Publications by authors named "Ismail Cakmak"

45 Publications

Feeding Zinc-Biofortified Wheat Improves Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Concentrations of Blood and Tissue Minerals in Quails.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 23119, Turkey.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding zinc (Zn)-biofortified wheat on performance, digestibility, and concentrations of minerals in quails. Zinc biofortification of wheat has been realized in the field by ergonomically applying Zn to foliar two and three times, which increased grain Zn from 18 mg/kg (control) to 34 and 64 mg/kg. A total of 180 quails were divided into six groups, each containing 30 birds, and fed diets containing wheat grain with either 18, 34, or 64 mg/kg with or without zinc picolinate (ZnPic) supplementation. Bodyweight, feed intake, feed efficiency, and cold carcass weights were greater (P = 0.0001) when the quails were fed a diet containing the biofortified wheat-containing 64 mg Zn/kg. Nitrogen, ash, Ca, P, Zn, Cu, and Fe retentions were greater with the Zn-biofortified wheat-containing 64 mg Zn/kg (P ≤ 0.026). The nutrient excretions were low with feeding a diet containing biofortified wheat-containing 64 mg Zn/kg (P ≤ 0.023). Serum, liver, and heart Zn concentrations increased with feeding biofortified wheat-containing 64 mg Zn/kg (P ≤ 0.002). Thigh meat Fe concentrations increased with increasing Zn concentrations of the wheat samples used (P = 0.0001), whereas the liver Cu concentrations decreased with feeding the wheat-containing 64 mg Zn/kg (P = 0.004). The Zn-biofortified wheat-containing greater Zn concentrations, particularly 64 mg Zn/kg, is a good replacement for corn in the poultry diet as long as its availability and low cost for better performance, greater digestibility, and elevated tissue Zn and Fe concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02955-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505784PMC
October 2021

Biofortification of Silage Maize with Zinc, Iron and Selenium as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Science, 1432 Ås, Norway.

Agronomic biofortification is one of the main strategies for alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations and promoting sustainable production of food and feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N)fertilization on biofortification of maize crop ( L.) with zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) grown on a micronutrient deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Factorial design experiment was set under greenhouse conditions. The experiment consisted of two levels of each N, Zn, Fe and Se. The levels for N were 125 and 250 mg N kg soil; Zn were 1 and 5 mg Zn kg soil; levels of Fe were 0 and 10 mg Fe kg soil; levels of Se were 0 and 0.02 mg Se kg soil. An additional experiment was also conducted to study the effect of the Zn form applied as a ZnO or ZnSO on shoot growth, shoot Zn concentration and total shoot Zn uptake per plant. Shoot Zn concentrations increased by increasing soil Zn application both with ZnSO and ZnO treatments, but the shoot Zn concentration and total Zn uptake were much greater with ZnSO than the ZnO application. Under given experimental conditions, increasing soil N supply improved shoot N concentration; but had little effect on shoot dry matter production. The concentrations of Zn and Fe in shoots were significantly increased by increasing N application. In case of total uptake of Zn and Fe, the positive effect of N nutrition was more pronounced. Although Se soil treatment had significant effect, N application showed no effect on Se concentration and accumulation in maize shoots. The obtained results show that N fertilization is an effective tool in improving the Zn and Fe status of silage maize and contribute to the better-quality feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922128PMC
February 2021

Feed Composition Differences Resulting from Organic and Conventional Farming Practices Affect Physiological Parameters in Wistar Rats-Results from a Factorial, Two-Generation Dietary Intervention Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 26;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, Food and Rural Development, School of Agriculture, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU, UK.

