Publications by authors named "Ishrat Jahan"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tendencies and attitudes towards dietary supplements use among undergraduate female students in Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249897. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Background: Dietary supplements (DS) are products that improve the overall health and well-being of individuals and reduce the risk of disease. Evidence indicates a rising prevalence of the use of these products worldwide especially among the age group 18-23 years.

Aim: The study investigates the tendencies and attitudes of Bangladeshi undergraduate female students towards dietary supplements (DS).

Methods: A three-month (March 2018-May 2018) cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in undergraduate female students in Chittagong, Bangladesh using a pre-validated dietary supplement questionnaire. The study was carried among the four private and three public university students of different disciplines in Chittagong to record their prevalent opinions and attitudes toward using DS. The results were documented and analyzed by SPSS version 22.0.

Results: Ninety two percent (N = 925, 92.0%) of the respondents answered the survey questions. The prevalence of DS use was high in undergraduate female students. The respondents cited general health and well-being (n = 102, 11.0%) and physician recommendation (n = 101, 10.9%) as a reason for DS use. Majority of the students (n = 817, 88.3%) used DS cost monthly between USD 0.12 and USD 5.90. Most of the students (n = 749, 81.0%) agreed on the beneficial effect of DS and a significant portion (n = 493, 53.3%) recommended for a regular use of DS. Highly prevalent use of dietary supplements appeared in Chittagonian undergraduate female students. They were tremendously positive in using DS. The results demonstrate an increasing trend of using DS by the undergraduate females for both nutritional improvement and amelioration from diseases.

Conclusion: Dietary supplements prevalence was so much higher in students of private universities as compared to students of public universities. Likewise, maximal prevalence is indicated in pharmacy department compared to other departments. Students preferred brand products, had positive opinions and attitudes towards dietary supplements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249897PLOS
April 2021

Vitamin D3 and B12 supplementation in pregnancy.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Mar 1;174:108728. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Centre of Global Health Research, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1200, Bangladesh; Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceara (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza-Ceara 60020-181, Brazil; Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø 8049, Norway; International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 166 Chaussee de La Hulpe, B - 1170 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Aim: To assess the efficacy of vitamin D3 or B12 supplementation during pregnancy.

Methods: Pregnant women at 6-14 weeks in the intervention arm received oral high dose intermittent vitamin D3 and/or low dose B12 supplementation if they had vitamin D or vitamin B12 deficiency. The control arm received prescribed dietary instruction only. An additional observational arm for those mothers at booking with normal vitamin D and vitamin B12 level was also recruited. All groups received standard care during pregnancy.

Results: The primary endpoint of either vitamin D or B12 at term was not met. At baseline 25% participants in both the interventional and control arms had severe D deficiency (<30 nmol/l), reducing to under 3.4% in both groups. No maternal differences in vitamin D or B12 levels were found at delivery between the intervention, control, or observational groups. No significant difference in any of the pregnancy or birth outcomes was observed between three groups.

Conclusions: In this study, oral supplementation of high dose intermittent vitamin D or low dose vitamin B12 regime failed to correct the relevant nutritional deficiencies in Bangladeshi pregnant women as per protocol. Both dietary supplementation and high dose vitamin D corrected severe vitamin deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108728DOI Listing
March 2021

Natural Compound α-PGG and Its Synthetic Derivative 6Cl-TGQ Alter Insulin Secretion: Evidence for Diminishing Glucose Uptake as a Mechanism.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 24;14:759-772. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California at Davis (UC Davis) School of Medicine, UC Davis Health Science, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Purpose: Previously we showed that natural compound α-penta-galloyl-glucose (α-PGG) and its synthetic derivative 6-chloro-6-deoxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6Cl-TGQ) act to improve insulin signaling in adipocytes by increasing glucose transport. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of actions of α-PGG and 6Cl-TGQ on insulin secretion.

Methods: Mouse islets and/or INS-1832/13 beta-cells were used to test the effects of our compounds on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), intracellular calcium [Ca] using fura-2AM, glucose transport activity via a radioactive glucose uptake assay, intracellular ATP/ADP, and extracellular acidification (ECAR) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCAR) using Seahorse metabolic analysis.

