Publications by authors named "Isao Oze"

159 Publications

Pembrolizumab in advanced NSCLC patients with poor performance status and high PD-L1 expression: OLCSG 1801.

Int J Clin Oncol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho Kita-ku, Okayama City, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: The role of pembrolizumab in the treatment of poor performance status (PS) patients remains unclear.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a phase II trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with PSs of 2-3 and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression ≥ 50%. The primary endpoint of this study was the objective response rate (ORR).

Results: Fourteen patients treated at eight institutions were enrolled. Most patients had PS 2 (12/14; 86%) and others had PS 3 (2/14; 14%). The ORR was 57.1% (95% confidence interval 28.9-82.3%), which met the primary endpoint. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and 1-year PFS rates were 5.8 months and 20.0%, respectively. At the time of data cut-off, one patient had received treatment for more than 1 year; another patient had received treatment for more than 2 years. Nine patients had improved PS with treatment (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.003). Two patients had immune-related adverse events ≥ grade 3: grades 5 and 3 elevation in alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Two PS 3-stage patients were diagnosed with clinically progressive disease prior to initial computed tomography; both died within 2 months.

Conclusion: Pembrolizumab was effective for the treatment of NSCLC patients with a poor PS and PD-L1 level ≥ 50%. However, given the poor outcomes of the PS 3 patients, the drug is not indicated for such patients. Adverse events, including liver dysfunction, should be carefully monitored.

Registration Id: UMIN000030955.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-022-02164-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Predictive factors for false negatives following sentinel lymph node biopsy in early oral cavity cancer.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 28;12(1):6917. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Asahi University Hospital, 3-23 Hashimotocho, Gifu, 500-8523, Japan.

Prophylactic elective neck dissection (ND) with navigation surgery using radioisotope-based sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is non-inferior to elective ND in terms of survival but has an advantage in postoperative functional disability. We conducted a subgroup analysis to identify predictive factors for false-negative (FN)-SLNB in patients with early oral cavity cancer. This study is a supplementary analysis using the dataset of a previously reported randomized clinical trial on SLN navigation surgery for oral cancers. This study investigated the association of clinical and SLN-related factors with false-negative cases in the SLNB group. From 2011 to 2016, 275 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the ND and SLNB study groups, with 134 patients assigned to the SLNB group. In the SLNB group, seven cases with negative SLNs and neck recurrences were judged as FN-SLNBs according to the general definition. The number of detected SLNs with and without adjusting for the propensity score was significantly associated with FNs in the logistic analysis. FN-SLNB was associated with the number of identified SLNs, suggesting the need for careful postoperative monitoring for neck recurrence in patients with one or two identified SLNs after acquiring sufficient experience in the identification technique.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10594-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9050642PMC
April 2022

Reply to T. Gupta et al.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 17;40(15):1709-1710. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Isao Oze, MD, PhD, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan; Naoyuki Kohno, MD, PhD, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; and Yasuhisa Hasegawa, MD, PhD, Asahi University Hospital, Gifu, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.22.00114DOI Listing
May 2022

Large-scale integrated analysis of genetics and metabolomic data reveals potential links between lipids and colorectal cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Mar 10. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

University of Utah and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

Background: The etiology of Colorectal cancer(CRC) is not fully understood.

Methods: Using genetic variants and metabolomics data including 217 metabolites from the Framingham Heart Study(n=1,357), we built genetic prediction models for circulating metabolites. Models with prediction R2>0.01(Nmetabolite=58) were applied to predict levels of metabolites in two large consortia with a combined sample size of ~46,300 cases and 59,200 controls of European and ~21,700 cases and 47,400 controls of East Asian(EA) descent. Genetically predicted levels of metabolites were evaluated for their associations with CRC risk in logistic regressions within each racial group, after which the results were combined by meta-analysis.

Results: Of the 58 metabolites tested, 24 metabolites were significantly associated with CRC risk(BH-FDR<0.05) in the European population(odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 0.91 to 1.06;P-values ranged from 0.02 to 6.4x10-8). Twenty one of the twenty-four associations were replicated in the EA population(ORs ranged from 0.26 to 1.69,BH-FDR<0.05). Additionally, the genetically predicted levels of C16:0 cholesteryl ester was significantly associated with CRC risk in the EA population only(OREA:1.94,1.60-2.36,P=2.6x10-11;OREUR:1.01,0.99-1.04,P=0.3). Nineteen of the 25 metabolites were glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols(TAG). Eighteen associations exhibited significant heterogeneity between the two racial groups(PEUR-EA-Het<0.005), which were more strongly associated in the EA population. This integrative study suggested a potential role of lipids, especially certain glycerophospholipids and TAGs, in the etiology of CRC.