Recent human cohort studies reported positive associations between organic food consumption and a lower incidence of obesity, cancer, and several other diseases. However, there are very few animal and human dietary intervention studies that provide supporting evidence or a mechanistic understanding of these associations. Here we report results from a two-generation, dietary intervention study with male Wistar rats to identify the effects of feeds made from organic and conventional crops on growth, hormonal, and immune system parameters that are known to affect the risk of a number of chronic, non-communicable diseases in animals and humans. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to separate the effects of contrasting crop protection methods (use or non-use of synthetic chemical pesticides) and fertilizers (mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers vs. manure use) applied in conventional and organic crop production. Conventional, pesticide-based crop protection resulted in significantly lower fiber, polyphenol, flavonoid, and lutein, but higher lipid, aldicarb, and diquat concentrations in animal feeds. Conventional, mineral NPK-based fertilization resulted in significantly lower polyphenol, but higher cadmium and protein concentrations in feeds. Feed composition differences resulting from the use of pesticides and/or mineral NPK-fertilizer had a significant effect on feed intake, weight gain, plasma hormone, and immunoglobulin concentrations, and lymphocyte proliferation in both generations of rats and in the second generation also on the body weight at weaning. Results suggest that relatively small changes in dietary intakes of (a) protein, lipids, and fiber, (b) toxic and/or endocrine-disrupting pesticides and metals, and (c) polyphenols and other antioxidants (resulting from pesticide and/or mineral NPK-fertilizer use) had complex and often interactive effects on endocrine, immune systems and growth parameters in rats. However, the physiological responses to contrasting feed composition/intake profiles differed substantially between the first and second generations of rats. This may indicate epigenetic programming and/or the generation of "adaptive" phenotypes and should be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911726PMC
January 2021

Simultaneous Biofortification of Rice With Zinc, Iodine, Iron and Selenium Through Foliar Treatment of a Micronutrient Cocktail in Five Countries.

Front Plant Sci 2020 13;11:589835. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Widespread malnutrition of zinc (Zn), iodine (I), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se), known as hidden hunger, represents a predominant cause of several health complications in human populations where rice ( L.) is the major staple food. Therefore, increasing concentrations of these micronutrients in rice grain represents a sustainable solution to hidden hunger. This study aimed at enhancing concentration of Zn, I, Fe and Se in rice grains by agronomic biofortification. We evaluated effects of foliar application of Zn, I, Fe and Se on grain yield and grain concentration of these micronutrients in rice grown at 21 field sites during 2015 to 2017 in Brazil, China, India, Pakistan and Thailand. Experimental treatments were: (i) local control (LC); (ii) foliar Zn; (iii) foliar I; and (iv) foliar micronutrient cocktail (i.e., Zn + I + Fe + Se). Foliar-applied Zn, I, Fe or Se did not affect rice grain yield. However, brown rice Zn increased with foliar Zn and micronutrient cocktail treatments at all except three field sites. On average, brown rice Zn increased from 21.4 mg kg to 28.1 mg kg with the application of Zn alone and to 26.8 mg kg with the micronutrient cocktail solution. Brown rice I showed particular enhancements and increased from 11 μg kg to 204 μg kg with the application of I alone and to 181 μg kg with the cocktail. Grain Se also responded very positively to foliar spray of micronutrients and increased from 95 to 380 μg kg. By contrast, grain Fe was increased by the same cocktail spray at only two sites. There was no relationship between soil extractable concentrations of these micronutrients with their grain concentrations. The results demonstrate that irrespective of the rice cultivars used and the diverse soil conditions existing in five major rice-producing countries, the foliar application of the micronutrient cocktail solution was highly effective in increasing grain Zn, I and Se. Adoption of this agronomic practice in the target countries would contribute significantly to the daily micronutrient intake and alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition in human populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.589835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691665PMC
November 2020

Magnesium Deficiency Reduced the Yield and Seed Germination in Wax Gourd by Affecting the Carbohydrate Translocation.

Front Plant Sci 2020 11;11:797. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory for New Technology Research of Vegetable, Vegetable Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Magnesium (Mg) is a particular mineral nutrient greatly affecting the size and activity of sink organs. Wax gourd crop with its fruits having fresh weight up to 20-50 kg per single fruit serves as an excellent experimental plant species for better understanding the role of varied Mg nutrition in sink strength and yield formation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Mg deficiency on fruit yield and seed vigor in wax gourd grown under field conditions. Plants were grown under field conditions until maturity with increasing soil Mg applications. At the beginning of fruit formation, leaves were used to analyze concentrations of sucrose, starch and Mg as well as phloem export of sucrose. At maturity, fruit yield was determined and the seeds collected were used in germination studies and starch analysis. Low Mg supply resulted in a significant impairment in fruit fresh yield, which was closely associated with higher accumulation of starch and sucrose in source leaves and lower amount of sucrose in phloem exudate. Seeds obtained from Mg deficiency plants exhibited lower amount of starch and substantial reduction in both germination capacity and seedling establishment when compared to the seeds from the Mg adequate plants. Our study revealed that magnesium deficiency significantly diminished fruit yield of field-grown wax gourd, most probably by limiting the carbohydrate transport from source organs to developing fruit. Ensuring sufficient Mg supply to plant species with high sink size such as wax gourd, during the reproductive growth stage, is a critical factor for achieving higher fruit yield formation and also better vigor of next-generation seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300272PMC
June 2020

Fate and Bioaccessibility of Iodine in Food Prepared from Agronomically Biofortified Wheat and Rice and Impact of Cofertilization with Zinc and Selenium.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 29;68(6):1525-1535. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering , Ghent University , B-9000 Gent , Belgium.

