Publications by authors named "Isabelle Hardy"

49 Publications

Public perception of laser-assisted blepharoplasty versus blade-assisted blepharoplasty.

Can J Ophthalmol 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; University Centre of Ophthalmology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate perceptions of blade- versus laser-based blepharoplasty before and after being provided educational information.

Design/participants/methods: This interventional pre-post study included 145 randomly selected participants (Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Canada, August 2020) who were asked about their perceptions surrounding blepharoplasty. Participants then received information about the techniques before answering final questions.

Results: Participants perceived no difference in outcomes for blade (37%) versus laser (40%) blepharoplasty precounselling. This increased to laser blepharoplasty postintervention (56%, p < 0.001) despite being told that there was no difference in outcomes. The higher the level of education among participants, the more likely they were to correctly believe that both techniques had similar outcomes (p = 0.049). Most participants would choose laser blepharoplasty initially (64%), and this percentage increased postintervention (81%, p < 0.001). The preintervention perception of blade blepharoplasty recovery time (20.1 ± 32.6 days) was longer than that for laser blepharoplasty (13.5 ± 32.0 days, p = 0.01) and increased for both techniques postintervention (p < 0.001). Perceived pain was lower for laser blepharoplasty. Postintervention, participants responded that additional costs of ($975 ± $1,091) would justify laser over blade blepharoplasty.

Conclusion: Elucidating patient perceptions and preferences for blade- versus laser-based blepharoplasty provides surgeons with perspective on how to tailor preoperative counselling. Before and after the intervention, participants had a bias toward choosing laser blepharoplasty. The intervention seems to falsely convince people that laser blepharoplasty leads to better outcomes. Because the doctor's advice can greatly impact patients' decisions, physicians have to be careful not to give false expectations when counselling patients. Inaccurate recall of key educational takeaways suggests that information should be vulgarized and delivered actively to patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2022.03.006DOI Listing
April 2022

Experiences from a national webinar with recently matched Canadian ophthalmology residents for medical students.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 14. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

University of Montreal, Montreal, Que.. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2021.10.004DOI Listing
November 2021

Clinical Evaluation of In-House-Produced 3D-Printed Nasopharyngeal Swabs for COVID-19 Testing.

Viruses 2021 09 2;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 900 rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada.

3D-printed alternatives to standard flocked swabs were rapidly developed to provide a response to the unprecedented and sudden need for an exponentially growing amount of diagnostic tools to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the anticipated shortage, a hospital-based 3D-printing platform was implemented in our institution for the production of swabs for nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal sampling based on the freely available, open-source design provided to the community by University of South Florida's Health Radiology and Northwell Health System teams as a replacement for locally used commercial swabs. Validation of our 3D-printed swabs was performed with a head-to-head diagnostic accuracy study of the 3D-printed "Northwell model" with the cobas PCR Media swab sample kit. We observed an excellent concordance (total agreement 96.8%, Kappa 0.936) in results obtained with the 3D-printed and flocked swabs, indicating that the in-house 3D-printed swab could be used reliably in the context of a shortage of flocked swabs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on autonomous hospital-based production and clinical validation of 3D-printed swabs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13091752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473445PMC
September 2021

Impact of cobas PCR Media freezing on SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA integrity and whole genome sequencing analyses.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Dec 21;101(4):115521. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Immunopathology Axis, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Microbiology and Molecular Biology Services, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing is a molecular biology tool performed to support many aspects of the response to the pandemic. Freezing of primary clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and shipment to reference laboratories is usually required for sequencing. Cobas PCR Media transport medium facilitates high throughput SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analyses on cobas platforms. The manufacturer doesn't recommend freezing this transport medium because of risks of degrading molecular templates and impairing test results. Our objective was to compare the quality and results of SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing when performed on fresh or frozen samples in cobas PCR Media. Viral genome sequencing was performed using Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION platform. Sequencing performance, quality and results did not significantly differ between fresh and frozen samples (n = 10). Freezing of cobas PCR Media does not negatively affect SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequencing results and it is therefore a suitable transport medium for outsourcing sequencing analyses to reference laboratories.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379003PMC
December 2021

The Role of Phylogenetics in Unravelling Patterns of HIV Transmission towards Epidemic Control: The Quebec Experience (2002-2020).

Viruses 2021 08 19;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Montreal PHI Cohort of the Réseau Sida et Maladies Infectieuses, Centre de Recherche du CHUM, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada.

