Publications by authors named "Isabelle Royal"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PTPRJ promotes osteoclast maturation and activity by inhibiting Cbl-mediated ubiquitination of NFATc1 in late osteoclastogenesis.

FEBS J 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated phagocytes, whose central roles in regulating bone formation and homeostasis are critical for normal health and development. OCLs are produced from precursor monocytes in a multistage process that includes initial differentiation, cell-cell fusion, and subsequent functional and morphological maturation; the molecular regulation of osteoclastogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we identify the receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ as an essential regulator specifically of OCL maturation. Monocytes from PTPRJ-deficient (JKO) mice differentiate and fuse normally, but their maturation into functional OCLs and their ability to degrade bone are severely inhibited. In agreement, mice lacking PTPRJ throughout their bodies or only in OCLs exhibit increased bone mass due to reduced OCL-mediated bone resorption. We further show that PTPRJ promotes OCL maturation by dephosphorylating the M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) and Cbl, thus reducing the ubiquitination and degradation of the key osteoclastogenic transcription factor NFATc1. Loss of PTPRJ increases ubiquitination of NFATc1 and reduces its amounts at later stages of osteoclastogenesis, thereby inhibiting OCL maturation. PTPRJ thus fulfills an essential and cell-autonomous role in promoting OCL maturation by balancing between the pro- and anti-osteoclastogenic activities of the M-CSFR and maintaining NFATc1 expression during late osteoclastogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15778DOI Listing
February 2021

Connecting During COVID-19: A Protocol of a Volunteer-Based Telehealth Program for Supporting Older Adults' Health.

Front Psychiatry 2020 2;11:598356. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Social-distancing due to COVID-19 has led to social isolation, stress, and mental health issues in older adults, while overwhelming healthcare systems worldwide. Telehealth involving phone calls by trained volunteers is understudied and may be a low-cost, scalable, and valuable preventive tool for mental health. In this context, from patient participatory volunteer initiatives, we have adapted and developed an innovative volunteer-based telehealth intervention program for older adults (TIP-OA). To evaluate TIP-OA, we are conducting a mixed-methods longitudinal observational study. TIP-OA clients are older adults (age ≥ 60) recruited in Montreal, Quebec. TIP-OA volunteers make weekly friendly phone calls to seniors to check in, form connections, provide information about COVID-19, and connect clients to community resources as needed. Perceived stress, fear surrounding COVID-19, depression, and anxiety will be assessed at baseline, and at 4- and 8-weeks. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups will be conducted to assess the experiences of clients, volunteers, and stakeholders. As of October 15th, 2020, 150 volunteers have been trained to provide TIP-OA to 305 older clients. We will consecutively select 200 clients receiving TIP-OA for quantitative data collection, plus 16 volunteers and 8 clinicians for focus groups, and 15 volunteers, 10 stakeholders, and 25 clients for semi-structured interviews. During COVID-19, healthcare professionals' decreased availability and increased needs related to geriatric mental health are expected. If successful and scalable, volunteer-based TIP-OA may help prevent and improve mental health concerns, improve community participation, and decrease healthcare utilization. : ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04523610; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04523610?term=NCT04523610&draw=2&rank=1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.598356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738321PMC
December 2020

The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 contributes to the regulation of the Notch-signaling pathway and sprouting angiogenesis.

Angiogenesis 2020 May 9;23(2):145-157. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