Enrichment of food crops with iodine is an option to alleviate dietary deficiencies. Therefore, foliar iodine fertilizer was applied on wheat and rice, in the presence and absence of the other micronutrients zinc and selenium. This treatment increased the concentration of iodine, as well as zinc and selenium, in the staple grains. Subsequently, potential iodine losses during preparation of foodstuffs with the enriched grains were studied. Oven-heating did not affect the iodine content in bread. Extraction of bran from flour lowered the iodine in white bread compared to wholegrain bread, but it was still markedly higher compared to the control. During subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a higher percentage of iodine was released from foods based on extracted flour (82-92%) compared to wholegrain foods (50-76%). The foliar fertilization of wheat was found to be adequate to alleviate iodine deficiency in a population with a moderate to high intake of bread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b05912DOI Listing
February 2020

Variation in phosphorus and sulfur content shapes the genetic architecture and phenotypic associations within the wheat grain ionome.

Plant J 2020 02 10;101(3):555-572. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa, 3498838, Israel.

Dissection of the genetic basis of wheat ionome is crucial for understanding the physiological and biochemical processes underlying mineral accumulation in seeds, as well as for efficient crop breeding. Most of the elements essential for plants are metals stored in seeds as chelate complexes with phytic acid or sulfur-containing compounds. We assume that the involvement of phosphorus and sulfur in metal chelation is the reason for strong phenotypic correlations within ionome. Adjustment of element concentrations for the effect of variation in phosphorus and sulfur seed content resulted in drastic change of phenotypic correlations between the elements. The genetic architecture of wheat grain ionome was characterized by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a cross between durum and wild emmer wheat. QTL analysis of the adjusted traits and two-trait analysis of the initial traits paired with either P or S considerably improved QTL detection power and accuracy, resulting in the identification of 105 QTLs and 617 QTL effects for 11 elements. Candidate gene search revealed some potential functional associations between QTLs and corresponding genes within their intervals. Thus, we have shown that accounting for variation in P and S is crucial for understanding of the physiological and genetic regulation of mineral composition of wheat grain ionome and can be implemented for other plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14554DOI Listing
February 2020

Simultaneous Biofortification of Wheat with Zinc, Iodine, Selenium, and Iron through Foliar Treatment of a Micronutrient Cocktail in Six Countries.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Jul 15;67(29):8096-8106. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences , Sabanci University , 34956 Istanbul , Turkey.

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg to 46.0 mg kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 μg kg to 361 μg kg and 249 μg kg, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 μg kg to 338 μg kg in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01829DOI Listing
July 2019

Zinc Absorption From Agronomically Biofortified Wheat Is Similar to Post-Harvest Fortified Wheat and Is a Substantial Source of Bioavailable Zinc in Humans.

J Nutr 2019 05;149(5):840-846

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Limited data exist on human zinc absorption from wheat biofortified via foliar (FBW) or root (hydroponically fortified wheat, HBW) zinc application. Stable isotope labels added at point of consumption (extrinsic labeling) might not reflect absorption from native zinc obtained by intrinsic labeling.

Objectives: We measured fractional and total zinc absorption (FAZ, TAZ) in FBW and HBW wheat, compared with control wheat (CW) and fortified wheat (FW). The effect of labeling method was assessed in HBW (study 1), and the effect of milling extraction rate (EXR, 80% and 100%) in FBW (studies 2 and 3).

Methods: Generally healthy adults (n = 71, age: 18-45 y, body mass index: 18.5-25 kg/m2) were allocated to 1 of the studies, in which they served as their own controls. In study 1, men and women consumed wheat porridges colabeled intrinsically and extrinsically with 67Zn and 70Zn. In studies 2 and 3, women consumed wheat flatbreads (chapatis) labeled extrinsically. Zinc absorption was measured with the oral to intravenous tracer ratio method with a 4-wk wash-out period between meals. Data were analyzed with linear mixed models.

