Publications by authors named "Issa Sidibe"

32 Publications

Optimizing the feeding frequency to maximize the production of sterile males in tsetse mass-rearing colonies.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(1):e0245503. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Insectarium de Bobo-Dioulasso - Campagne d'Eradication de la mouche Tsé-tsé et de la Trypanosomiase (IBD-CETT), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Tsetse flies are cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomosis and nagana or African Animal Trypanosomosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Insectarium de Bobo-Dioulasso (IBD) was created and equipped in the frame of Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) with the main goal to provide sterile males for the different eradication programs in West Africa which is already the case with the ongoing eradication program in Senegal. The aim of this study was to identify the best feeding regime in mass-rearing colonies of Glossina palpalis gambiensis to optimize the yield of sterile males. We investigated the mortality and fecundity for various feeding regimes and day alternation (3×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday-Saturday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Thursday-Friday and 6×: all days except Sunday) on adult tsetse flies in routine rearing over 60 days after emergence. The day alternation in the 4 blood meals per week (feeding regimes 2 and 3) had no effect on tsetse fly mortality and fecundity. The best feeding regime was the regime of 4 blood meals per week which resulted in higher significant fecundity (PPIF = 2.5; P = 0.003) combined with lower mortality of females (P = 0.0003) than the 3 blood meals per week (PPIF = 2.0) and in similar fecundity (PPIF = 2.6; P = 0.70) and mortality (P = 0.51) than the 6 blood meals per week. This feeding regime was extended to the whole colonies, resulting in an improved yield of sterile males for the ongoing eradication program in Senegal and would be more cost-effective for the implementation of the next-coming sterile insect technique (SIT) programs in West Africa.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245503PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808581PMC
January 2021

High Levels of Genetic Diversity within Nilo-Saharan Populations: Implications for Human Adaptation.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 09 10;107(3):473-486. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Electronic address:

Africa contains more human genetic variation than any other continent, but the majority of the population-scale analyses of the African peoples have focused on just two of the four major linguistic groups, the Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, leaving the Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan populations under-represented. In order to assess genetic variation and signatures of selection within a Nilo-Saharan population and between the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, we sequenced 50 genomes from the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara population of North-West Uganda and 250 genomes from 6 previously unsequenced Niger-Congo populations. We compared these data to data from a further 16 Eurasian and African populations including the Gumuz, another putative Nilo-Saharan population from Ethiopia. Of the 21 million variants identified in the Nilo-Saharan population, 3.57 million (17%) were not represented in dbSNP and included predicted non-synonymous mutations with possible phenotypic effects. We found greater genetic differentiation between the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara and Gumuz populations than between any two Afro-Asiatic or Niger-Congo populations. F3 tests showed that Gumuz contributed a genetic component to most Niger-Congo B populations whereas Lugabara did not. We scanned the genomes of the Lugbara for evidence of selective sweeps. We found selective sweeps at four loci (SLC24A5, SNX13, TYRP1, and UVRAG) associated with skin pigmentation, three of which already have been reported to be under selection. These selective sweeps point toward adaptations to the intense UV radiation of the Sahel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477016PMC
September 2020

Copy number variation in human genomes from three major ethno-linguistic groups in Africa.

BMC Genomics 2020 Apr 10;21(1):289. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Copy number variation is an important class of genomic variation that has been reported in 75% of the human genome. However, it is underreported in African populations. Copy number variants (CNVs) could have important impacts on disease susceptibility and environmental adaptation. To describe CNVs and their possible impacts in Africans, we sequenced genomes of 232 individuals from three major African ethno-linguistic groups: (1) Niger Congo A from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, (2) Niger Congo B from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo and (3) Nilo-Saharans from Uganda. We used GenomeSTRiP and cn.MOPS to identify copy number variant regions (CNVRs).

Results: We detected 7608 CNVRs, of which 2172 were only deletions, 2384 were only insertions and 3052 had both. We detected 224 previously un-described CNVRs. The majority of novel CNVRs were present at low frequency and were not shared between populations. We tested for evidence of selection associated with CNVs and also for population structure. Signatures of selection identified previously, using SNPs from the same populations, were overrepresented in CNVRs. When CNVs were tagged with SNP haplotypes to identify SNPs that could predict the presence of CNVs, we identified haplotypes tagging 3096 CNVRs, 372 CNVRs had SNPs with evidence of selection (iHS > 3) and 222 CNVRs had both. This was more than expected (p < 0.0001) and included loci where CNVs have previously been associated with HIV, Rhesus D and preeclampsia. When integrated with 1000 Genomes CNV data, we replicated their observation of population stratification by continent but no clustering by populations within Africa, despite inclusion of Nilo-Saharans and Niger-Congo populations within our dataset.