Results: Both compounds reduced GSIS in beta-cells without negatively affecting cell viability. The compounds primarily diminished glucose uptake into islets and beta-cells. Despite insulin-like effects in the peripheral tissues, these compounds do not act through the insulin receptor in islets. Further interrogation of the stimulus-secretion pathway showed that all the key metabolic factors involved in GSIS including ECAR, OCAR, ATP/ADP ratios, and [Ca] of INS-1832/13 cells were diminished after the compound treatment.

Conclusion: The compounds suppress glucose uptake of the beta-cells, which consequently slows down the rates of glycolysis and ATP synthesis, leading to decrease in [Ca] and GSIS. The difference between adipocytes and beta-cells in effects on glucose uptake is of great interest. Further structural and functional modifications could produce new compounds with optimized therapeutic potentials for different target cells. The higher potency of synthetic 6Cl-TGQ in enhancing insulin signaling in adipocytes but lower potency in reducing glucose uptake in beta-cells compared to α-PGG suggests the feasibility of such an approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S284295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917315PMC
February 2021

Antibiotic practices among household members and their domestic animals within rural communities in Cumilla district, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional survey.

BMC Public Health 2021 Feb 25;21(1):406. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to human health, and inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widely considered to be a key driver of antibiotic resistant infections. Antibiotic use in humans and animals is growing rapidly in low- and, particularly, middle-income countries. However, there is little detailed understanding about practices related to the use of antibiotics in humans and animals within community settings in such countries. Here we aimed to understand the antibiotic practices of rural households across Cumilla district, Bangladesh, in relation to household members and their domestic animals.

Methods: In 2018 we conducted a cross-sectional survey using representative cluster sampling methods. We collected self-reported information from 682 female and 620 male household heads, with women also asked about their children's antibiotic practices.

Results: Only 48% (95% CI: 40, 56%) of women and men had heard of antibiotics, and among those women and men who were aware of antibiotics and the children of those women 70% (95% CI: 64, 76%) reported having previously taken antibiotics, while among these individuals who reported previously taking antibiotics 21% (95% CI: 18, 25%) said they had done so most recently within the last month. Risky/inappropriate antibiotic practices in humans and animals were often reported. For example, among women and men who were aware of antibiotics and the children of those women 52% (95% CI: 40, 63%) reported previously taking antibiotics for a "cough/cold", despite antibiotics being typically inappropriate for use against viral upper respiratory tract infections. Among poultry-owning respondents who were aware of antibiotics 11% (95% CI: 8, 15%) reported previously giving healthy poultry antibiotics, mainly for growth/prophylaxis, while among cattle-owning respondents who were aware of antibiotics and reported previously giving their cattle feed 20% (95% CI: 9, 37%) said the feed had contained antibiotics at least sometimes.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the need for context-adapted interventions at both the community level and the health systems level to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use among humans and domestic animals in rural Bangladesh. Successfully reducing inappropriate use of antibiotics among humans and animals is a required and critical step in tackling antimicrobial resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10457-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908663PMC
February 2021

Postnatal maturation of calcium signaling in islets of Langerhans from neonatal mice.