Conclusions: This study identified potential novel risk biomarkers for colorectal cancer by integrating genetics and circulating metabolomics data.

Impact: The identified metabolites could be developed into new tools for risk assessment of colorectal cancer in both European and East Asian populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-1008DOI Listing
March 2022

Association between body mass index and oesophageal cancer mortality: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies with >800 000 individuals in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 Mar 1. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi Prefecture, Miyagi, Japan.

Background: The association between body mass index (BMI) and oesophageal cancer (OC) has been consistently negative among Asians, whereas different associations based on histological OC subtypes have been observed in Europeans and North Americans. We examined the association between BMI and OC mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Methods: We performed a pooled analysis to evaluate the association between BMI and OC mortality among 842 630 Asians from 18 cohort studies. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

Results: A wide J-shaped association between BMI and overall OC mortality was observed. The OC mortality risk was increased for underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2: HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.80-2.70) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2: HR = 4.38, 95% CI 2.25-8.52) relative to the reference BMI (23-25 kg/m2). This association pattern was confirmed by several alternative analyses based on OC incidence and meta-analysis. A similar wide J-shaped association was observed in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and alcohol synergistically increased the OC mortality risk in underweight participants (HR = 6.96, 95% CI 4.54-10.67) relative to that in reference BMI participants not exposed to smoking and alcohol.

Conclusion: Extreme obesity and being underweight were associated with an OC mortality risk among Asians. OC mortality and BMI formed a wide J-shaped association mirrored by OSCC mortality. Although the effect of BMI on OSCC and oesophageal adenocarcinoma mortality can be different in Asians, further research based on a large case-control study is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyac023DOI Listing
March 2022

Association between germline pathogenic variants and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: The HERPACC study.

Cancer Sci 2022 Apr 7;113(4):1451-1462. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are hereditary, caused by germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) in breast cancer predisposition genes. To date, most studies of the prevalence of GPVs and risk of breast cancer for each gene based on cases and noncancer controls have been conducted in Europe and the United States, and little information from Japanese populations is available. Furthermore, no studies considered confounding by established environmental factors and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) together in GPV evaluation. To evaluate the association between GPVs in nine established breast cancer predisposition genes including BRCA1/2 and breast cancer risk in Japanese women comprehensively, we conducted a case-control study within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (629 cases and 1153 controls). The associations between GPVs and the risk of breast cancer were assessed by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 25 GPVs were detected among all cases (4.0%: 95% CI: 2.6-5.9), whereas four individuals carried GPVs in all controls (0.4%). The OR for breast cancer by all GPVs and by GPVs in BRCA1/2 was 12.2 (4.4-34.0, p = 1.74E-06) and 16.0 (4.2-60.9, p = 5.03E-0.5), respectively. A potential confounding with GPVs was observed for the GWAS-identified SNPs, whereas not for established environmental risk factors. In conclusion, GPVs increase the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women regardless of environmental factors and GWAS-identified SNPs. Future studies investigating interactions with environment and SNPs are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8990868PMC
April 2022

A genome-wide association study on adherence to low-carbohydrate diets in Japanese.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2022 Feb 7. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Background/objectives: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) are useful for weight reduction, and 50-55% carbohydrate consumption is associated with minimal risk. Genetic differences were related to nutritional consumption, food preferences, and dietary patterns, but whether particular genetic differences in individuals influence LCD adherence is unknown.

Subjects/methods: We conducted a GWAS on adherence to LCD utilizing 14,076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a previously validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food consumption. Association of the imputed variants with the LCD score by Halton et al. we used linear regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, total dietary energy consumption, and components 1 to 10 by principal component analysis. We repeated the analysis with adjustment for alcohol consumption (g/day) in addition to the above-described variables.

Results: Men and women combined analysis without adjustment for alcohol consumption; we found 395 variants on chromosome 12 associated with the LCD score having P values <5 × 10. A conditional analysis with the addition of the dosage data of rs671 on chromosome 12 as a covariate, P values for all 395 SNPs on chromosome 12 turned out to be insignificant. In the analysis with additional adjustment for alcohol consumption, we did not identify any SNPs associated with the LCD score.

Conclusion: We found rs671 was inversely associated with adherence to LCD, but that was strongly confounded by alcohol consumption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-022-01090-wDOI Listing
February 2022

New insights into the genetic contribution of ALDH2 rs671 in pancreatic carcinogenesis: Evaluation by mediation analysis.