Conclusions: Novel CNVRs in the current study increase representation of African diversity in the database of genomic variants. Over-representation of CNVRs in SNP signatures of selection and an excess of SNPs that both tag CNVs and are subject to selection show that CNVs may be the actual targets of selection at some loci. However, unlike SNPs, CNVs alone do not resolve African ethno-linguistic groups. Tag haplotypes for CNVs identified may be useful in predicting African CNVs in future studies where only SNP data is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6669-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147055PMC
April 2020

Macrophage migrating inhibitory factor expression is associated with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection and is controlled by trans-acting expression quantitative trait loci in the Guinean population.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 07 23;71:108-115. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Ministère de la Santé et de l'Hygiène Publique, Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine (PNLTHA), Conakry, Guinea; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR IRD-CIRAD 177 INTERTRYP, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Infection by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is characterized by a wide array of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic to acute disease and even spontaneous cure. In this study, we investigated the association between macrophage migrating inhibitory factor (MIF), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in both innate and acquired immunity, and disease outcome during T. b. gambiense infection. A comparative expression analysis of patients, individuals with latent infection and controls found that MIF had significantly higher expression in patients (n = 141; 1.25 ± 0.07; p < .0001) and latent infections (n = 25; 1.23 ± 0.13; p = .0005) relative to controls (n = 46; 0.94 ± 0.11). Furthermore, expression decreased significantly after treatment (patients before treatment n = 33; 1.40 ± 0.18 versus patients after treatment n = 33; 0.99 ± 0.10, p = .0001). We conducted a genome wide eQTL analysis on 29 controls, 128 cases and 15 latently infected individuals for whom expression and genotype data were both available. Four loci, including one containing the chemokine CXCL13, were found to associate with MIF expression. Genes at these loci are candidate regulators of increased expression of MIF after infection. Our study is the first data demonstrating that MIF expression is elevated in T. b. gambiense-infected human hosts but does not appear to contribute to pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.03.021DOI Listing
July 2019

Prevalence of trypanosomes, salivary gland hypertrophy virus and Wolbachia in wild populations of tsetse flies from West Africa.

BMC Microbiol 2018 11 23;18(Suppl 1):153. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Tsetse flies are vectors of African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause sleeping sickness (or human African trypanosomosis) in humans and nagana (or animal African trypanosomosis) in livestock. In addition to trypanosomes, four symbiotic bacteria Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and one pathogen, the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), have been reported in different tsetse species. We evaluated the prevalence and coinfection dynamics between Wolbachia, trypanosomes, and SGHV in four tsetse species (Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. tachinoides, G. morsitans submorsitans, and G. medicorum) that were collected between 2008 and 2015 from 46 geographical locations in West Africa, i.e. Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, Guinea, and Senegal.

Results: The results indicated an overall low prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia and a high prevalence of trypanosomes in the sampled wild tsetse populations. The prevalence of all three infections varied among tsetse species and sample origin. The highest trypanosome prevalence was found in Glossina tachinoides (61.1%) from Ghana and in Glossina palpalis gambiensis (43.7%) from Senegal. The trypanosome prevalence in the four species from Burkina Faso was lower, i.e. 39.6% in Glossina medicorum, 18.08%; in Glossina morsitans submorsitans, 16.8%; in Glossina tachinoides and 10.5% in Glossina palpalis gambiensis. The trypanosome prevalence in Glossina palpalis gambiensis was lowest in Mali (6.9%) and Guinea (2.2%). The prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia was very low irrespective of location or tsetse species with an average of 1.7% for SGHV and 1.0% for Wolbachia. In some cases, mixed infections with different trypanosome species were detected. The highest prevalence of coinfection was Trypanosoma vivax and other Trypanosoma species (9.5%) followed by coinfection of T. congolense with other trypanosomes (7.5%). The prevalence of coinfection of T. vivax and T. congolense was (1.0%) and no mixed infection of trypanosomes, SGHV and Wolbachia was detected.

Conclusion: The results indicated a high rate of trypanosome infection in tsetse wild populations in West African countries but lower infection rate of both Wolbachia and SGHV. Double or triple mixed trypanosome infections were found. In addition, mixed trypanosome and SGHV infections existed however no mixed infections of trypanosome and/or SGHV with Wolbachia were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-018-1287-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251090PMC
November 2018

Drug quality analysis of isometamidium chloride hydrochloride and diminazene diaceturate used for the treatment of African animal trypanosomosis in West Africa.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Nov 20;14(1):361. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Bioengineering Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Diminazene diaceturate (DA) and isometamidium chloride hydrochloride (ISM) are with homidium bromide, the main molecules used to treat African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT). These drugs can be purchased from official suppliers but also from unofficial sources like local food markets or street vendors. The sub-standard quality of some of these trypanocides is jeopardizing the efficacy of treatment of sick livestock, leading thus to economic losses for the low-resource farmers and is contributing to the emergence and spread of drug resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of trypanocidal drugs sold in French speaking countries of West Africa. In total, 308 drug samples including 282 of DA and 26 of ISM were purchased from official and unofficial sources in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger and Togo. All samples were analysed at LACOMEV (Dakar, Senegal), a reference laboratory of the World Organisation for Animal Health, by galenic inspection and high performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The results showed that 51.90% of the samples were non-compliant compared to the standards and were containing lower quantity of the active ingredient compared to the indications on the packaging. The non-compliances ranged from 63.27% in Togo to 32.65% in Burkina Faso (61.82% in Benin, 53.84% in Mali, 50% in Côte d'Ivoire, 47.36% in Niger). The rates of non-compliance were not statistically different (P = 0.572) from official or unofficial suppliers and ranged from 30 to 75% and from 0 to 65% respectively. However, the non-compliance was significantly higher for ISM compared to DA (P = 0.028).