Cell Calcium 2021 03 28;94:102339. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; Diabetes Institute, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Pancreatic islet cells develop mature physiological responses to glucose and other fuels postnatally. In this study, we used fluorescence imaging techniques to measure changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]) to compare islets isolated from mice on postnatal days 0, 4, and 12 with islets from adult CD-1 mice. In addition, we used publicly available RNA-sequencing data to compare expression levels of key genes in β-cell physiology with [Ca] data across these ages. We show that islets isolated from mice on postnatal day 0 displayed elevated [Ca] in basal glucose (≤4 mM) but lower [Ca] responses to stimulation by 12-20 mM glucose compared to adult. Neonatal islets displayed more adult-like [Ca] in basal glucose by day 4 but continued to show lower [Ca] responses to 16 and 20 mM glucose stimulation up to at least day 12. A right shift in glucose sensing (EC) correlated with lower fragment-per-kilobase-of-transcript-per-million-reads-mapped (FPKM) of Slc2a2 (glut2) and Actn3 and increased FPKM for Galk1 and Nupr1. Differences in [Ca] responses to additional stimuli were also observed. Calcium levels in the endoplasmic reticulum were elevated on day 0 but became adult-like by day 4, which corresponded with reduced expression in Atp2a2 (SERCA2) and novel K+-channel Ktd17, increased expression of Pml, Wfs1, Thada, and Herpud1, and basal [Ca] maturing to adult levels. Ion-channel activity also matured rapidly, but RNA sequencing data mining did not yield strong leads. In conclusion, the maturation of islet [Ca] signaling is complex and multifaceted; several possible gene targets were identified that may participate in this process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2020.102339DOI Listing
March 2021

Class 4 emphysematous pyelonephritis with emphysematous cystitis: report of a rare case from Bangladesh.

Trop Doct 2021 Jan 7:49475520983641. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Professor, Department of Nephrology, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM) General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, severe form of necrotising infection of the kidneys and peri-nephric tissues with gas accumulation, occurring predominantly among patients with diabetes mellitus. Computed tomography scan can identify the distribution of gas in the affected reno-ureteral units and so establish and classify the diagnosis. We report a case of class 4 emphysematous pyelonephritis with emphysematous cystitis, occurring in a young Bangladeshi male, who presented with features of upper urinary tract infection. He had a background history of fibro-calculous pancreatic diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Imaging also revealed renal stones. He responded to conservative treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520983641DOI Listing
January 2021

Determinants of household food security and dietary diversity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.

Public Health Nutr 2021 04 15;24(5):1079-1087. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Food Microbiology, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh.

Objectives: The study aimed to determine the associated factors of household food security (HFS) and household dietary diversity (HDD) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.

Design: Both online survey and face-to-face interviews were employed in this cross-sectional study. The Household Food Security Scale and Household Dietary Diversity Score were used to access HFS and HDD, respectively. The HDD scores were derived from a 24-h recall of food intake from 12 groups.

Setting: Bangladesh.

Participants: A total sample of 1876 households were recruited.

Results: The overall mean scores of HFS and HDD were 31·86 (sd 2·52) and 6·22 (sd 5·49), respectively. Being a rural resident, having no formal education, occupation of household head other than government job and low monthly income were potential determinants of lower HFS and HDD. Approximately 45 % and 61 % of Bangladeshi households did not get the same quantity and same type of food, respectively, as they got before the pandemic. Over 10 % of respondents reported that they lost their job or had to close their businesses, and income reduction was reported by over 70 % of household income earners during the COVID-19 pandemic, which in turn was negatively associated with HFS and HDD.

Conclusion: Household socio-economic variables and COVID-19 effects on occupation and income are potential predictors of lower HFS and HDD scores. HFS and HDD deserve more attention during this pandemic particularly with reference to low-earning households and the households whose earning persons' occupation has been negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020005042DOI Listing
April 2021

Pyruvate Kinase Controls Signal Strength in the Insulin Secretory Pathway.

Cell Metab 2020 Nov;32(5):736-750.e5

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA; William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI 53705, USA. Electronic address:

Pancreatic β cells couple nutrient metabolism with appropriate insulin secretion. Here, we show that pyruvate kinase (PK), which converts ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into ATP and pyruvate, underlies β cell sensing of both glycolytic and mitochondrial fuels. Plasma membrane-localized PK is sufficient to close K channels and initiate calcium influx. Small-molecule PK activators increase the frequency of ATP/ADP and calcium oscillations and potently amplify insulin secretion. PK restricts respiration by cyclically depriving mitochondria of ADP, which accelerates PEP cycling until membrane depolarization restores ADP and oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings support a compartmentalized model of β cell metabolism in which PK locally generates the ATP/ADP required for insulin secretion. Oscillatory PK activity allows mitochondria to perform synthetic and oxidative functions without any net impact on glucose oxidation. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic route for diabetes based on PK activation that would not be predicted by the current consensus single-state model of β cell function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685238PMC
November 2020

Maternal BMI and nutritional status in early pregnancy and its impact on neonatal outcomes at birth in Bangladesh.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Nov 11;19(1):413. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Centre of Global Health Research, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 1200, Bangladesh.