Cancer Sci 2022 Apr 16;113(4):1441-1450. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

A functional variant on ALDH2 rs671 (G>A) confers a protective effect against alcohol-induced carcinogenesis through an indirect pathway mediated by decreased alcohol consumption. Conversely, this variant also contributes to the accumulation of carcinogenic agents, resulting in a direct carcinogenic effect. This study aimed to separately quantify these two opposing effects of the rs671 A allele on pancreatic cancer risk and explore the impact of the rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption on pancreatic carcinogenesis. We included 426 cases and 1456 age- and sex-matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for alcohol consumption were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model. By defining rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption as exposure and mediator, respectively, we used mediation analysis to decompose the total-effect OR of the rs671 A allele into direct- and indirect-effect ORs. Alcohol consumption (10 g/d) was associated with pancreatic cancer risk (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), but tests for interaction between the rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption were nonsignificant, indicating that the effect of alcohol consumption did not vary by genotype. Mediation analysis showed that the nonsignificant total effect (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.92-1.44) can be decomposed into the carcinogenic direct (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.72) and protective indirect effect (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.95). This study supports the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk and indicates the potential contribution of the rs671 A allele to pancreatic carcinogenesis through impaired metabolism of known or unknown ALDH2 substrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8990728PMC
April 2022

Associations of breastfeeding history with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in community-dwelling parous women: The Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

PLoS One 2022 19;17(1):e0262252. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between breastfeeding and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling parous women and to clarify whether the associations depend on age.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study included 11,118 women, aged 35-69 years. Participants' longest breastfeeding duration for one child and their number of breastfed children were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, and their total breastfeeding duration was approximated as a product of the number of breastfed children and the longest breastfeeding duration. The longest and the total breastfeeding durations were categorized into none and tertiles above 0 months. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia) were defined as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Associations between breastfeeding history and metabolic syndrome or each cardiovascular risk factor were assessed using multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis.

Results: Among a total of 11,118 women, 10,432 (93.8%) had ever breastfed, and 1,236 (11.1%) had metabolic syndrome. In participants aged <55 years, an inverse dose-response relationship was found between the number of breastfed children and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 breastfed children were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 1.17), 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.87), 0.44 (95% CI: 0.24 to 0.84), and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.89), respectively. The longest and total breastfeeding durations of longer than 0 months were also associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome relative to no breastfeeding history in participants aged <55 years. In contrast, all measures of breastfeeding history were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in participants aged ≥55 years old.

Conclusions: Breastfeeding history may be related to lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged parous women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0262252PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8769371PMC
February 2022

The association of reproductive history with hypertension and obesity according to menopausal status: the J-MICC Study.

Hypertens Res 2022 Apr 14;45(4):708-714. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Faculty of Nursing Science, Tsuruga Nursing University, Tsuruga, Japan.

Previous studies have reported that the number of pregnancies and childbirths affected the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the influence of reproductive history on hypertension and obesity, which are important risk factors for CVDs, is still unclear. Moreover, this association may vary depending on menopausal status. We evaluated the association of reproductive history with hypertension and obesity using a large cross-sectional dataset from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC Study). At the baseline survey, physical data, blood samples, and self-reported health questionnaires were collected. Participants with insufficient data were excluded, and 24,558 women from eight study regions were included in this study. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of reproductive history with hypertension and obesity using multivariable-adjusted odds ratios. In premenopausal women, childbirth showed a generally protective effect on hypertension but not on obesity. In postmenopausal women, childbirth was positively associated with obesity and hypertension but not with hypertension after adjusting for BMI. In conclusion, reproductive history was associated with hypertension and obesity in a large Japanese population, and this association differed between premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00820-0DOI Listing
April 2022

Trends in the incidence of head and neck cancer by subsite between 1993 and 2015 in Japan.

Cancer Med 2022 03 14;11(6):1553-1560. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Cancer Information and Control, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are still important risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC) in developing countries, even though decreasing in tobacco prevalence. Recently, an increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancer due to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has attracted attention in advanced countries, including the United States and Europe. However, few studies have evaluated trends in the incidence of HNC by subsite in Japan.

Methods: Accordingly, we evaluated these trends in Japan using data from population-based cancer registries. We compiled population-based incidence data from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan Project, based on data from 19 population-based cancer registries. Number of incident cases and age-standardized incidence rates of HNC were estimated by subsite, namely lip, oral cavity, salivary glands, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasal and paranasal cavity, middle ear and NOS. Trends in agestandardized incidence rates were characterized using the Joinpoint analysis.

Results: Among both sexes, oral cavity cancer, salivary gland cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer showed an upward trend (oral cavity: annual percent change (APC) 1.2% for men and APC 1.9% for women; salivary gland: APC 2.2% for men and APC 3.1% for women; oropharynx: APC 5.0% for men and APC 7.6% for women). Additionally, hypopharyngeal cancer showed an upward trend for men (APC 4.1%), and nasopharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer showed a downward trend for men (nasopharynx: APC -2.7%; larynx: -1.1%).