Results: In study 1 there were no differences in zinc absorption from extrinsic versus intrinsic labels in either FW or HBW. Similarly, FAZ and TAZ from FW and HBW did not differ. TAZ was 70-76% higher in FW and HBW compared with CW (P < 0.01). In studies 2 and 3, TAZ from FW and FBW did not differ but was 20-48% higher compared with CW (P < 0.001). Extraction rate had no effect on TAZ.

Conclusions: Colabeling demonstrates that extrinsic zinc isotopic labels can be used to accurately quantify zinc absorption from wheat in humans. Biofortification through foliar zinc application, root zinc application, or fortification provides higher TAZ compared with unfortified wheat. In biofortified wheat, extraction rate (100-80%) has a limited impact on total zinc absorption. These studies were registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01775319).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy328DOI Listing
May 2019

Effect of zinc-biofortified seeds on grain yield of wheat, rice, and common bean grown in six countries.

J Plant Nutr Soil Sci (1999) 2019 29;182:791-804. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey.

Seeds enriched with zinc (Zn) are ususally associated with better germination, more vigorous seedlings and higher yields. However, agronomic benefits of high-Zn seeds were not studied under diverse agro-climatic field conditions. This study investigated effects of low-Zn and high- Zn seeds (biofortified by foliar Zn fertilization of maternal plants under field conditions) of wheat ( L.), rice ( L.), and common bean ( L.) on seedling density, grain yield and grain Zn concentration in 31 field locations over two years in six countries. Experimental treatments were: (1) low-Zn seeds and no soil Zn fertilization (control treatment), (2) low-Zn seeds + soil Zn fertilization, and (3) Zn-biofortified seeds and no soil Zn fertilization. The wheat experiments were established in China, India, Pakistan, and Zambia, the rice experiments in China, India and Thailand, and the common bean experiment in Brazil. When compared to the control treatment, soil Zn fertilization increased wheat grain yield in all six locations in India, two locations in Pakistan and one location in China. Zinc-biofortified seeds also increased wheat grain yield in all four locations in Pakistan and four locations in India compared to the control treatment. Across all countries over 2 years, Zn-biofortified wheat seeds increased plant population by 26.8% and grain yield by 5.37%. In rice, soil Zn fertilization increased paddy yield in all four locations in India and one location in Thailand. Across all countries, paddy yield increase was 8.2% by soil Zn fertilization and 5.3% by Zn-biofortified seeds when compared to the control treatment. In common bean, soil Zn application as well as Znbiofortified seed increased grain yield in one location in Brazil. Effects of soil Zn fertilization and high-Zn seed on grain Zn density were generally low. This study, at 31 field locations in six countries over two years, revealed that the seeds biofortfied with Zn enhanced crop productivity at many locations with different soil and environmental conditions. As high-Zn grains are a by-product of Zn biofortification, use of Zn-enriched grains as seed in the next cropping season can contribute to enhance crop productivity in a cost-effective manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201800577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473082PMC
August 2019

Differential effects of varied potassium and magnesium nutrition on production and partitioning of photoassimilates in potato plants.

Physiol Plant 2019 08 9;166(4):921-935. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department for Crop Sciences, Division Quality of Plant Products, University of Göttingen, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12846DOI Listing
August 2019

Effects of Agronomic Management and Climate on Leaf Phenolic Profiles, Disease Severity, and Grain Yield in Organic and Conventional Wheat Production Systems.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 28;66(40):10369-10379. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences , Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne , Tyne and Wear , NE1 7RU , U.K.

Agricultural intensification over the last 40 years has increased cereal yields, but there is very limited information on the effects of intensification practices (e.g., nondiverse rotations, mineral NPK fertilizer, and pesticides) on crop health and quality. Results from the study reported here suggest that the use of mineral NPK fertilizers reduces phenolic acid and flavonoid concentrations in leaves and increases the susceptibility of wheat to lodging and powdery mildew, when compared to composted FYM inputs. In contrast, the use of herbicides, fungicides, and growth regulators reduces lodging and foliar disease severity but had no effect on phenolic acid and flavonoid concentrations. The use of composted FYM inputs also resulted in a significant grain yield reduction and not substantially reduced the severity of opportunistic pathogens such as Septoria, which remain a major yield limiting factor unless fungicides are used and/or more Septoria resistant varieties become available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02626DOI Listing
October 2018

Quantitative trait loci associated with soybean seed weight and composition under different phosphorus levels.