CRCHUM - Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The Dll4-Notch-signaling pathway regulates capillary sprouting via the specification of endothelial tip cells. While VEGF is a potent inducer of Dll4 expression, the intracellular mediators that stimulate its expression remain poorly defined. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 is required for angiogenesis in normal or pathological contexts through its modulation of VEGF signaling. Here, we show that in DEP-1 KO mice, retinas at post-natal day 5 show enlarged blood vessels, as well as an increased number of tip cells and vessel branching points at the migrating front of the vascular plexus. Consistent with these observations, the proliferation of endothelial cells is increased in the retinas of DEP-1 KO mice, as revealed by phospho-histone H3 staining, and increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs transfected with DEP-1 siRNA. The expression of Dll4 was decreased in retinas of DEP-1 KO mice and was associated with decreased Notch activation. Mechanistically, reduced Dll4 expression in the absence of DEP-1 was correlated with the inhibition of the Src/Akt/β-Catenin-signaling pathway in HUVECs. Conversely, overexpression of WT DEP-1 in cultured endothelial cells, but not of mutants unable to activate Src-dependent signaling, promoted Dll4 expression. Inhibition of Src, Akt, and β-catenin transcriptional activity, leading to the inhibition of Dll4 expression, further suggested that their activation through a DEP-1-dependent pathway was required to promote Dll4 expression in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Altogether, these data demonstrate that DEP-1, via Akt and β-catenin, is a significant promoter of the VEGF-induced Dll4-Notch pathway, and can contribute to the regulation of the tip and stalk cell phenotypes of endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-019-09683-zDOI Listing
May 2020

Modulation of electric brain responses evoked by pitch deviants through transcranial direct current stimulation.

Neuropsychologia 2018 01 26;109:63-74. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; International Laboratory for Brain, Music and Sound Research (BRAMS), Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; Center of Research on Brain Language and Music (CRBLM), McGill University, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a difficulty detecting pitch deviation that is related to abnormal electrical brain responses. Abnormalities found along the right fronto-temporal pathway between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the auditory cortex (AC) are the likely neural mechanism responsible for amusia. To investigate the causal role of these regions during the detection of pitch deviants, we applied cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right frontal and right temporal regions during separate testing sessions. We recorded participants' electrical brain activity (EEG) before and after tDCS stimulation while they performed a pitch change detection task. Relative to a sham condition, there was a decrease in P3 amplitude after cathodal stimulation over both frontal and temporal regions compared to pre-stimulation baseline. This decrease was associated with small pitch deviations (6.25 cents), but not large pitch deviations (200 cents). Overall, this demonstrates that using tDCS to disrupt regions around the IFG and AC can induce temporary changes in evoked brain activity when processing pitch deviants. These electrophysiological changes are similar to those observed in amusia and provide causal support for the connection between P3 and fronto-temporal brain regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.11.028DOI Listing
January 2018

Lymphocytic Microparticles Modulate Angiogenic Properties of Macrophages in Laser-induced Choroidal Neovascularization.

Sci Rep 2016 11 22;6:37391. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Pathological choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the common cause of vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macrophages possess potential angiogenic function in CNV. We have demonstrated that human T lymphocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) exert a potent antiangiogenic effect in several pathological neovascularization models. In this study, we investigated the alteration of proangiogenic properties of macrophages by LMPs treatment in vitro and in vivo models. LMPs regulated the expression of several angiogenesis-related factors in macrophages and consequently stimulated their antiangiogenic effects evidenced by the suppression of the proliferation of human retinal endothelial cells in co-culture experiments. The involvement of CD36 receptor in LMPs uptake by macrophages was demonstrated by in vitro assays and by immunostaining of choroidal flat mounts. In addition, ex vivo experiments showed that CD36 mediates the antiangiogenic effect of LMPs in murine and human choroidal explants. Furthermore, intravitreal injection of LMPs in the mouse model of laser-induced CNV significantly suppressed CNV in CD36 dependent manner. The results of this study suggested an ability of LMPs to alter the gene expression pattern of angiogenesis-related factors in macrophages, which provide important information for a new therapeutic approach for efficiently interfering with both vascular and extravascular components of CNV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118818PMC
November 2016

Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 Is an Essential Promoter of Vascular Permeability, Angiogenesis, and Tumor Progression.

Cancer Res 2016 09 30;76(17):5080-91. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