Conclusions: These findings will assist in focusing on the individual prevention of HNC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8921930PMC
March 2022

Association of skipping breakfast and short sleep duration with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general Japanese population: Baseline data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative cohort study.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Dec 25;24:101613. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-specific associations of skipping breakfast and short sleep duration with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their interaction. We analyzed baseline data of 14,907 men and 14,873 women aged 35-69 years, who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study from 2005. MetS was diagnosed using a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III revised definition (NCEP-R 2005), using body mass index instead of waist circumference. Breakfast consumption was classified into two categories: ≥6 days/week (consumers) or <6 days/week (skippers). Sleep duration was classified into three categories: <6h, 6 to <8 h, and ≥8 h/day. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) and examine the presence of interaction. In men, skipping breakfast and short sleep duration were independently associated with an increased prevalence of MetS (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12-1.42 and OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.12-1.45, respectively), obesity, and components of MetS. However, no significant interaction was observed between skipping breakfast and short sleep duration. In women, skipping breakfast and short sleep duration were associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, but not with MetS. These findings indicate that breakfast consumption and moderate sleep duration may be associated with a lower risk of MetS, particularly in men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8683995PMC
December 2021

Body Mass Index and Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of Half a Million Men and Women in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Thyroid 2022 Mar 11;32(3):306-314. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Although previous meta-analyses have suggested a dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and thyroid cancer risk, limited evidence has been presented about Asian populations. To assess this association among Asian populations, where underweight is more prevalent than in other regions, a pooled analysis from the Asia Cohort Consortium was conducted. Baseline height and weight were measured in five cohorts and self-reported in eight cohorts. Thyroid cancer incidence was ascertained by linkage to local cancer registries. Cohorts were treated as a stratum in the Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) from the estimates for each cohort. All analyses were stratified by sex. A total of 538,857 men and women from 13 cohorts from mainland China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore were included in the analysis. During a mean of 15.1 years of follow-up, 1132 thyroid cancer cases were ascertained. Using a BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m as a reference, an elevated risk of thyroid cancer was observed for groups with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m (HR: 1.31, [CI: 0.95-1.80]) and a BMI of 30 kg/m and greater (HR: 1.84, [CI: 0.89-3.81]) in men. Thyroid cancer risk was elevated in women with a BMI of 23-24.9 kg/m (HR: 1.26, [CI: 1.07-1.48]). The HRs for 5-U increment of BMI showed a linear association among men (HR: 1.25, [CI 1.10-1.55]) but not among women (HR: 1.07, [CI: 0.97-1.18]). Although the overall thyroid cancer risk was lower among underweight men and women, the papillary cancer risk may be elevated among underweight men (HR: 2.24, [CI: 0.75-6.66]). While higher BMI is associated with an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in both men and women, the association of underweight BMI may differ by sex and histological subtype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971972PMC
March 2022

Risk Prediction for Gastric Cancer Using GWAS-Identifie Polymorphisms, Infection and Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors in a Japanese Population.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 3;13(21). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan.

Background: As part of our efforts to develop practical intervention applications for cancer prevention, we investigated a risk prediction model for gastric cancer based on genetic, biological, and lifestyle-related risk factors.

Methods: We conducted two independent age- and sex-matched case-control studies, the first for model derivation (696 cases and 1392 controls) and the second (795 and 795) for external validation. Using the derivation study data, we developed a prediction model by fitting a conditional logistic regression model using the predictors age, ABCD classification defined by infection and gastric atrophy, smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, and 3 GWAS-identified polymorphisms. Performance was assessed with regard to discrimination (area under the curve (AUC)) and calibration (calibration plots and Hosmer-Lemeshow test).

Results: A combination of selected GWAS-identified polymorphisms and the other predictors provided high discriminatory accuracy and good calibration in both the derivation and validation studies, with AUCs of 0.77 (95% confidence intervals: 0.75-0.79) and 0.78 (0.77-0.81), respectively. The calibration plots of both studies stayed close to the ideal calibration line. In the validation study, the environmental model (nongenetic model) was significantly more discriminative than the inclusive model, with an AUC value of 0.80 (0.77-0.82).

Conclusion: The contribution of genetic factors to risk prediction was limited, and the ABCD classification ( infection-related factor) contributes most to risk prediction of gastric cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8583059PMC
November 2021

A genome-wide association study on meat consumption in a Japanese population: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study.

J Nutr Sci 2021 11;10:e61. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the dietary habits of the Japanese population have shown that an effect rs671 allele was inversely associated with fish consumption, whereas it was directly associated with coffee consumption. Although meat is a major source of protein and fat in the diet, whether genetic factors that influence meat-eating habits in healthy populations are unknown. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS to find genetic variations that affect meat consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data using 14 076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with total meat consumption per 1000 kcal energy was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, and principal component analysis components 1-10. We found that no genetic variant, including rs671, was associated with meat consumption. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated with meat consumption in samples of European ancestry could not be replicated in our J-MICC data. In conclusion, significant genetic factors that affect meat consumption were not observed in a Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532070PMC
March 2022

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior are independently associated with renal function: a cross-sectional study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Background: Little is known about whether insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and longer sedentary behavior (SB) are independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD, whether they interact with known risk factors for CKD, and the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equivalent duration of physical activity on kidney function.