Conclusions: The high non-compliance revealed in this study compromises the efficacy of therapeutic strategies against AAT, and is likely to exacerbate chemoresistance in West Africa. Corrective actions against sub-standard trypanocides urgently need to be taken by policy makers and control authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1633-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247674PMC
November 2018

Impact of an integrated control campaign on tsetse populations in Burkina Faso.

Parasit Vectors 2018 04 27;11(1):270. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Insectarium de Bobo-Dioulasso - Campagne d'Eradication des Tsé-tsé et Trypanosomoses (IBD-CETT), Bobo-Dioulasso 01, BP 1087, Burkina Faso.

Background: Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis. In Burkina Faso, a project aiming to create zones free of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis was executed from June 2006 to December 2013. After the determination of tsetse distribution in the intervention area from December 2007 to November 2008, the control campaign was launched in November 2009 and ended in December 2013. The goal was to eliminate tsetse flies from 40,000 km of area, through an integrated control campaign including insecticide targets, traps and cattle, sequential aerial treatment (SAT) and the mass treatment of livestock using trypanocides. The campaign involved assistance of the beneficiary communities at all the steps of the control strategy with insecticide impregnated targets.

Methods: This study was carried out to assess the impact of the control project on tsetse apparent density per trap per day (ADT). To evaluate the effectiveness of tsetse control, 201 sites were selected based on the baseline survey results carried out from December 2007 to November 2008. These sites were monitored bi-monthly from January 2010 to November 2012. At the end-of-study in 2013 a generalized entomological survey was carried out in 401 infested sites found during the longitudinal survey done before the control. Barrier and tsetse persistence areas were treated by ground spraying and evaluated. Controls were also done before and after aerial spraying.

Results: In the insecticide-impregnated target area, the control showed that ADT of tsetse flies declined from 10.73 (SD 13.27) to 0.43 (SD 2.51) fly/trap/day from the third month of campaign onwards (P < 0.0001) and remained low thereafter. At the end of the campaign in 2013, an 83% reduction of ADT was observed for Glossina palpalis gambiensis and a 92% reduction for G. tachinoides. Tsetse flies were captured only in 29% of the sites found infested in 2008.

Conclusions: Tsetse flies could be suppressed efficiently but their elimination from the targeted area may require the use integrated methods including the Sterile Insect Technique, which is programmed through the development of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC Burkina) insectarium. The challenge will remain the sustainability of the achievement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2609-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923030PMC
April 2018

No evidence for association between APOL1 kidney disease risk alleles and Human African Trypanosomiasis in two Ugandan populations.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 22;12(2):e0006300. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) manifests as an acute form caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr) and a chronic form caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg). Previous studies have suggested a host genetic role in infection outcomes, particularly for APOL1. We have undertaken candidate gene association studies (CGAS) in a Ugandan Tbr and a Tbg HAT endemic area, to determine whether polymorphisms in IL10, IL8, IL4, HLAG, TNFA, TNX4LB, IL6, IFNG, MIF, APOL1, HLAA, IL1B, IL4R, IL12B, IL12R, HP, HPR, and CFH have a role in HAT.

Methodology And Results: We included 238 and 202 participants from the Busoga Tbr and Northwest Uganda Tbg endemic areas respectively. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotype data were analysed in the CGAS. The study was powered to find odds ratios > 2 but association testing of the SNPs with HAT yielded no positive associations i.e. none significant after correction for multiple testing. However there was strong evidence for no association with Tbr HAT and APOL1 G2 of the size previously reported in the Kabermaido district of Uganda.