CRCHUM - Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Institut du cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Département de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 has been implicated in negative growth regulation in endothelial cells, where its expression varies at transitions between proliferation and contact inhibition. However, in the same cells, DEP-1 has also been implicated in VEGF-dependent Src activation, permeability, and capillary formation, suggesting a positive role in regulating these functions. To resolve this dichotomy in vivo, we investigated postnatal angiogenesis and vascular permeability in a DEP-1-deficient mouse. In this study, we report that DEP-1 is required for Src activation and phosphorylation of its endothelial cell-specific substrate, VE-cadherin, after systemic injection of VEGF. Accordingly, VEGF-induced vascular leakage was abrogated in the DEP-1-deficient mice. Furthermore, capillary formation was impaired in murine aortic tissue rings or Matrigel plugs infused with VEGF. In the absence of DEP-1, angiogenesis triggered by ischemia or during tumor formation was defective, which in the latter case was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Macrophage infiltration was also impaired, reflecting reduced vascular permeability in the tumors or a possible cell autonomous effect of DEP-1. Consequently, the formation of spontaneous and experimental lung metastases was strongly decreased in DEP-1-deficient mice. In clinical specimens of cancer, less vascularized tumors exhibited lower microvascular expression of DEP-1. Altogether, our results established DEP-1 as an essential driver of VEGF-dependent permeability, angiogenesis, and metastasis, suggesting a novel therapeutic route to cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5080-91. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1071DOI Listing
September 2016

CdGAP/ARHGAP31, a Cdc42/Rac1 GTPase regulator, is critical for vascular development and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis.

Sci Rep 2016 06 7;6:27485. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

CRCHUM - Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Mutations in the CdGAP/ARHGAP31 gene, which encodes a GTPase-activating protein for Rac1 and Cdc42, have been reported causative in the Adams-Oliver developmental syndrome often associated with vascular defects. However, despite its abundant expression in endothelial cells, CdGAP function in the vasculature remains unknown. Here, we show that vascular development is impaired in CdGAP-deficient mouse embryos at E15.5. This is associated with superficial vessel defects and subcutaneous edema, resulting in 44% embryonic/perinatal lethality. VEGF-driven angiogenesis is defective in CdGAP(-/-) mice, showing reduced capillary sprouting from aortic ring explants. Similarly, VEGF-dependent endothelial cell migration and capillary formation are inhibited upon CdGAP knockdown. Mechanistically, CdGAP associates with VEGF receptor-2 and controls VEGF-dependent signaling. Consequently, CdGAP depletion results in impaired VEGF-mediated Rac1 activation and reduced phosphorylation of critical intracellular mediators including Gab1, Akt, PLCγ and SHP2. These findings are the first to demonstrate the importance of CdGAP in embryonic vascular development and VEGF-induced signaling, and highlight CdGAP as a potential therapeutic target to treat pathological angiogenesis and vascular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4895392PMC
June 2016

Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination.

PLoS One 2016 19;11(5):e0155291. Epub 2016 May 19.

Département de psychologie, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155291PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873218PMC
July 2017

Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

Neuropsychologia 2015 Aug 25;75:525-32. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; International Laboratory for Brain, Music and Sound Research (BRAMS), Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada; Center for Research on Brain, Language & Music (CRBLM), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition (CERNEC), Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Electronic address:

The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.06.030DOI Listing
August 2015

Phosphorylation of DEP-1/PTPRJ on threonine 1318 regulates Src activation and endothelial cell permeability induced by vascular endothelial growth factor.

Cell Signal 2014 Jun 28;26(6):1283-93. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

CRCHUM - Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

The protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ positively regulates Src family kinases and critical biological functions in endothelial and hematopoietic cells. Phosphorylation of DEP-1 on Y1311/Y1320 mediates the association and activation of Src, and promotes Src-dependent angiogenic responses including endothelial cell permeability. We have identified T1318 as a phosphorylated residue proximal to Y1320. The aim of this study was to determine if T1318 phosphorylation exerts a regulatory role over the function of DEP-1. We show that phosphorylation of DEP-1 on Y1320 was reduced when T1318 was mutated. This led to the decreased association of DEP-1 T1318A with Src, and defective Src activation in both HEK 293T and VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Consistent with these findings, VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, its association to β-arrestin1/2, and cell permeability were impaired in cells expressing DEP-1 T1318A. Conversely, expression of the phosphomimetic mutant DEP-1 T1318E constitutively enhanced the phosphorylation of Y1320 and VE-cadherin over that induced by WT DEP-1, and resulted in increased VEGF-dependent permeability. DEP-1 T1318 is part of a CK2 consensus phosphorylation site and was identified as a CK2 substrate. Modulation of CK2 expression or activity in endothelial cells regulated T1318 phosphorylation, and correlated with the status of Y1320 phosphorylation, Src activation, and cell permeability. CK2-dependent phosphorylation of DEP-1 T1318 promotes Y1320 phosphorylation and Src activation upon VEGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of T1318 is thus part of a regulatory mechanism that channels the activity of DEP-1 towards Src to allow its optimal activation and the promotion of endothelial cell permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.02.008DOI Listing
June 2014

Anti-CD73 therapy impairs tumor angiogenesis.