Methods: We examined the cross-sectional association of MVPA and SB with eGFR and CKD in 66,603 Japanese cohort study in 14 areas from 2004 to 2013. MVPA and SB were estimated using a self-reported questionnaire, and CKD was defined as eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m. Multiple linear regression analyses, logistic regression analyses, and an isotemporal substitution model were applied.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, higher MVPA and longer SB were independently associated with higher eGFR (P<0.0001) and lower eGFR (P<0.0001), and a lower odds ratio (OR) of CKD (adjusted OR of MVPA≥20 MET·h/day: 0.76 [95%CI: 0.68-0.85] compared to MVPA<5 MET·h/day) and a higher OR of CKD (adjusted OR of SB≥16 h/day: 1.81 [95%CI: 1.52-2.15] compared to SB<7 h/day), respectively. The negative association between MVPA and CKD was stronger in men, and significant interactions between sex and MVPA were detected. Replacing 1 hour of SB with 1 hour of physical activity was associated with about 3 to 4% lower OR of CKD.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that replacing SB with physical activity may benefit kidney function, especially in men, adding to the possible evidence on CKD prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20210155DOI Listing
October 2021

Reply to P. Kaul et al.

J Clin Oncol 2021 11 10;39(31):3518-3519. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Yasuhisa Hasegawa, MD, PhD, Asahi University Hospital, Gifu, Japan; Kiyoaki Tsukahara, MD, PhD, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; Seiichi Yoshimoto, MD, PhD, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Kouki Miura, MD, PhD, International University of Health and Welfare, Mita Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Junkichi Yokoyama, MD, PhD, Nadogaya Hospital, Kashiwa, Japan; Shigeru Hirano, MD, PhD, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Hirokazu Uemura, MD, PhD, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan; Masashi Sugasawa, MD, PhD, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka, Japan; Tomokazu Yoshizaki, MD, PhD, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; Akihiro Homma, MD, PhD, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; Kazuaki Chikamatsu, MD, PhD, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan; Mikio Suzuki, MD, PhD, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan; Akihiro Shiotani, MD, PhD, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan; Takashi Matsuzuka, MD, PhD, Asahi University Hospital, Gifu, Japan; Naoyuki Kohno, MD, PhD, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Masakazu Miyazaki, MD, Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara, Japan; Isao Oze, MD, PhD, and Keitaro Matsuo, MD, PhD, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya Japan; Shigeru Kosuda, MD, PhD, Kouseikai General Clinic and Hospital, Kawagoe, Japan; and Yasushi Yatabe, MD, PhD, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.01554DOI Listing
November 2021

Coffee and tea consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective studies from the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 05;51(2):626-640

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations.

Methods: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model.

Results: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption.

Conclusions: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab161DOI Listing
May 2022

Circular stapled technique versus modified Collard technique for cervical esophagogastric anastomosis after esophagectomy: A randomized controlled trial.

Ann Surg 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Centre Research Institute, Nagoya.

Objective: This study was performed to investigate the efficacy of the modified Collard (MC) technique for reducing anastomotic stricture after esophagectomy compared with the circular stapled (CS) technique.

Summary Background Data: The currently available techniques of anastomosis after esophagectomy are associated with a significant risk of anastomotic complications. However, the optimal anastomotic technique after esophagectomy has not yet been established.

Methods: We randomly allocated patients to either the CS group or the MC group. The primary endpoint was the incidence of anastomotic stricture. The secondary endpoints included the incidence of postoperative complications (including anastomotic leakage) and quality of life (QOL). All anastomoses were performed after indocyanine green evaluation for objective homogenization of blood flow to the gastric conduit between the two techniques.

Results: Among 100 randomized patients (CS group, n = 50; MC group, n = 50), anastomotic strictures were observed in 18 (42%) patients in the CS group and in no patients in the MC group. There were no significant between-group differences in anastomotic leakage (CS group, 7% vs. MC group, 8%; p = 0.94). QOL domains of dysphagia and choking when swallowing at 3 months after surgery were significantly better in the MC group than in the CS group.

Conclusions: The MC technique reduces the incidence of anastomotic stricture and improves postoperative QOL. Furthermore, the incidence of anastomotic leakage is comparable between the two techniques based on accurate comparison under objective homogenization of the gastric conduit condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005185DOI Listing
August 2021

A Personal Breast Cancer Risk Stratification Model Using Common Variants and Environmental Risk Factors in Japanese Females.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 28;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan.