Conclusions/significance: A recent study in the Soroti and Kaberamaido focus in Central Uganda found that the APOL1 G2 allele was strongly associated with protection against Tbr HAT (odds ratio = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.48, p = 0.0001). However, in our study no effect of G2 on Tbr HAT was found, despite being well powered to find a similar sized effect (OR = 0.9281, 95% CI: 0.482 to 1.788, p = 0.8035). It is possible that the G2 allele is protective from Tbr in the Soroti/Kabermaido focus but not in the Iganga district of Busoga, which differ in ethnicity and infection history. Mechanisms underlying HAT infection outcome and virulence are complex and might differ between populations, and likely involve several host, parasite or even environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844566PMC
February 2018

Candidate genes-based investigation of susceptibility to Human African Trypanosomiasis in Côte d'Ivoire.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 23;11(10):e0005992. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Laboratoire de Génétique, Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a Neglected Tropical Disease. Long regarded as an invariably fatal disease, there is increasing evidence that infection by T. b. gambiense can result in a wide range of clinical outcomes, including latent infections, which are long lasting infections with no parasites detectable by microscopy. The determinants of this clinical diversity are not well understood but could be due in part to parasite or host genetic diversity in multiple genes, or their interactions. A candidate gene association study was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire using a case-control design which included a total of 233 subjects (100 active HAT cases, 100 controls and 33 latent infections). All three possible pairwise comparisons between the three phenotypes were tested using 96 SNPs in16 candidate genes (IL1, IL4, IL4R, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL12R, TNFA, INFG, MIF, APOL1, HPR, CFH, HLA-A and HLA-G). Data from 77 SNPs passed quality control. There were suggestive associations at three loci in IL6 and TNFA in the comparison between active cases and controls, one SNP in each of APOL1, MIF and IL6 in the comparison between latent infections and active cases and seven SNP in IL4, HLA-G and TNFA between latent infections and controls. No associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction, but the Benjamini Hochberg false discovery rate test indicated that there were strong probabilities that at least some of the associations were genuine. The excess of associations with latent infections despite the small number of samples available suggests that these subjects form a distinct genetic cluster different from active HAT cases and controls, although no clustering by phenotype was observed by principle component analysis. This underlines the complexity of the interactions existing between host genetic polymorphisms and parasite diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695625PMC
October 2017

Candidate gene polymorphisms study between human African trypanosomiasis clinical phenotypes in Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005833. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a lethal disease induced by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, has a range of clinical outcomes in its human host in West Africa: an acute form progressing rapidly to second stage, spontaneous self-cure and individuals able to regulate parasitaemia at very low levels, have all been reported from endemic foci. In order to test if this clinical diversity is influenced by host genetic determinants, the association between candidate gene polymorphisms and HAT outcome was investigated in populations from HAT active foci in Guinea.

Methodology And Results: Samples were collected from 425 individuals; comprising of 232 HAT cases, 79 subjects with long lasting positive and specific serology but negative parasitology and 114 endemic controls. Genotypes of 28 SNPs in eight genes passed quality control and were used for an association analysis. IL6 rs1818879 allele A (p = 0.0001, OR = 0.39, CI95 = [0.24-0.63], BONF = 0.0034) was associated with a lower risk of progressing from latent infection to active disease. MIF rs36086171 allele G seemed to be associated with an increased risk (p = 0.0239, OR = 1.65, CI95 = [1.07-2.53], BONF = 0.6697) but did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction. Similarly MIF rs12483859 C allele seems be associated with latent infections (p = 0.0077, OR = 1.86, CI95 = [1.18-2.95], BONF = 0.2157). We confirmed earlier observations that APOL1 G2 allele (DEL) (p = 0.0011, OR = 2.70, CI95 = [1.49-4.91], BONF = 0.0301) is associated with a higher risk and APOL1 G1 polymorphism (p = 0.0005, OR = 0.45, CI95 = [0.29-0.70], BONF = 0.0129) with a lower risk of developing HAT. No associations were found with other candidate genes.

Conclusion: Our data show that host genes are involved in modulating Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection outcome in infected individuals from Guinea with IL6 rs1818879 being associated with a lower risk of progressing to active HAT. These results enhance our understanding of host-parasite interactions and, ultimately, may lead to the development of new control tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5595334PMC
August 2017

Influence of temperature and relative humidity on survival and fecundity of three tsetse strains.

Parasit Vectors 2016 Sep 29;9(1):520. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

CIRAD, UMR15 CMAEE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they are vectors of trypanosomes that cause human and animal African trypanosomosis. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is currently used to eliminate tsetse fly populations in an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) context in Senegal and Ethiopia. Three Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains [originating from Burkina Faso (BKF), Senegal (SEN) and an introgressed strain (SENbkf)] were established and are now available for use in future AW-IPM programmes against trypanosomes in West Africa. For each strain, knowledge of the environmental survival thresholds is essential to determine which of these strains is best suited to a particular environment or ecosystem, and can therefore be used effectively in SIT programmes.

Methods: In this paper, we investigated the survival and fecundity of three G. p. gambiensis strains maintained under various conditions: 25 °C and 40, 50, 60, and 75 % relative humidity (rH), 30 °C and 60 % rH and 35 °C and 60 % rH.

Results: The survival of the three strains was dependent on temperature only, and it was unaffected by changing humidity within the tested range. The BKF strain survived temperatures above its optimum better than the SEN strain. The SENbkf showed intermediate resistance to high temperatures. A temperature of about 32 °C was the limit for survival for all strains. A rH ranging from 40 to 76 % had no effect on fecundity at 25-26 °C.