Int J Cancer 2014 Mar 18;134(6):1466-73. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Faculté de Pharmacie et Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2L 4M1, Canada.

CD73 is an ecto-nucleotidase overexpressed in various types of tumors that catabolizes the generation of extracellular adenosine, a potent immunosuppressor. We and others have shown that targeted blockade of CD73 can rescue anti-tumor T cells from the immunosuppressive effects of extracellular adenosine. Another important function of extracellular adenosine is to regulate adaptive responses to hypoxia. However, the importance of CD73 for tumor angiogenesis and the effect of anti-CD73 therapy on tumor angiogenesis remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CD73 expression on tumor cells and host cells contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Our data revealed that tumor-derived CD73 enhances the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by tumor cells that host-derived CD73 is required for in vivo angiogenic responses and that endothelial cells require CD73 expression for tube formation and migration. Notably, the pro-angiogeneic effects of CD73 relied on both enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions. Using a mouse model of breast cancer, we demonstrated that targeted blockade of CD73 with a monoclonal antibody significantly decreased tumor VEGF levels and suppressed tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that targeted blockade of CD73 can significantly block tumor angiogenesis, and further supports its clinical development for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28456DOI Listing
March 2014

Tyrosine phosphorylation of DEP-1/CD148 as a mechanism controlling Src kinase activation, endothelial cell permeability, invasion, and capillary formation.

Blood 2012 Sep 16;120(13):2745-56. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) and Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

DEP-1/CD148 is a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase with antiproliferative and tumor-suppressive functions. Interestingly, it also positively regulates Src family kinases in hematopoietic and endothelial cells, where we showed it promotes VE-cadherin-associated Src activation and endothelial cell survival upon VEGF stimulation. However, the molecular mechanism involved and its biologic functions in endothelial cells remain ill-defined. We demonstrate here that DEP-1 is phosphorylated in a Src- and Fyn-dependent manner on Y1311 and Y1320, which bind the Src SH2 domain. This allows DEP-1-catalyzed dephosphorylation of Src inhibitory Y529 and favors the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of Src substrates VE-cadherin and Cortactin. Accordingly, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of DEP-1 or expression of DEP-1 Y1311F/Y1320F impairs Src-dependent biologic responses mediated by VEGF including permeability, invasion, and branching capillary formation. In addition, our work further reveals that above a threshold expression level, DEP-1 can also dephosphorylate Src Y418 and attenuate downstream signaling and biologic responses, consistent with the quiescent behavior of confluent endothelial cells that express the highest levels of endogenous DEP-1. Collectively, our findings identify the VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of DEP-1 as a novel mechanism controlling Src activation, and show this is essential for the proper regulation of permeability and the promotion of the angiogenic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-12-398040DOI Listing
September 2012

Annexin-1-mediated endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced inhibition of miR-196a expression.

J Biol Chem 2012 Aug 6;287(36):30541-51. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Le Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l'Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ, l'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, 9 rue McMahon, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada.