Personalized approaches to prevention based on genetic risk models have been anticipated, and many models for the prediction of individual breast cancer risk have been developed. However, few studies have evaluated personalized risk using both genetic and environmental factors. We developed a risk model using genetic and environmental risk factors using 1319 breast cancer cases and 2094 controls from three case-control studies in Japan. Risk groups were defined based on the number of risk alleles for 14 breast cancer susceptibility loci, namely low (0-10 alleles), moderate (11-16) and high (17+). Environmental risk factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and implemented with harmonization. Odds ratio (OR) and C-statistics, calculated using a logistic regression model, were used to evaluate breast cancer susceptibility and model performance. Respective breast cancer ORs in the moderate- and high-risk groups were 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.04) and 3.27 (2.46-4.34) compared with the low-risk group. The C-statistic for the environmental model of 0.616 (0.596-0.636) was significantly improved by combination with the genetic model, to 0.659 (0.640-0.678). This combined genetic and environmental risk model may be suitable for the stratification of individuals by breast cancer risk. New approaches to breast cancer prevention using the model are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345053PMC
July 2021

Circulating immune- and inflammation-related biomarkers and early-stage noncardia gastric cancer risk.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2022 May;31(3):270-273

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Background: In Helicobacter pylori-driven gastric cancer, mucosal colonization induces chronic inflammation that may variably progress to cancer. Prospective studies of circulating inflammation-related proteins have suggested weak associations with gastric cancer risk. To assess potential utility as a screening tool in clinical settings, we examined circulating levels of a wide range of key inflammation molecules for associations with early-stage gastric cancer.

Methods: We used pretreatment EDTA plasma from 239 individuals with early-stage noncardia gastric cancer (203 stage I and 36 stage II) and 256 age-frequency-matched H. pylori-seropositive cancer-free controls within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Levels of 92 biomarkers were measured by proximity extension assays using Olink's Proseek Immuno-oncology Panel. Odds ratios (ORs) for association with gastric cancer risk were calculated for quantiles (two to four categories) of each biomarker from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered as significant. The false discovery rate (FDR) was used to correct for multiple comparisons.

Results: Of 83 evaluable biomarkers, lower levels of TNFRSF12A (per quartile OR, 0.82; nominal P-trend = 0.02) and ADGRG1 (per quartile OR, 0.84; nominal P-trend = 0.03) were associated with early-stage gastric cancer but were not statistically significant after FDR correction.

Conclusion: Our study did not identify any inflammation-related biomarkers that may be useful for early disease detection. To date, this is the first assessment of circulating inflammation-related proteins in early-stage gastric cancer. Given the complex inflammation processes preceding malignant transformation, further investigation of other biomarkers is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8741889PMC
May 2022

Associations of circulating mediators of inflammation, cell regulation and immune response with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 14;147(10):2885-2892. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histologic subtype of esophageal cancer globally. The development of squamous cell carcinoma has important inflammatory influences and effects. We, therefore, examined circulating levels of inflammation- and immune-related proteins for associations with ESCC.

Methods: We used pre-treatment EDTA plasma from 80 ESCC patients (44% clinical stages I and II) and 80 cancer-free control individuals within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Levels of 184 biomarkers were measured by high-throughput multiplexed proximity extension assays using Olink's Proseek Cell Regulation and Immuno-Oncology Panels. ESCC odds ratios (OR) per quantile (based on two to four categories) of each biomarker were calculated by unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Correlations among continuous biomarker levels were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation. All statistical tests were two-sided with p values < 0.05 considered as significant. Given the exploratory nature of the study, we did not adjust for multiple comparisons.

Results: Seven proteins were undetectable in nearly all samples. Of the remaining 177 evaluable biomarkers, levels of cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40, per quartile OR 1.64; p trend = 0.018), syntaxin 16 (STX16, per quartile OR 1.63; p trend = 0.008), heme oxygenase 1 (per quartile OR 1.59; p trend = 0.014), and γ-secretase activating protein (GSAP, per quartile OR 1.47; p trend = 0.036) were significantly associated with ESCC. Amongst these significant markers, levels of CD40, STX16, and GSPA were moderately correlated (Rho coefficients 0.46-0.55; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our case-control study expands the range of inflammation and immune molecules associated with ESCC. These novel findings warrant replication and functional characterization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03687-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Underlying Cardiometabolic Diseases on the Association Between Sedentary Time and All-Cause Mortality in a Large Japanese Population: A Cohort Analysis Based on the J-MICC Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 14;10(13):e018293. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine Aichi Japan.