J Integr Plant Biol 2018 Mar 5;60(3):232-241. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Horticultural Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Seed size and composition are important traits in food crops and can be affected by nutrient availability in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable, essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits soybean (Glycine max) yield and quality. To investigate the associations of seed traits in low- and high-P environments, soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of cultivars Fiskeby III and Mandarin (Ottawa) were grown under contrasting P availability environments. Traits including individual seed weight, seed number, and intact mature pod weight were significantly affected by soil P levels and showed transgressive segregation among the RILs. Surprisingly, P treatments did not affect seed composition or weight, suggesting that soybean maintains sufficient P in seeds even in low-P soil. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for seed weight, intact pods, seed volume, and seed protein, with five significant QTLs identified in low-P environments and one significant QTL found in the optimal-P environment. Broad-sense heritability estimates were 0.78 (individual seed weight), 0.90 (seed protein), 0.34 (seed oil), and 0.98 (seed number). The QTLs identified under low P point to genetic regions that may be useful to improve soybean performance under limiting P conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.12612DOI Listing
March 2018

Harvesting more grain zinc of wheat for human health.

Sci Rep 2017 08 1;7(1):7016. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Increasing grain zinc (Zn) concentration of cereals for minimizing Zn malnutrition in two billion people represents an important global humanitarian challenge. Grain Zn in field-grown wheat at the global scale ranges from 20.4 to 30.5 mg kg, showing a solid gap to the biofortification target for human health (40 mg kg). Through a group of field experiments, we found that the low grain Zn was not closely linked to historical replacements of varieties during the Green Revolution, but greatly aggravated by phosphorus (P) overuse or insufficient nitrogen (N) application. We also conducted a total of 320-pair plots field experiments and found an average increase of 10.5 mg kg by foliar Zn application. We conclude that an integrated strategy, including not only Zn-responsive genotypes, but of a similar importance, Zn application and field N and P management, are required to harvest more grain Zn and meanwhile ensure better yield in wheat-dominant areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07484-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539200PMC
August 2017

Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

New Phytol 2016 09 9;211(4):1255-65. Epub 2016 May 9.

Plant and Soil Science Section, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, Frederiksberg C, DK-1871, Denmark.

Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13989DOI Listing
September 2016

Planting seeds for the future of food.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 Mar 5;96(5):1409-14. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Department of Nutrition, Health and Wellness and Sustainability, Nestec SA, Vevey, CH1800, Switzerland.

The health and wellbeing of future generations will depend on humankind's ability to deliver sufficient nutritious food to a world population in excess of 9 billion. Feeding this many people by 2050 will require science-based solutions that address sustainable agricultural productivity and enable healthful dietary patterns in a more globally equitable way. This topic was the focus of a multi-disciplinary international conference hosted by Nestlé in June 2015, and provides the inspiration for the present article. The conference brought together a diverse range of expertise and organisations from the developing and industrialised world, all with a common interest in safeguarding the future of food. This article provides a snapshot of three of the recurring topics that were discussed during this conference: soil health, plant science and the future of farming practice. Crop plants and their cultivation are the fundamental building blocks for a food secure world. Whether these are grown for food or feed for livestock, they are the foundation of food and nutrient security. Many of the challenges for the future of food will be faced where the crops are grown: on the farm. Farmers need to plant the right crops and create the right conditions to maximise productivity (yield) and quality (e.g. nutritional content), whilst maintaining the environment, and earning a living. New advances in science and technology can provide the tools and know-how that will, together with a more entrepreneurial approach, help farmers to meet the inexorable demand for the sustainable production of nutritious foods for future generations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064658PMC
March 2016

Plant mineral nutrition for nutrient and food security.

Physiol Plant 2014 Jul;151(3):199

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, CDK-1871, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12215DOI Listing
July 2014

Inclusion of urea in a 59FeEDTA solution stimulated leaf penetration and translocation of 59Fe within wheat plants.

Physiol Plant 2014 Jul 6;151(3):348-57. Epub 2014 May 6.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul, 34956, Turkey.