Background: To assess the maternal characteristics and nutritional status according to body mass index (BMI) at 6-14 weeks of gestation and to examine the relationship between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and its impact on neonatal birth weight.

Methods: The investigation was conducted from April 2011 to June 2012 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 498 primigravida pregnant women participated in the study; women with known diabetes or previous gestational diabetes (GDM) were excluded. Maternal demographic details, pregnancy history and anthropometric measurements were obtained from the mother at the recruitment (6-14 weeks), 2nd visit between 24 and 28 week of gestation and 3rd visit at delivery. Cord venous blood samples of newborns (n = 138) were collected immediately after delivery for blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and micronutrients including serum folate, ferritin, homocysteine, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.

Results: The prevalence at 6-14 weeks of pregnancy of anemia (Hb, < 11 g/dl), vitamin D deficiency (< 30 nmol/l), vitamin B12 deficiency (< 200 pg/ml), high homocysteine level (> 15 μmol/l), folate deficiency (< 3 ng/ml) and iron deficiency (ferritin < 13 ng/ml) were 19.5, 46.4, 15.1, 1.2, 0.4, and 12.7% respectively. GDM was found in 18.4% women. The prevalence of GDM was higher in overweight women (28.1%) than underweight (16.7%) and normal weight women (16.0%: p <  0.05). The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery were 11.6 and 5.8% respectively and was not related to maternal BMI at 6-14 weeks of pregnancy. Maternal height was positively (p = 0.02), and homocysteine was negatively associated with neonatal birth weight (p = 0.02). In addition, the newborn's cord serum folate was positively (p = 0.03) and cord triglyceride was negatively (p = 0.03) associated with neonatal birth weight.

Conclusion: Multiple maternal micronutrient deficiencies were present in early pregnancy. Maternal BMI in early pregnancy was not related to preterm deliveries or LBW. LBW was associated with lower folate, elevated cord triglyceride concentrations of the neonates and mother's height and increase in maternal homocysteine levels. The data has important implications for pregnancy care in Bangladesh and other similar communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2571-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849244PMC
November 2019

Effect of Osmolytes on Conformational Behavior of Intrinsically Disordered Protein α-Synuclein.

Biophys J 2019 11 22;117(10):1922-1934. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein whose function in a healthy brain is poorly understood. It is genetically and neuropathologically linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is manifested after the accumulation of plaques of α-synuclein aggregates in the brain cells. Aggregates of α-synuclein are very toxic and lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and neuronal death. α-Synuclein can also contribute to disease propagation as it may exert noxious effects on neighboring cells. Understanding the mechanism of α-synuclein aggregation will facilitate the problem of dealing with neurodegenerative diseases in general and that of PD in particular. Here, we have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the behavior of α-synuclein at various temperatures and in different concentrations of urea and trimethyl amine oxide. The residue region from 61 to 95 of α-synuclein is experimentally known as amyloidogenic. In our study, we have identified some other regions, which also have the propensity to form an aggregate besides this known sequence. Urea being a denaturant interacts more with these regions of α-synuclein through hydrogen bond formation and inhibits the β-sheet formation, whereas trimethyl amine oxide itself does not interact much with the protein and stabilizes the protein by preferentially distributing water molecules on the surface of the protein.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.09.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031737PMC
November 2019

Occurrence of intI1-associated VIM-5 carbapenemase and co-existence of all four classes of β-lactamase in carbapenem-resistant clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa DMC-27b.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 01;75(1):86-91

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is limiting current treatment options. Carbapenemases and their association with integrons can cause rapid dissemination of resistance traits. We report here the co-existence and chromosomal inheritance of all four classes of β-lactamase and the presence of a unique class 1 integron (intI1) harbouring blaVIM-5 within a single isolate of P. aeruginosa, DMC-27b.