Background This study aimed to determine the association between sedentary time and mortality with regard to leisure-time physical activity with or without cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results Using data from the J-MICC (Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort) Study, 64 456 participants (29 022 men, 35 434 women) were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were used to characterize the relative risk of all-cause mortality to evaluate its association with sedentary time (categorical variables: <5, 5 to <7, 7 to <9, ≥9 h/d and 2-hour increments in exposure) according to the self-reported hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 2257 participants died during 7.7 years of follow-up. The corresponding HRs for each 2-hour increment in sedentary time among participants with all factors, no factors, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus were 1.153 (95% CI, 1.114-1.194), 1.125 (95% CI, 1.074-1.179), 1.202 (95% CI, 1.129-1.279), 1.176 (95% CI, 1.087-1.273), and 1.272 (95% CI, 1.159-1.396), respectively. Furthermore, when analyzed according to the combined different factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus), HRs increased with each additional factor, and participants reporting all 3 conditions had the highest HR of 1.417 (95% CI, 1.162-1.728) independently of leisure-time metabolic equivalents. Conclusions The association between sedentary time and increased mortality is stronger among patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus regardless of leisure-time physical activity in a large Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403304PMC
July 2021

Impact of adjuvant endocrine therapy on prognosis in small hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer.

Breast Cancer 2021 Sep 22;28(5):1087-1095. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Background: The efficacy of adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer has been previously established. However, significant adverse events related to endocrine therapy cannot be ignored. T1 breast cancer is expected to have a good prognosis. Therefore, adjuvant endocrine therapy for T1a breast cancer patients is controversial. Thus, in this study, we examined the effect of endocrine therapy on the prognosis of T1N0 hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients in each tumor size group, and re-considered the application of endocrine therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively obtained clinical and pathological data from medical records of 7635 patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer at Aichi Cancer Hospital between January 2000 and December 2017. The primary end point of our analysis was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The log-rank test, cumulative survival generated curves with Kaplan-Meier methods and the hazard ratio (HR) calculated with a Cox regression model were used to assess the effects of endocrine therapy on prognosis.

Results: The 5-year DFS was worse in the non-endocrine therapy (non-ET) group (78%) than the endocrine therapy (ET) group (95%) in the T1c population (p < 0.001, HR 0.25). However, there was no statistically significant difference in DFS between the ET and the non-ET groups in T1a (ET 96% vs non-ET 93%, p = 0.9314, HR 0.94) and T1b (ET 96% vs non-ET 93%, p = 0.1481HR 0.53) breast cancer. The OS, DDFS, and BCSS of the patients also showed that endocrine therapy was associated with improvement of the prognosis in the T1c group, but not in the T1a and T1b groups.

Conclusions: Adjuvant endocrine therapy may be essential for T1c breast cancer patients. In contrast, this therapy should be discussed for T1a and T1b luminal breast cancer patients under some circumstances, such as suffering from adverse events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01245-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Neck Dissections Based on Sentinel Lymph Node Navigation Versus Elective Neck Dissections in Early Oral Cancers: A Randomized, Multicenter, and Noninferiority Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 06 20;39(18):2025-2036. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare patients with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) (tumor category [T] 1-2, node-negative, and no distant metastasis) treated with traditional elective neck dissection (ND) with those managed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using survival and neck function and complications as end points.

Methods: Sixteen institutions in Japan participated in the study (trial registration number: UMIN000006510). Patients of age ≥ 18 years with histologically confirmed, previously untreated OCSCC (Union for International Cancer Control TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors 7th edition T1-2, node-negative no distant metastasis), with ≥ 4 mm (T1) depth of invasion, were randomly assigned to undergo standard selective ND (ND group; n = 137) or SLNB-navigated ND (SLNB group; n = 134). The primary end point was the 3-year overall survival rate, with a 12% noninferiority margin; secondary end points included postoperative neck functionality and complications and 3-year disease-free survival. Sentinel lymph nodes underwent intraoperative multislice frozen section analyses for the diagnosis. Patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes underwent either one-stage or second-look ND.

Results: Pathologic metastasis-positive nodes were observed in 24.8% (34 of 137) and 33.6% (46 of 134) of patients in the ND and SLNB groups, respectively ( = .190). The 3-year overall survival in the SLNB group (87.9%; lower limit of one-sided 95% CI, 82.4) was noninferior to that in the ND group (86.6%; lower limit 95% CI, 80.9; for noninferiority < .001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 78.7% (lower limit 95% CI, 72.1) and 81.3% (75.0) in the SLNB and ND groups, respectively ( for noninferiority < .001). The scores of neck functionality in the SLNB group were significantly better than those in the ND group.