The role of urea in the translocation of (59) Fe from (59) FeEDTA-treated leaves was studied in durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown for 2 weeks in nutrient solution and until grain maturation in soil culture. Five-cm long tips of the first leaf of young wheat seedlings or flag leaves at the early milk stage were immersed twice daily for 10 s in (59) FeEDTA solutions containing increasing amounts of urea (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% w/v) over 5 days. In the experiment with young wheat seedlings, urea inclusion in the (59) FeEDTA solution increased significantly translocation of (59) Fe from the treated leaf into roots and the untreated part of shoots. When (59) Fe-treated leaves were induced into senescence by keeping them in the dark, there was a strong (59) Fe translocation from these leaves. Adding urea to the (59) Fe solution did not result in an additional increase in Fe translocation from the dark-induced senescent leaves. In the experiment conducted in the greenhouse in soil culture until grain maturation, translocation of (59) Fe from the flag leaves into grains was also strongly promoted by urea, whereas (59) Fe translocation from flag leaves into the untreated shoot was low and not affected by urea. In conclusion, urea contributes to transportation of the leaf-absorbed Fe into sink organs. Probably, nitrogen compounds formed after assimilation of foliar-applied urea (such as amino acids) contributed to Fe chelation and translocation to grains in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12198DOI Listing
July 2014

Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Sep 20;61(35):8364-72. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University , 34956 Istanbul, Turkey.

Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf402194vDOI Listing
September 2013

Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Feb 28;61(5):1017-29. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Department of Functional & Organic Food & Commodities, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf303978nDOI Listing
February 2013

Phytosiderophore release by wheat genotypes differing in zinc deficiency tolerance grown with Zn-free nutrient solution as affected by salinity.

J Plant Physiol 2013 Jan 2;170(1):41-6. Epub 2012 Nov 2.

Soilless Culture Research Centre, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.

There is limited information concerning the effect of salinity on phytosiderophores exudation from wheat roots. The aim of this hydroponic experiment was to investigate the effect of salinity on phytosiderophore release by roots of three bread wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Rushan, Kavir, and Cross) under Zn deficiency conditions. Wheat seedlings were transferred to Zn-free nutrient solutions and exposed to three salinity levels (0, 60, and 120 mM NaCl). The results indicated that Cross and Rushan genotypes exuded more phytosiderophore than did the Kavir genotype. Our findings suggest that the adaptive capacity of Zn-efficient 'Cross' and 'Rushan' wheat genotypes to Zn deficiency is due partly to the higher amounts of phytosiderophore release. Only 15 days of Zn deficiency stress was sufficient to distinguish between Zn-efficient (Rushan and Cross) and Zn-inefficient (Kavir) genotypes, with the former genotypes exuding more phytosiderophore than the latter. Higher phytosiderophore exudation under Zn deficiency conditions was accompanied by greater Fe transport from root to shoot. The maximum amount of phytosiderophore was exuded at the third week in 'Cross' and at the fourth week in 'Kavir' and 'Rushan'. For all three wheat genotypes, salinity stress resulted in higher amounts of phytosiderophore exuded by the roots. In general, for 'Kavir', the largest amount of phytosiderophore was exuded from the roots at the highest salinity level (120mM NaCl), while for 'Cross' and 'Rushan', no significant difference was found in phytosiderophore exudation between the 60 and 120 mM NaCl treatments. More investigation is needed to fully understand the physiology of elevated phytosiderophore release by Zn-deficient wheat plants under salinity conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2012.08.016DOI Listing
January 2013

Bioavailability of trace elements in beans and zinc-biofortified wheat in pigs.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2012 Dec 26;150(1-3):147-53. Epub 2012 May 26.

Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Foulum, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830, Tjele, Denmark.

The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34-63 %, copper 18-42 %, and iron 3-11 %. The zinc apparent digestibility in pigs was similar in the three wheat groups (11-14 %), but was significantly higher in the CtrlW+Faba group (23 %) and negative in the CtrlW+Com group (-30 %). The apparent digestibility of copper was higher in the HZnW (27 %) and CtrlW+Faba (33 %) groups than in the CtrlW (17 %) and LZnW (18 %) groups. The apparent copper digestibility of the CtrlW+Com diet was negative (-7 %). The solubility and digestibility results did not reflect the concentration in feedstuffs. The in vitro results of water solubility showed no relationship to the results of trace mineral bioavailability in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-012-9453-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510386PMC
December 2012

Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

J Agric Food Chem 2011 May 15;59(9):4715-24. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AFRD), Newcastle University, Stocksfield, Northumberland, UK.

The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf104389mDOI Listing
May 2011

Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Apr 4;59(7):2958-65. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey.

The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf103678cDOI Listing
April 2011

Effect of nitrogen on root release of phytosiderophores and root uptake of Fe(III)-phytosiderophore in Fe-deficient wheat plants.