Conclusions: We discuss the implications of these results on tsetse SIT-based control programmes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5041576PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1805-xDOI Listing
September 2016

Identification of a Tsal152-75 salivary synthetic peptide to monitor cattle exposure to tsetse flies.

Parasit Vectors 2016 Mar 15;9:149. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Unité Mixte de Recherche IRD-CIRAD 177, Interactions hôtes-vecteurs-parasites dans les maladies dues aux Trypanosomatidae, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, 34398 Cedex 5, France.

Background: The saliva of tsetse flies contains a cocktail of bioactive molecules inducing specific antibody responses in hosts exposed to bites. We have previously shown that an indirect-ELISA test using whole salivary extracts from Glossina morsitans submorsitans was able to discriminate between (i) cattle from tsetse infested and tsetse free areas and (ii) animals experimentally exposed to low or high numbers of tsetse flies. In the present study, our aim was to identify specific salivary synthetic peptides that could be used to develop simple immunoassays to measure cattle exposure to tsetse flies.

Methods: In a first step, 2D-electrophoresis immunoblotting, using sera from animals exposed to a variety of bloodsucking arthropods, was performed to identify specific salivary proteins recognised in cattle exposed to tsetse bites. Linear epitope prediction software and Blast analysis were then used to design synthetic peptides within the identified salivary proteins. Finally, candidate peptides were tested by indirect-ELISA on serum samples from tsetse infested and tsetse free areas, and from exposure experiments.

Results: The combined immunoblotting and bioinformatics analyses led to the identification of five peptides carrying putative linear epitopes within two salivary proteins: the tsetse salivary gland protein 1 (Tsal1) and the Salivary Secreted Adenosine (SSA). Of these, two were synthesised and tested further based on the absence of sequence homology with other arthropods or pathogen species. IgG responses to the Tsal152-75 synthetic peptide were shown to be specific of tsetse exposure in both naturally and experimentally exposed hosts. Nevertheless, anti-Tsal152-75 IgG responses were absent in animals exposed to high tsetse biting rates.

Conclusions: These results suggest that Tsal152-75 specific antibodies represent a biomarker of low cattle exposure to tsetse fly. These results are discussed in the light of the other available tsetse saliva based-immunoassays and in the perspective of developing a simple serological tool for tsetse eradication campaigns to assess the tsetse free status or to detect tsetse reemergence in previously cleared areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1414-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791801PMC
March 2016

A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Feb 22;10(2):e0004491. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

IRD, UMR INTERTRYP, Montpellier, France.

Background: The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso.

Methodology/principal Findings: Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis.

Conclusions/significance: This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767142PMC
February 2016

Administration of ivermectin to peridomestic cattle: a promising approach to target the residual transmission of human malaria.

Malar J 2015 Dec 10;13 Suppl 1:496. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Direction Régionale de l'Ouest de l'Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: The success of current control tools in combatting malaria vectors is well established. However, sustained residual transmission of Plasmodium parasites persists. Mass drug administration (MDA) to humans of the endectocide ivermectin for vector control is receiving increasing attention. However, vectors feeding upon animals escape this promising approach. Zoophagy of mosquitoes sustains both the vector population and endemic population of vector-borne pathogens. Therefore, only a strategy that will combine ivermectin MDAs targeted at humans and their peridomestic animals could be successful at controlling residual malaria transmission.

Methods: Burkinabé cattle have been treated with injectable therapeutic dose of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight) to render blood meals toxic to field representative populations of Anopheles coluzzii carrying the kdr mutation. Direct skin-feeding assays were performed from 2 to 28 days after injection (DAI) and mosquitoes were followed for their survival, ability to become gravid and fecundity. Membrane feeding assays were further performed to test if an ivermectin blood meal taken at 28 DAI impacts gametocyte establishment and development in females fed with infectious blood.

Results: The mosquitocidal effect of ivermectin is complete for 2 weeks after injection, whether 12 days cumulative mortalities were of 75 and 45 % the third and fourth weeks, respectively. The third week, a second ivermectin blood meal at sub-lethal concentrations further increased mortality to 100 %. Sub-lethal concentrations of ivermectin also significantly decreased egg production by surviving females, increasing further the detrimental effect of the drug on vector densities. Although females fitness was impaired by sub-lethal ivermectin blood meals, these did not diminish nor increase their susceptibility to infection.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of integrated MDA of ivermectin to both human and peridomestic cattle to target vector reservoirs of residual malaria transmission. Such integration lies in 'One-Health' efforts being implemented around the globe, and would be especially relevant in rural communities in Africa where humans are also at risk of common zoonotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-1001-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4676103PMC
December 2015

Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Nov 12;9(11):e0004229. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, Laboratoire National d'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires, Service de Bio-écologie et Pathologies Parasitaires, Hann, Dakar, Sénégal.

Background: Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.

Methodology/principal Findings: Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.