Methods: DMC-27b, isolated from urine, was characterized for carbapenem resistance both phenotypically and genotypically. The orientation of gene cassette structures of class 1 integrons was determined using referenced and designed overlapping primers and complete genome sequence (CGS) data. The antimicrobial resistance profile, porin protein mutations and the presence of active efflux activity were studied from the CGS.

Results: P. aeruginosa DMC-27b was resistant to a total of 20 antibiotics, with imipenem and meropenem MIC90s of >512 mg/L. The isolate harboured all four classes of β-lactamase: VEB-1 (class A), VIM-5 (class B), PDC-35 (class C) and OXA-2 and OXA-50 (both class D). Chromosomal harbouring of blaVIM-5 was associated with the intI1 gene cassette as the sole gene, a unique cassette so far reported. A total of 11 mutations, among them some mutations causing extra folds and changes in binding sites, in porin protein OprD might also affect its functionality regarding the transportation of antibiotics.

Conclusions: This is one of the earliest reports of its kind on the co-existence of all four β-lactamase classes in P. aeruginosa DMC-27b. Acquisition of multiple resistance determinants is paving the way for the development of MDR. This superbug is a model for rapid dissemination of resistance traits both horizontally and vertically.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz426DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of ORAI1 Genetic Polymorphism with Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Levels in Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Case-control Study.

Cureus 2019 Apr 29;11(4):e4564. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, BGD.

Background As chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent killer, it is now a global concern to find out the possible causes by genetic and biological markers. In the earlier stages of CKD, serum calcium and phosphorus levels fall down later on turned into hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia contributing high mortality in CKD. This study aimed to examine the serum calcium and phosphorus levels in non-dialysis CKD patients and healthy controls to find out their association with ORAI1 genetic polymorphism. Methods The present study recruited 96 non-dialysis CKD patients and 100 control subjects matched by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Measurement of serum calcium levels was performed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HITACHI, 170-30) and phosphorus levels were determined by UV VIS spectrophotometer (Analytik Jena SPEKOL 2000). PCR-RFLP technique was applied to determine the genetic polymorphism of ORAI1 (rs12313273 and rs6486795) gene. Results The mean values of serum calcium and phosphorus levels were 2.53 ± 0.50 mg/dL and 3.77 ± 0.42 mg/dL for the patient group and 3.67 ± 2.37 mg/dL and 13.66 ± 6.34 mg/dL for the control group, respectively. We observed significantly reduced serum calcium and phosphorus levels in non-dialysis CKD patients compared with control subjects ( < 0.001). No significant polymorphism of ORAI1 (rs12313273 and rs6486795) was found with declined serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Conclusions The present study suggested that there is no linear correlation between ORAI1 genetic polymorphism with serum calcium and phosphorus levels in non-dialysis CKD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599462PMC
April 2019

Genetic characterization of human metapneumovirus identified through community and facility-based surveillance of infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

J Med Virol 2019 04 13;91(4):549-554. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Centre for Global Child Health and Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Sick Kids Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in low and middle-income countries. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the most common viral etiological agents for ARIs in children.

Objectives: In this study, we explored the genotypic diversity and the epidemiology of hMPV among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Study Design: Between December 2014 and August 2016, a total of 3810 mid-turbinate nasal swab samples were collected from infants (0 to 6 months of age) who met clinical ARI criteria, as a part of a prospective ARI cohort study. hMPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: hMPV was identified in 206 (5.4%) nasal swab specimens. One-tenth of the hMPV-positive swabs (n = 19) were also positive for other respiratory viruses. hMPV activity peaked in January and September in 2015; however, no seasonal pattern of hMPV infection was detected. Phylogenetic analyses of the N and F gene-fragments revealed that the hMPV strains circulating in Dhaka, Bangladesh, belonged to three genotypes: A2b, A2c, and B1. Genotype A (57%) was the predominant hMPV genotype circulating in Bangladesh during the study period.