Physiol Plant 2011 Jul 28;142(3):287-96. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Root release of phytosiderophores (PSs) is an important step in iron (Fe) acquisition of grasses, and this adaptive reaction of plants is affected by various plant and environmental factors. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of varied nitrogen (N) supply on (1) root and leaf concentrations of methionine, a precursor in the PS biosynthesis, (2) PS release from roots, (3) mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-hydroxide [(59) Fe(OH)(3) ] and (4) root uptake of (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) by durum wheat (Triticum durum, cv. Balcali2000) plants grown in a nutrient solution. Enhanced N supply from 0.5 to 6 mM in a nutrient solution significantly increased the root release of PS under Fe deficiency. High N supply was also highly effective in increasing mobilization and root uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-hydroxide under low Fe supply. With adequate Fe, N nutrition did not affect mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe(OH)(3) . Root uptake and shoot translocation of Fe supplied as (59) Fe(III)-DMA were also stimulated by increasing N supply. Leaf concentration of methionine was reduced by low Fe supply, and this decline was pronounced in high N plants. The results show that the root release of PS, mobilization of Fe from (59) Fe(OH)(3) and root uptake and shoot translocation of Fe(III)-PS by durum wheat are markedly affected by N nutritional status of plants. These positive N effects may have important implications for Fe nutrition of human populations and should be considered in biofortification of food crops with Fe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01460.xDOI Listing
July 2011

Metabolite and mineral analyses of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought-related traits.

Physiol Plant 2011 Mar 14;141(3):265-75. Epub 2011 Jan 14.

The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield and drought-related traits were exchanged via marker-assisted selection between elite cultivars of two cotton species, Gossypium barbadense (GB) cv. F-177 and Gossypium hirsutum (GH) cv. Siv'on. Three of the resultant near-isogenic lines (NILs), each introgressed with a different QTL region, expressed an advantage in osmotic adjustment (OA) and other drought-related traits relative to their recipient parents. These NILs and the parental genotypes were field-grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions, and characterized for their metabolic and mineral compositions. Comparisons were then made between (1) GB and GH genotypes, (2) the contrasting water regimes and (3) each NIL and its recipient parent. Hierarchical clustering analysis clearly distinguished between GB and GH genotypes based on either metabolite or mineral composition. Comparisons between well-watered and water-limited conditions in each of the genotypes showed differing trends in the various solutes. The greater concentrations of potassium, magnesium and calcium under water stress, when compared with well-watered conditions, may have enhanced OA or osmoprotection. All NILs exhibited significantly modified solute composition relative to their recipient parents. In particular, increased levels of alanine, aspartic acid, citric acid, malic acid, glycerol, myoinositol, threonic acid, potassium, magnesium and calcium were found under drought conditions in one or more of the NILs relative to their recipient parents. The increased values of these solutes could contribute to the superior capacity of these NILs to cope with drought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2010.01438.xDOI Listing
March 2011

Improved nitrogen nutrition enhances root uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and remobilization of zinc ((65) Zn) in wheat.

New Phytol 2011 Jan 1;189(2):438-48. Epub 2010 Oct 1.

Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

This study focussed on the effect of increasing nitrogen (N) supply on root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of zinc (Zn) as well as retranslocation of foliar-applied Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Nutrient solution experiments were conducted to examine the root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of (65) Zn in seedlings precultured with different N supplies. In additional experiments, the effect of varied N nutrition on retranslocation of foliar-applied (65) Zn was tested at both the vegetative and generative stages. When N supply was increased, the (65) Zn uptake by roots was enhanced by up to threefold and the (65) Zn translocation from roots to shoots increased by up to eightfold, while plant growth was affected to a much smaller degree. Retranslocation of (65) Zn from old into young leaves and from flag leaves to grains also showed marked positive responses to increasing N supply. The results demonstrate that the N-nutritional status of wheat affects major steps in the route of Zn from the growth medium to the grain, including its uptake, xylem transport and remobilization via phloem. Thus, N is a critical player in the uptake and accumulation of Zn in plants, which deserves special attention in biofortification of food crops with Zn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03488.xDOI Listing
January 2011

Genetic diversity for grain nutrients in wild emmer wheat: potential for wheat improvement.

Ann Bot 2010 Jun 3;105(7):1211-20. Epub 2010 Mar 3.