Conclusions/significance: The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642948PMC
November 2015

A Spatio-temporal Model of African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 8;9(7):e0003921. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

CIRAD, UMR INTERTRYP, Montpellier, France; CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, Dakar-Hann, Sénégal; CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, Montpellier, France; INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, Montpellier, France; Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Laboratoire National d'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires (LNERV), LNERV, Dakar-Hann, Sénégal.

Background: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major constraint to sustainable development of cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa. The habitat of the tsetse fly vector is increasingly fragmented owing to demographic pressure and shifts in climate, which leads to heterogeneous risk of cyclical transmission both in space and time. In Burkina Faso and Ghana, the most important vectors are riverine species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides, which are more resilient to human-induced changes than the savannah and forest species. Although many authors studied the distribution of AAT risk both in space and time, spatio-temporal models allowing predictions of it are lacking.

Methodology/principal Findings: We used datasets generated by various projects, including two baseline surveys conducted in Burkina Faso and Ghana within PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) national initiatives. We computed the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) or tsetse challenge using a range of environmental data. The tsetse apparent density and their infection rate were separately estimated and subsequently combined to derive the EIR using a "one layer-one model" approach. The estimated EIR was then projected into suitable habitat. This risk index was finally validated against data on bovine trypanosomosis. It allowed a good prediction of the parasitological status (r2 = 67%), showed a positive correlation but less predictive power with serological status (r2 = 22%) aggregated at the village level but was not related to the illness status (r2 = 2%).

Conclusions/significance: The presented spatio-temporal model provides a fine-scale picture of the dynamics of AAT risk in sub-humid areas of West Africa. The estimated EIR was high in the proximity of rivers during the dry season and more widespread during the rainy season. The present analysis is a first step in a broader framework for an efficient risk management of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495931PMC
May 2016

Long distance transport of irradiated male Glossina palpalis gambiensis pupae and its impact on sterile male yield.

Parasit Vectors 2015 May 1;8:259. Epub 2015 May 1.

Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Unité Mixte de Recherche Contrôle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et Emergentes, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, 34398, France.

Background: The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires mass-production of sterile males of good biological quality. The size of the project area will in most cases determine whether it is more cost effective to produce the sterile flies locally (and invest in a mass-rearing facility) or import the sterile flies from a mass-rearing facility that is located in another country. This study aimed at assessing the effect of long distance transport of sterile male Glossina palpalis gambiensis pupae on adult male fly yield.

Methods: The male pupae were produced at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and shipped with a commercial courier service in insulated transport boxes at a temperature of ±10°C to Senegal (±36 h of transport). Upon arrival in the insectary in Dakar, the pupae were transferred to an emergence room and the flies monitored for 3-6 days.

Results: The results showed that the used system of isothermal boxes that contained phase change material packs (S8) managed to keep the temperature at around 10°C which prevented male fly emergence during transport. The emergence rate was significantly higher for pupae from batch 2 (chilled at 4°C for one day in the source insectary before transport) than those from batch 1 (chilled at 4°C for two days in the source insectary before transport) i.e. an average (±sd) of 76.1 ± 13.2% and 72.2 ± 14.3%, respectively with a small proportion emerging during transport (0.7 ± 1.7% and 0.9 ± 2.9%, respectively). Among the emerged flies, the percentage with deformed (not fully expanded) wings was significantly higher for flies from batch 1 (12.0 ± 6.3%) than from batch 2 (10.7 ± 7.5%). The amount of sterile males available for release as a proportion of the total pupae shipped was 65.8 ± 13.3% and 61.7 ± 14.7% for batch 1 and 2 pupae, respectively.

Conclusions: The results also showed that the temperature inside the parcel must be controlled around 10°C with a maximal deviation of 3°C to maximize the male yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0869-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4436170PMC
May 2015

First insights into the cattle serological response to tsetse salivary antigens: a promising direct biomarker of exposure to tsetse bites.

Vet Parasitol 2013 Oct 30;197(1-2):332-40. Epub 2013 May 30.

Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide, 01 BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

In the context of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign, the value of tsetse saliva antibodies as a biomarker of cattle exposure to tsetse flies was evaluated, as this could provide an alternative and complementary tool to conventional entomological methods. Serum immune reactivity to Glossina (G.) palpalis (p.) gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. morsitans (m.) submorsitans whole saliva extracts (WSE) were monitored in cattle from both tsetse free and tsetse infested areas, and in cows experimentally exposed to tsetse flies and other hematophagous arthropods. In the tsetse infested area, cattle IgG responses to Glossina WSE were significantly higher during the dry season (p<0.0001) when herds are most exposed to tsetse flies and in infected animals (p=0.01) as expected in the case of a biomarker of exposure. Experimental studies further confirmed this as a quick rise of specific IgGs was observed in animals exposed to tsetse flies (within weeks), followed by a rapid clearance after exposure was stopped. In contrast to the two other tsetse species, G. m. submorsitans WSE enabled to detect exposure to all tsetse species and were associated with low level of cross-reactivity to other blood sucking arthropods. Finally, IgG responses to G. m. submorsitans salivary antigens enabled to distinguish different groups of cows according to exposure levels, thus indicating that tsetse saliva antibodies are not only indicators of tsetse exposure but also are correlated to the intensity of tsetse contacts (p=0.0031). Implementation of this new sero-epidemiological marker of cattle exposure to tsetse flies in the framework of tsetse elimination campaigns is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.05.018DOI Listing
October 2013

Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy: prospective study in children in sikasso (mali).