Conclusion: This study describes both the epidemiology of hMPV infection and its genotypic strain diversity in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25351DOI Listing
April 2019

Effect of Urea, Arginine, and Ethanol Concentration on Aggregation of CVNITV Fragment of Sheep Prion Protein.

ACS Omega 2018 Sep 24;3(9):11727-11741. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.

Understanding protein aggregation is of utmost importance as it is responsible for causing several neurodegenerative diseases and one of the serious impediments in large-scale biopharmaceutical production. The prion protein is responsible for pathological states in fatal transmissible spongiform conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The peptide fragment 178-191 of Syrian hamster prion protein is known to be amyloidogenic. Here, we identified the fragment CVNITV as an aggregation-prone fragment in sheep prion protein. This fragment is conserved sequence among sheep and Syrian hamster prion protein and also falls in the previously identified amyloidogenic sequence. The mechanistic details of the aggregation behavior are analyzed in three different concentrations of urea, arginine, and ethanol. Urea and arginine are found to be aggregation suppressors, but ethanol enhances the protein aggregation through β-sheet formation. We have also analyzed the influence of these osmolyte on water dynamics in the presence of the octamer of this aggregation-prone fragment and correlated this water dynamics with the aggregation behavior of the octamer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173503PMC
September 2018

A multiparametric analysis of the synergistic impact of anti-Parkinson's drugs on the fibrillation of human serum albumin.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2019 03 9;1867(3):275-285. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Protein aggregation have been associated with several human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. There are several small molecules that can reduce aggregation of proteins. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the application of more than one inhibitor either simultaneously or consecutively may result in more efficient inhibition of protein aggregation. To this end, the anti-amyloidogenic behaviour of benserazide hydrochloride (BH) and levodopa (LD) individually and in combination (BH + LD) was investigated using various biophysical, microscopic, and computational techniques. BH, LD, and BH + LD treatments showed inhibitory effects on protein aggregation and had the ability to minimise the amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). The two drugs in combination showed synergism (combination index, CI < 1) between them. These drugs also destabilised the preformed fibrils of human serum albumin (HSA). Our studies consistently showed that the BH + LD treatment showed highest efficacy towards inhibition and disaggregation of amyloid fibrils in comparison to treatment with BH and LD individually. Therefore, application of drugs in combination against fibrillogenesis may represent a new route for development of means for prevention or delaying of the aggregation-related diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2018.10.003DOI Listing
March 2019

Reducing Glucokinase Activity Restores Endogenous Pulsatility and Enhances Insulin Secretion in Islets From db/db Mice.

Endocrinology 2018 11;159(11):3747-3760

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

An early sign of islet failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the loss of normal patterns of pulsatile insulin release. Disruptions in pulsatility are associated with a left shift in glucose sensing that can cause excessive insulin release in low glucose (relative hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of early T2D) and β-cell exhaustion, leading to inadequate insulin release during hyperglycemia. Our hypothesis was that reducing excessive glucokinase activity in diabetic islets would improve their function. Isolated mouse islets were exposed to glucose and varying concentrations of the glucokinase inhibitor d-mannoheptulose (MH) to examine changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion. Acutely exposing islets from control CD-1 mice to MH in high glucose (20 mM) dose dependently reduced the size of [Ca2+]i oscillations detected by fura-2 acetoxymethyl. Glucokinase activation in low glucose (3 mM) had the opposite effect. We then treated islets from male and female db/db mice (age, 4 to 8 weeks) and heterozygous controls overnight with 0 to 10 mM MH to determine that 1 mM MH produced optimal oscillations. We then used 1 mM MH overnight to measure [Ca2+]i and insulin simultaneously in db/db islets. MH restored oscillations and increased insulin secretion. Insulin secretion rates correlated with MH-induced increases in amplitude of [Ca2+]i oscillations (R2 = 0.57, P < 0.01, n = 10) but not with mean [Ca2+]i levels in islets (R2 = 0.05, not significant). Our findings show that correcting glucose sensing can restore proper pulsatility to diabetic islets and improved pulsatility correlates with enhanced insulin secretion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202857PMC
November 2018

Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy and Lactation and Infant Growth.