Endothelial cell migration induced in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential step of angiogenesis. It depends in part on the activation of the p38/MAPKAP kinase-2/LIMK1/annexin-A1 (ANXA1) signaling axis. In the present study, we obtained evidence indicating that miR-196a specifically binds to the 3'-UTR region of ANXA1 mRNA to repress its expression. In accordance with the role of ANXA1 in cell migration and angiogenesis, the ectopic expression of miR-196a is associated with decreased cell migration in wound closure assays, and the inhibitory effect of miR-196a is rescued by overexpressing ANXA1. This finding highlights the fact that ANXA1 is a required mediator of VEGF-induced cell migration. miR-196a also reduces the formation of lamellipodia in response to VEGF suggesting that ANXA1 regulates cell migration by securing the formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of the cell. Additionally, in line with the fact that cell migration is an essential step of angiogenesis, the ectopic expression of miR-196a impairs the formation of capillary-like structures in a tissue-engineered model of angiogenesis. Here again, the effect of miR-196a is rescued by overexpressing ANXA1. Moreover, the presence of miR-196a impairs the VEGF-induced in vivo neo-vascularization in the Matrigel Plug assay. Interestingly, VEGF reduces the expression of miR-196a, which is associated with an increased level of ANXA1. Similarly, the inhibition of miR-196a with an antagomir results in an increased level of ANXA1. We conclude that the VEGF-induced decrease of miR-196a expression may participate to the angiogenic switch by maintaining the expression of ANXA1 to levels required to enable p38-ANXA1-dependent endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis in response to VEGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.393561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3436302PMC
August 2012

Non-redundant roles of the Gab1 and Gab2 scaffolding adapters in VEGF-mediated signalling, migration, and survival of endothelial cells.

Cell Signal 2009 Jun 20;21(6):943-53. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Gab1 was previously described as a positive modulator of Akt, Src, ERK1/2, endothelial cell migration, and capillary formation in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its involvement in endothelial cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of the other family member Gab2 to signalling and biological responses remained unknown. Here, we show that Gab2 is tyrosine phosphorylated in a Grb2-dependent manner downstream of activated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and that it associates with signalling proteins including PI3K and SHP2, but apparently not with the receptor. Similarly to Gab1, over-expression of Gab2 induces endothelial cell migration in response to VEGF, whereas its depletion using siRNAs results in its reduction. Importantly, depletion of both Gab1 and Gab2 leads to an even greater inhibition of VEGF-induced cell migration. However, contrary to what has been reported for Gab1, the silencing of Gab2 results in increased Src, Akt and ERK1/2 activation, slightly reduced p38 phosphorylation, and up-regulation of Gab1 protein levels. Accordingly, re-expression of Gab2 in Gab2-/- fibroblasts leads to opposite results, suggesting that the modulation of both Gab2 and Gab1 expression in these conditions might contribute to the impaired signalling observed. Consistent with their opposite roles on Akt, the depletion of Gab1, but not of Gab2, results in reduced FOXO1 phosphorylation and VEGF-mediated endothelial cell survival. Mutation of VEGFR2 Y801 and Y1214, which abrogates the phosphorylation of Gab1, also correlates with inhibition of Akt. Altogether, these results underscore the non-redundant and essential roles of Gab1 and Gab2 in endothelial cells, and suggest major contributions of these proteins during in vivo angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2009.02.004DOI Listing
June 2009

New role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 in Akt activation and endothelial cell survival.

Mol Cell Biol 2009 Jan 20;29(1):241-53. Epub 2008 Oct 20.

CRCHUM-Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada H2L 4M1.

Functional inactivation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 leads to increased endothelial cell proliferation and failure of vessels to remodel and branch. DEP-1 has also been proposed to contribute to the contact inhibition of endothelial cell growth via dephosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), a mediator of vascular development. However, how DEP-1 regulates VEGF-dependent signaling and biological responses remains ill-defined. We show here that DEP-1 targets tyrosine residues in the VEGFR2 kinase activation loop. Consequently, depletion of DEP-1 results in the increased phosphorylation of all major VEGFR2 autophosphorylation sites, but surprisingly, not in the overall stimulation of VEGF-dependent signaling. The increased phosphorylation of Src on Y529 under these conditions results in impaired Src and Akt activation. This inhibition is similarly observed upon expression of catalytically inactive DEP-1, and coexpression of an active Src-Y529F mutant rescues Akt activation. Reduced Src activity correlates with decreased phosphorylation of Gab1, an adapter protein involved in VEGF-dependent Akt activation. Hypophosphorylated Gab1 is unable to fully associate with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, VEGFR2, and VE-cadherin complexes, leading to suboptimal Akt activation and increased cell death. Overall, our results reveal that despite its negative role on global VEGFR2 phosphorylation, DEP-1 is a positive regulator of VEGF-mediated Src and Akt activation and endothelial cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01374-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2612487PMC
January 2009

The scaffolding adapter Gab1 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor signaling and is required for endothelial cell migration and capillary formation.