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2012 Oct;17(4):382-8

Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Odonto-stomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali, ; HIV/TB Research and Training Center, Bamako, Mali.

Objectives: Adverse events during antiretroviral treatment are frequent and various. Their diagnosis incurs some various difficulties according to the geographic context. Our aim was to describe the frequency, nature, and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to antiretroviral treatment in Malian outpatient children.

Methods: The study was a 6-month (June 1 to November 30, 2010) prospective, observational study of 92 children admitted to a pediatric hospital in Sikasso, Mali. The patients were treated with a generic drug and/or drug combinations. Prior to treatment initiation, demographic characteristics, clinical history, and biologic parameters, including CD4 cell counts, were collected for each patient. The World Health Organization's adverse drug reactions classification was used to characterize the side effects. Adverse effects and toxicities were graded 1, 2, and 3. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS Version 17.0 software.

Results: Ninety-two human immunodeficiency virus-infected children met the criteria of inclusion. After 24 weeks of treatment, we observed that 14.1% of children had at least one side effect during our study. Side effects were many and varied, with the most frequent being cutaneous rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (38.5%, 23.1%, 15.4%, and 15.4%, respectively). Side effects were grade 1 in most cases. One case of grade 2 and one case of grade 3 were observed with rash. We observed one case of grade 3 side effects during our study. The treatment regimen was changed in 15.2% of cases, including one case because of side effects.

Conclusion: ADRs are not rare in Mali, particularly in children. These ADRs have an impact on quality of life for patients. We recommend a pharmacovigilance system for sustainable management of side effects in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Mali.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-17.4.382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3567891PMC
October 2012

Is trypanocidal drug resistance a threat for livestock health and production in endemic areas? Food for thoughts from Sahelian goats infected by Trypanosoma vivax in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso).

Vet Parasitol 2012 Dec 20;190(3-4):349-54. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), 01BP454 Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

Trypanocidal drug resistance is unanimously recognized as a threat for livestock production in regions where the prevalence of trypanosomosis is high. To assess the impact of the disease and the effect of drug resistance on the health of small ruminants, twelve Trypanosoma vivax isolates collected in 6 villages in the vicinity of Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) were injected into 12 groups of 5 Sahelian goats, two being treated with 3.5mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate (DA), two with 0.5mg/kg body weight isometamidium chloride (ISM) and one left untreated as control. A monitoring was performed every 5 days for 100 days to evaluate the parasitaemia by buffy coat examination, the hematocrit and the body weight. Among the 12 groups, 6 were additionally monitored using a trypanosome specific 18S-PCR-RFLP every 5 days from day 30 to day 100 to verify the complete clearance of the parasites from the blood of the hosts. In six groups of goats, trypanosomes disappeared completely after treatment, five groups showed relapses in at least one goat treated with ISM and one group showed relapses in one goat treated with DA and one with ISM. For the 6 groups that were screened both using microscopic examination and trypanosome specific 18S-PCR-RFLP, the following results were observed: for the groups treated with DA, no relapses by microscopic examination and 83.3% (10/12) using the 18S-PCR-RFLP. For the groups treated with ISM, 25% (3/12) relapses by microscopic examination and 83.3% with the 18S-PCR-RFLP (10/12). The evolution of the PCV and the weight during the observation period from relapsing (either by microscopical examination or by 18S-PCR-RFLP diagnosis) and non relapsing animals were compared. The relative average PCV in goats that relapsed microscopically, decreased significantly more than in non-relapsing goats. This difference was not significant when relapses were detected using the trypanosome specific 18S-PCR-RFLP. This indicates that only the animals with the highest parasitaemia suffered from the infection. Relapses after treatment where the host controls the parasitaemia to a level below the sensitivity of the microscopical examination do not affect body weight nor PCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.07.015DOI Listing
December 2012

Irradiated male tsetse from a 40-year-old colony are still competitive in a Riparian forest in Burkina Faso.

PLoS One 2012 10;7(5):e37124. Epub 2012 May 10.

Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en Zone Subhumide, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES). It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony.

Methodology/principal Findings: During the period January-February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38), the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026) and after (p = 0.019) the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index) was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02), indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983-1985 for the same colony.