N Engl J Med 2018 Aug;379(6):535-546

From the Department of Pediatrics (D.E.R., S.K.M., S.Z., E.P., J.K., J. Shi, R.W., P.S.S., L.G.P., H.Q.) and the Dalla Lana School of Public Health (A.R.W.), University of Toronto, and the Centre for Global Child Health (D.E.R., S.K.M., S.Z., E.P., J.K., J. Shi, R.W., L.G.P., H.Q.), the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (J. Stimec), and the Ontario Child Health Support Unit (A.R.W.), Hospital for Sick Children, and the Departments of Pediatrics (P.S.S.), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (K.E.M.), Mt. Sinai Hospital - all in Toronto; the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA (A.D.G.); and the Maternal and Child Health Training Institute (I.J.) and the Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (T.A., S.S.S., M.M.I., F.K.K., M.M., Q.S.R., A.A.M.), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: It is unclear whether maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation improves fetal and infant growth in regions where vitamin D deficiency is common.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Bangladesh to assess the effects of weekly prenatal vitamin D supplementation (from 17 to 24 weeks of gestation until birth) and postpartum vitamin D supplementation on the primary outcome of infants' length-for-age z scores at 1 year according to World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards. One group received neither prenatal nor postpartum vitamin D (placebo group). Three groups received prenatal supplementation only, in doses of 4200 IU (prenatal 4200 group), 16,800 IU (prenatal 16,800 group), and 28,000 IU (prenatal 28,000 group). The fifth group received prenatal supplementation as well as 26 weeks of postpartum supplementation in the amount of 28,000 IU (prenatal and postpartum 28,000 group).

Results: Among 1164 infants assessed at 1 year of age (89.5% of 1300 pregnancies), there were no significant differences across groups in the mean (±SD) length-for-age z scores. Scores were as follows: placebo, -0.93±1.05; prenatal 4200, -1.11±1.12; prenatal 16,800, -0.97±0.97; prenatal 28,000, -1.06±1.07; and prenatal and postpartum 28,000, -0.94±1.00 (P=0.23 for a global test of differences across groups). Other anthropometric measures, birth outcomes, and morbidity did not differ significantly across groups. Vitamin D supplementation had expected effects on maternal and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium concentrations, maternal urinary calcium excretion, and maternal parathyroid hormone concentrations. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of adverse events across groups, with the exception of a higher rate of possible hypercalciuria among the women receiving the highest dose.

Conclusions: In a population with widespread prenatal vitamin D deficiency and fetal and infant growth restriction, maternal vitamin D supplementation from midpregnancy until birth or until 6 months post partum did not improve fetal or infant growth. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01924013 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004541PMC
August 2018

Metformin Inhibits Mouse Islet Insulin Secretion and Alters Intracellular Calcium in a Concentration-Dependent and Duration-Dependent Manner near the Circulating Range.

J Diabetes Res 2018 18;2018:9163052. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.

Metformin is considered the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes. While metformin primarily increases insulin sensitivity, evidence also suggests that metformin affects the activity of insulin-secreting pancreatic islets. This study was designed to systematically examine the direct effects of metformin by measuring insulin secretion and the kinetics of the calcium response to glucose stimulation in isolated mouse islets using varying concentrations (20 M, 200 M, and 1 mM) and durations (~1, 2, and 3 days) of metformin exposure. We observed both concentration- and duration-dependent inhibitory effects of metformin. Concentrations as little as 20 M (nearing circulating therapeutic levels) were sufficient to reduce insulin secretion following 3-day treatment. Concentrations of 200 M and 1 mM produced more pronounced effects more rapidly. With 1 mM metformin, islets showed severe impairments in calcium handling, inhibition of insulin secretion, and increased cell death. No stimulatory effects of metformin were observed for any experimental endpoint. We conclude that the direct effects of metformin on islets are inhibitory at near-physiological concentrations. Beneficial effects of metformin observed on islets under various stressors may occur by "resting" fatigued cellular processes. However, metformin may have unintended consequences on normally functioning islets within the circulating range that require further evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9163052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971297PMC
October 2018

Is vaginal delivery safe after previous lower segment caesarean section in developing country?