The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Background And Aims: Micronutrient malnutrition, particularly zinc and iron deficiency, afflicts over three billion people worldwide due to low dietary intake. In the current study, wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the progenitor of domesticated wheat, was tested for (1) genetic diversity in grain nutrient concentrations, (2) associations among grain nutrients and their relationships with plant productivity, and (3) the association of grain nutrients with the eco-geographical origin of wild emmer accessions.

Methods: A total of 154 genotypes, including wild emmer accessions from across the Near Eastern Fertile Crescent and diverse wheat cultivars, were characterized in this 2-year field study for grain protein, micronutrient (zinc, iron, copper and manganese) and macronutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur) concentrations.

Key Results: Wide genetic diversity was found among the wild emmer accessions for all grain nutrients. The concentrations of grain zinc, iron and protein in wild accessions were about two-fold greater than in the domesticated genotypes. Concentrations of these compounds were positively correlated with one another, with no clear association with plant productivity, suggesting that all three nutrients can be improved concurrently with no yield penalty. A subset of 12 populations revealed significant genetic variation between and within populations for all minerals. Association between soil characteristics at the site of collection and grain nutrient concentrations showed negative associations between soil clay content and grain protein and between soil-extractable zinc and grain zinc, the latter suggesting that the greatest potential for grain nutrient minerals lies in populations from micronutrient-deficient soils.

Conclusions: Wild emmer wheat germplasm offers unique opportunities to exploit favourable alleles for grain nutrient properties that were excluded from the domesticated wheat gene pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887062PMC
June 2010

Enrichment of fertilizers with zinc: An excellent investment for humanity and crop production in India.

Authors:
Ismail Cakmak

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2009 12;23(4):281-9. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey.

Micronutrient malnutrition is a growing concern in the developing world, resulting in diverse health and social problems, such as mental retardations, impairments of the immune system and overall poor health. In recent years, the zinc (Zn) deficiency problem has received increasing attention and appears to be the most serious micronutrient deficiency together with vitamin A deficiency. Zinc deficiency is particularly widespread among children and represents a major cause of child death in the world. In countries where Zn deficiency is well documented as an important public health problem, cereal-based foods are the predominant source of daily calorie and protein intake. Because the concentration of Zn in cereal crops is inherently very low, growing cereals on potentially Zn-deficient soils further decreases grain Zn concentrations. It is, therefore, not surprising that high Zn deficiency incidence in humans occurs predominantly on areas where soils are deficient in plant-available Zn, as shown in many Southeast Asian countries. India has some of the most Zn-deficient soils in the world. Nearly 50% of cultivated soils in India are low in plant-available Zn; these soils are under intensive cultivation of wheat and rice with no or little application of Zn fertilizers. Consequently, cereal crops grown on such Zn-deficient soils contribute only marginally to daily Zn intake. In the rural areas of India, rice and wheat contributes nearly 75% of the daily calorie intake. These facts clearly point to an urgent need for improved Zn concentration of cereal grains in India. Recent calculations indicate that biofortification (enrichment) of rice and wheat grain with Zn, for example by breeding, may save lives of up to 48,000 children in India annually. Breeding new cereal genotypes for high grain Zn concentration is the most realistic and cost-effective strategy to address the problem. However, this strategy is a long-term one, and the size of plant-available Zn pools in soils may greatly affect the capacity of Zn-efficient (biofortified) cultivars to take up Zn and accumulate it in grains. Therefore, application of Zn-containing fertilizers represents a quick and effective approach to biofortifying cereal grains with Zn, thus being an excellent complementary tool to the breeding strategy for successful biofortification of cereals with Zn. Increasing evidence is available from field trials showing that soil and/or foliar application of Zn fertilizers improves grain Zn concentration up to 2- or 3-fold. In the countries where Zn deficiency is both a public health issue and an important soil constraint to crop production, like in India, enrichment of widely applied fertilizers with Zn would be an excellent investment for improving grain Zn while contributing to increased crop production. Recent work by the scientists of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute indicates that the use of Zn-enriched urea in rice and wheat significantly improves both grain Zn concentration and grain yield. It is obvious that enrichment of widely applied fertilizers with Zn and/or foliar application of Zn fertilizers appear to be a high priority with the strongest potential to alleviate Zn deficiency-related problems in India. A Government action and policy plan for enrichment of selected major fertilizers with Zn is required urgently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009.05.002DOI Listing
October 2009
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