage error, and precision by coefficient of variation.

Results: Volume outputs in all 3 groups were significantly different from the target of 50 μL (P < 0.0001 for all), and mean absolute percentage error values were 12.25% ± 5.92% in Group 1, 13.60% ± 8.75% in Group 2, and 24.69% ± 14.84% in Group 3. No difference was found between groups 1 and 2, but both were significantly more accurate than Group 3 (P < 0.0001 for both).

Conclusion: The current practices used for intravitreal injections are highly variable, with overdelivery of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs measured in most cases, but underdelivery in 16.3% of injections. Use of a prefilled syringe was associated with improved accuracy, and low dead-space plunger design may improve precision.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002170DOI Listing
July 2019