Conclusions/significance: We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037124PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349643PMC
September 2012

Updating the northern tsetse limit in Burkina Faso (1949-2009): impact of global change.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010 04 15;7(4):1708-19. Epub 2010 Apr 15.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD, Centre International de Recherche Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), 01 BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7041708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872350PMC
April 2010

Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

Infect Genet Evol 2010 Mar 7;10(2):321-8. Epub 2010 Jan 7.

Cirad, UMR Contrôle des maladies animales exotiques et émergentes, Campus International de Baillarguet, F34398 Montpellier, France.

African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2009.12.009DOI Listing
March 2010

Prevalence and incidence of bovine trypanosomosis in an agro-pastoral area of southwestern Burkina Faso.

Res Vet Sci 2010 Jun 30;88(3):470-7. Epub 2009 Dec 30.

IRD, UMR Trypanosomes, TA A-17/A Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of trypanosomosis and to investigate some factors influencing them in an agro-pastoral area of southwestern Burkina Faso. A total of 363 crossbred cattle (Baoule-zebu peul), which were bred under natural trypanosomosis challenge, were monitored monthly for parasitaemia, packed cell volume (PCV) and serological analyses over 2years. The parasitological prevalence estimated at the beginning of the survey using the buffy coat technique (BCT) was 7.54%. As much as 66.7% of all trypanosome infections were due to Trypanosoma vivax, 23.8% due to Trypanosoma congolense and 9.5% due to T. vivax/T. congolense mixed infections. The monthly serological incidence varied from 0.29% to 19.29%. The season was the most important factor influencing the serological prevalence and incidence and the animal PCV. The dry hot season is associated with increasing seroprevalences and incidences and consequently a decreasing average of PCV. In addition, an important spatial heterogeneity was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2009.10.010DOI Listing
June 2010

Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso.

J Med Entomol 2007 Sep;44(5):788-95

CIRAD-EMVT/CIRDES, 01 BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

The impact of landscape fragmentation due to human and climatic mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was investigated in the Mouhoun river basin, Burkina Faso. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci, and metric properties based on 11 wing landmarks, were compared between four populations. The populations originated from the Mouhoun river and one of its tributaries. The average distance between samples was 72 km with the two most widely spaced populations being 216 km apart. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river enlarging from downstream to upstream and oriented south to north. Microsatellite DNA comparison demonstrated structuring between the populations, but not complete isolation, with an overall Fst = 0.012 (P < 0.001). Wing geometry revealed significant centroid size and shape differences between populations, especially between the two most distant populations. There was no significant correlation between gene flow and geographic distance at this scale, but there was a positive correlation in females between metric distances (wing shape differences) and geographic distances that might be attributed to the cline of environmental conditions. The impact of the fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[788:psogpg]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
September 2007

Trypanocidal failure suggested by PCR results in cattle field samples.

Acta Trop 2004 Sep;92(1):7-16

Institute for Parasitology and International Animal Health, Freie Universität Berlin, Koenigsweg 67, D-14163 Berlin, Germany.

The aim of this study was to assess, whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows sensitive screening of treatment failure suspicions in areas, where drug resistance against African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) appears to be a problem. PCR was used to detect trypanosome infections prior to, 14 and 28 days after controlled treatment of 738 cattle from 10 villages in Kénédougou, Burkina Faso with isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate. Using three sets of primers, PCR was three-four times more sensitive and better at species identification, than standard microscopic examination. The better sensitivity and species specificity of PCR have important advantages for drug resistance studies in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2004.04.003DOI Listing
September 2004

Selection assisted by a BoLA-DR/DQ haplotype against susceptibility to bovine dermatophilosis.

Genet Sel Evol 2003 ;35 Suppl 1:S193-200

Cirad - Département d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, Animal Health Program, Montpellier, France.

Bovine dermatophilosis is a severe skin infection of tropical ruminants inducing a severe loss in productivity and a 15% mortality rate. This disease is caused by the actinomycete bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis associated with the tick Amblyomma variegatum. Currently there are no prospects for a vaccine, and acaricide or antibiotic control is hampered by the development of chemoresistance. Animal breeders have observed that dermatophilosis susceptibility seems to be determined genetically, and we previously identified a BoLA-DRB3-DQB class II haplotype marker for high (R2= 0.96) susceptibility to the disease. With this marker, we developed a successful eugenic selection procedure for zebu Brahman cattle in Martinique (FWI). Over a period of five years, a marked reduction in disease prevalence, from 0.76 to 0.02 was achieved, and this low level has been maintained over the last two years. The selection procedure, based on a genetic marker system targeting the highly polymorphic BoLA locus, eliminates only those individuals which are at the highest risk of contracting the disease. In the present work, we discuss the properties of this system, including the "heterozygote advantage" and the "frequency dependence" theories, and examine their involvement in the biological mechanisms at the host/pathogen interface. We speculate on the exact role of the MHC molecules in the control of the disease, how the natural selection pressure imposed by the pathogens selectively maintains MHC diversity, and how our results can be practically applied for integrated control of dermatophilosis in developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-35-S1-S193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231761PMC
October 2003