Conclusion: SLNB-navigated ND may replace elective ND without a survival disadvantage and reduce postoperative neck disability in patients with early-stage OCSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03637DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-wide association study of serum prostate-specific antigen levels based on 1000 Genomes imputed data in Japanese: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2021 Feb;83(1):183-194

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance ( <5×10), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance ( <1×10). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18999/nagjms.83.1.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938099PMC
February 2021

Reproducibility and validity of food group intake in a short food frequency questionnaire for the middle-aged Japanese population.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 Mar 2;26(1):28. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for food group intake in Japan, the reproducibility and partial validity of which were previously confirmed for nutrients.

Methods: A total of 288 middle-aged healthy volunteers from 11 different areas of Japan provided nonconsecutive 3-day weighed dietary records (DRs) at 3-month intervals over four seasons. We evaluated reproducibility based on the first (FFQ1) and second (FFQ2) questionnaires and their validity against the DRs by comparing the intake of 20 food groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (SRs) were calculated between energy-adjusted intake from the FFQs and that from the DRs.

Results: The intake of 20 food groups estimated from the two FFQs was mostly equivalent. The median energy-adjusted SRs between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (range 0.38-0.86) for men and 0.66 (0.45-0.84) for women. For validity, the median de-attenuated SRs between DRs and the FFQ1 were 0.51 (0.17-0.76) for men and 0.47 (0.23-0.77) for women. Compared with the DRs, the proportion of cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the FFQ1 ranged from 58 to 86% in men and from 57 to 86% in women. According to the robust Z scores and the Bland-Altman plot graphs, the underestimation errors in the FFQ1 tended to be greater in individuals with high mean levels of consumption for meat for men and for other vegetables for both men and women.

Conclusion: The FFQ demonstrated high reproducibility and reasonable validity for food group intake. This questionnaire is short and remains appropriate for identifying associations between diet and health/disease among adults in Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-021-00951-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923820PMC
March 2021

A randomized trial of sodium alginate prevention of esophagitis in LA-NSCLC receiving chemoradiotherapy: OLCSG1401.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Sep 1;29(9):5237-5244. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Radiation esophagitis is a critical adverse event that needs to be appropriately managed while administering thoracic irradiation. This trial aimed to investigate whether sodium alginate has preventative effects on esophagitis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

Methods: Patients with untreated stage III NSCLC who were eligible for concurrent CRT were randomly assigned at a 1:1:1 ratio to receive one of the following treatments: initial or late use of oral sodium alginate (arms A and B) or water as control (arm C). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing G3 or worse esophagitis.

Results: Overall, 94 patients were randomly assigned between February 2014 and September 2018. The study was prematurely terminated because of slow accrual. The proportions of patients with G3 or worse esophagitis were 12.5%, 9.8%, and 19.4% in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Patients receiving sodium alginate had fewer onsets of G3 esophagitis; however, differences compared with arm C were not significant (A vs. C: p = 0.46; B vs. C: p = 0.28). The rates of grade 3 or worse non-hematologic toxicities besides esophagitis were 29%, 26%, and 43% in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Interestingly, compared with arm C, a low rate of febrile neutropenia was observed in arm A (3.1% vs. 19.4%: p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Sodium alginate did not show significant preventative effects on radiation-induced esophagitis in patients with NSCLC. The frequency of CRT-induced febrile neutropenia was lower in the early use sodium alginate arm.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier Registry number: UMIN000013133.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06092-1DOI Listing
September 2021

A genome-wide association study on confection consumption in a Japanese population: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2021 12 26;126(12):1843-1851. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000684DOI Listing
December 2021

Effects of 5-mg dose of olanzapine for breakthrough nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy: a prospective trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 7;10(3):2699-2708. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

Background: Olanzapine 10 mg is recommended for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there is a possibility that 5 mg can be expected to be sufficiently effective. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine 5 mg for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Methods: A single-arm prospective trial of olanzapine 5 mg every 24 h for 72 h was conducted to treat breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatinbased chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was total control (i.e., no emesis, no nausea, and no rescue medications) over 72 h. The secondary endpoints were early efficacy using the nausea scores at 30, 60, and 120 min after taking olanzapine from baseline and adverse events.

Results: Among 84 potentially eligible patients, 19 patients who took olanzapine for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting were examined. The total control rate was 32% (95% CI: 13- 57%), 65% (95% CI: 38-89%), 65% (95% CI: 38-89%), and 29% (95% CI: 10-56%) during 2-24, 24-48, 48-72 h, and overall period, respectively. The nausea scale significantly reduced after 30 min (P=0.0078), and the scale had been reduced by 67% from the baseline after 60 min. The adverse event of somnolence of any grade was observed in 13 (68%) patients, 6 (32%) of whom had grade 2 and 1 (5%) grade 3 somnolence.

Conclusions: Olanzapine 5 mg did not show the expected effect on the complete disappearance of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting within 24 h.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1784DOI Listing
March 2021
-->