Niger Med J 2014 May;55(3):260-5

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Post Graduate Institute Of Medical Sciences and Research Employees State Insurance, Basaidarapur, New Delhi, India.

Background: To analyse the mode of delivery in trial of labour (TOL), incidence of successful vaginal deliveries and indications of repeat caesarean section (CS).

Materials And Methods: Prospective selective study. Study population consisted of 367 pregnant women with previous one lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) in reproductive age group. These were grouped in to three groups, Group 1 (n = 239): Women, who were elected for repeat CS without a TOL. Group 2 (n = 76): Women, who were given TOL and delivered vaginally. Group 3 (n = 52): Women, who were given a TOL but due to failed trial, had to be taken for emergency repeat section. The maternal and foetal outcome was studied in all the groups.

Statistical Method Used: The data was entered in the Microsoft excel worksheet, values expressed as mean ± SD. Chi-square test was done to compare the categorical variables among the groups. ANOVA (one-way analysis of variance) was done to compare the baseline characteristics of patients and time to delivery among the groups.

Results: Out of 128 women who were given TOL, 76 (59.37%) vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) occurred, out of which 40 (52.63%) had spontaneous vaginal deliveries without augmentation of labour and 36 (47.36%) subjects had augmentation of labour with artificial rupture of membranes (ARMs) and oxytocin. A total of 52 women (40.62%) underwent emergency LSCS.

Conclusion: Proper selection and counselling about clinically significant risks, women can be given TOL with careful monitoring and taken for emergency LSCS on minimal indication is the best answer to management of previous one CS in labour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.132067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089058PMC
May 2014

Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?

Dev Neurorehabil 2016 24;19(2):117-22. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

a School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University , Perth , Western Australia , Australia .

Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored.

Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children.

Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant.

Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2014.928387DOI Listing
October 2016

Time-dependent wave selection for information processing in excitable media.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2012 Jun 26;85(6 Pt 2):066129. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, United Kingdom.

We demonstrate an improved technique for implementing logic circuits in light-sensitive chemical excitable media. The technique makes use of the constant-speed propagation of waves along defined channels in an excitable medium based on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, along with the mutual annihilation of colliding waves. What distinguishes this work from previous work in this area is that regions where channels meet at a junction can periodically alternate between permitting the propagation of waves and blocking them. These valvelike areas are used to select waves based on the length of time that it takes waves to propagate from one valve to another. In an experimental implementation, the channels that make up the circuit layout are projected by a digital projector connected to a computer. Excitable channels are projected as dark areas and unexcitable regions as light areas. Valves alternate between dark and light: Every valve has the same period and phase, with a 50% duty cycle. This scheme can be used to make logic gates based on combinations of or and and-not operations, with few geometrical constraints. Because there are few geometrical constraints, compact circuits can be implemented. Experimental results from an implementation of a four-bit input, two-bit output integer square root circuit are given.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.066129DOI Listing
June 2012

Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2011 Nov 23;84(5 Pt 2):056110. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol, England.

Excitation waves on a subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) substrate can be manipulated by chemical variations in the substrate and by interactions with other waves. Symbolic assignment and interpretation of wave dynamics can be used to perform logical and arithmetic computations. We present chemical analogs of elementary logic and arithmetic circuits created entirely from interconnected arrangements of individual BZ encapsulated cell-like disk. Interdisk wave migration is confined in carefully positioned connecting pores. This connection limits wave expansion and unifies the input-output characteristic of the disks. Circuit designs derived from numeric simulations are optically encoded onto a homogeneous photosensitive BZ substrate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.056110DOI Listing
November 2011