J Biol Chem 2007 Mar 17;282(11):7758-69. Epub 2006 Dec 17.

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal/Institut du Cancer de Montréal and Département de Médecine de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1, Canada.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the promotion of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and capillary formation. These activities are mainly mediated by the VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase that upon stimulation, promotes the activation of numerous proteins including phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, Src, and ERK1/2. However, the VEGFR2-proximal signaling events leading to the activation of these targets remain ill defined. We have identified the Gab1 adapter as a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in VEGF-stimulated cells. In bovine aortic endothelial cells, Gab1 associates with VEGFR2, Grb2, PI3K, SHP2, Shc, and PLCgamma, and its overexpression enhances VEGF-dependent cell migration. Importantly, silencing of Gab1 using small interfering RNAs leads to the impaired activation of PLCgamma, ERK1/2, Src, and Akt; blocks VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration; and perturbs actin reorganization and capillary formation. In addition, co-expression of VEGFR2 with Gab1 mutants unable to bind SHP2 or PI3K in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells mimics the defects observed in Gab1-depleted cells. Our work thus identifies Gab1 as a novel critical regulatory component of endothelial cell migration and capillary formation and reveals its key role in the activation of VEGF-evoked signaling pathways required for angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M611327200DOI Listing
March 2007

Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activity by caveolin-1 and plasma membrane cholesterol.

Mol Biol Cell 2003 Jan;14(1):334-47

Centre de Cancérologie Charles-Bruneau, Hôpital Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5.

The stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by tumor-derived VEGF represents a key event in the initiation of angiogenesis. In this work, we report that VEGFR-2 is localized in endothelial caveolae, associated with caveolin-1, and that this complex is rapidly dissociated upon stimulation with VEGF. The kinetics of caveolin-1 dissociation correlated with those of VEGF-dependent VEGFR-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that caveolin-1 acts as a negative regulator of VEGF R-2 activity. Interestingly, we observed that in an overexpression system in which VEGFR-2 is constitutively active, caveolin-1 overexpression inhibits VEGFR-2 activity but allows VEGFR-2 to undergo VEGF-dependent activation, suggesting that caveolin-1 can confer ligand dependency to a receptor system. Removal of caveolin and VEGFR-2 from caveolae by cholesterol depletion resulted in an increase in both basal and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, but led to the inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration, suggesting that localization of VEGFR-2 to these domains is crucial for VEGF-mediated signaling. Dissociation of the VEGFR-2/caveolin-1 complex by VEGF or cyclodextrin led to a PP2-sensitive phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine 14, suggesting the participation of Src family kinases in this process. Overall, these results suggest that caveolin-1 plays multiple roles in the VEGF-induced signaling cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e02-07-0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC140249PMC
January 2003

Crk adapter proteins promote an epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition and are required for HGF-mediated cell spreading and breakdown of epithelial adherens junctions.

Mol Biol Cell 2002 May;13(5):1449-61

Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1.

Activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase through its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), promotes an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell dispersal. However, little is known about the HGF-dependent signals that regulate these events. HGF stimulation of epithelial cell colonies leads to the enhanced recruitment of the CrkII and CrkL adapter proteins to Met-dependent signaling complexes. We provide evidence that signals involving CrkII and CrkL are required for the breakdown of adherens junctions, the spreading of epithelial colonies, and the formation of lamellipodia in response to HGF. The overexpression of a CrkI SH3 domain mutant blocks these HGF-dependent events. In addition, the overexpression of CrkII or CrkL promotes lamellipodia formation, loss of adherens junctions, cell spreading, and dispersal of colonies of breast cancer epithelial cells in the absence of HGF. Stable lines of epithelial cells overexpressing CrkII show enhanced activation of Rac1 and Rap1. The Crk-dependent breakdown of adherens junctions and cell spreading is inhibited by the expression of a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 but not Rap1. These findings provide evidence that Crk adapter proteins play a critical role in the breakdown of adherens junctions and the spreading of sheets of epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.01-10-0477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC111118PMC
May 2002
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