Phylogenetics has been advanced as a structural framework to infer evolving trends in the regional spread of HIV-1 and guide public health interventions. In Quebec, molecular network analyses tracked HIV transmission dynamics from 2002-2020 using MEGA10-Neighbour-joining, HIV-TRACE, and MicrobeTrace methodologies. Phylogenetics revealed three patterns of viral spread among Men having Sex with Men (MSM, = 5024) and heterosexuals (HET, = 1345) harbouring subtype B epidemics as well as B and non-B subtype epidemics ( = 1848) introduced through migration. Notably, half of new subtype B infections amongst MSM and HET segregating as solitary transmissions or small cluster networks (2-5 members) declined by 70% from 2006-2020, concomitant to advances in treatment-as-prevention. Nonetheless, subtype B epidemic control amongst MSM was thwarted by the ongoing genesis and expansion of super-spreader large cluster variants leading to micro-epidemics, averaging 49 members/cluster at the end of 2020. The growth of large clusters was related to forward transmission cascades of untreated early-stage infections, younger at-risk populations, more transmissible/replicative-competent strains, and changing demographics. Subtype B and non-B subtype infections introduced through recent migration now surpass the domestic epidemic amongst MSM. Phylodynamics can assist in predicting and responding to active, recurrent, and newly emergent large cluster networks, as well as the cryptic spread of HIV introduced through migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13081643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402830PMC
August 2021

Healthy for My Baby Research Protocol- a Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing a Preconception Intervention to Improve the Lifestyle of Overweight Women and Their Partners.

Front Public Health 2021 3;9:670304. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Sherbrooke and Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CRCHUS), Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Preconception lifestyle interventions appear promising to reduce pregnancy complications, prevent adult cardiometabolic diseases, and prevent childhood obesity. These interventions have almost exclusively been studied in populations of obese infertile women. The development of preconception lifestyle interventions targeting a broader population of overweight and obese women without a history infertility and their partners is needed. This study is a multicenter open label parallel group randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight non-infertile women with overweight or obesity in the preconception period and their partners will be recruited from the Sherbrooke and Quebec City regions. The couples will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the intervention or standard care in the preconception period and pregnancy. Women and their partners will be invited to take part in this lifestyle intervention which includes motivational interviews and daily self-monitoring of lifestyle goals through a mobile phone application. The primary endpoint of this study is the diet quality of women during the preconception period, which will be evaluated using the C-HEI 2007 score at baseline, 2, 4- and 6-months following study enrolment. Women's dietary quality will also be evaluated through the measure of urinary biomarkers of habitual dietary intake at baseline and 2 months in preconception, and 24-26 weeks in pregnancy. Additional indicators of women's lifestyle as well as anthropometric measures will be documented in preconception and pregnancy. For the pregnancy period, the main secondary endpoint is the pattern of gestational weight gain. Pregnancy and neonatal complications will also be evaluated. For partners, diet quality, other lifestyle habits, and anthropometric measures will be documented in the preconception and pregnancy periods. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost intervention designed to improve diet and other lifestyle characteristics of women in the preconception period who are overweight or obese. If the intervention is efficacious regarding dietary measures, larger trials will be needed to evaluate the impact of this intervention on the rates of pregnancy complications, childhood obesity, and adult cardiometabolic disease. clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04242069).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.670304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369366PMC
October 2021

Phylogenetic Clustering among Asylum Seekers with New HIV-1 Diagnoses in Montreal, QC, Canada.

Viruses 2021 04 1;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

Migrants are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition. We aimed to use phylogenetics to characterize transmission clusters among newly-diagnosed asylum seekers and to understand the role of networks in local HIV transmission. Retrospective chart reviews of asylum seekers linked to HIV care between 1 June 2017 and 31 December 2018 at the McGill University Health Centre and the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal were performed. HIV-1 partial sequences were analyzed among study participants and individuals in the provincial genotyping database. Trees were reconstructed using MEGA10 neighbor-joining analysis. Clustering of linked viral sequences was based on a strong bootstrap support (>97%) and a short genetic distance (<0.01). Overall, 10,645 provincial sequences and 105 asylum seekers were included. A total of 13/105 participant sequences (12%; = 7 males) formed part of eight clusters. Four clusters (two to three people) included only study participants ( = 9) and four clusters (two to three people) included four study participants clustered with six individuals from the provincial genotyping database. Six (75%) clusters were HIV subtype B. We identified the presence of HIV-1 phylogenetic clusters among asylum seekers and at a population-level. Our findings highlight the complementary role of cohort data and population-level genotypic surveillance to better characterize transmission clusters in Quebec.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13040601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066823PMC
April 2021

New virtual CaRMS: perspectives from residency programs.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 08 6;56(4):273-276. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Que. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2020.12.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of previous HIV resistance and virologic failures on virologic outcome following a switch to dolutegravir with 2 NRTIs among people living with HIV.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(47):e23335

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal.

There is uncertainty regarding the potential virologic outcome associated with a change in antiretroviral therapy (ARV) among PLHIV who had previous documented virologic failure or who have been exposure to mono/dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) therapy. The objective was to measure the potential impact of exposure to previous virologic failure or mono/dual NRTI regimen on virologic outcome of PLHIV following a switch to dolutegravir with 2 NRTIs from a viremia suppressive ARV therapy.Data from the Quebec HIV Cohort including 10219 PLHIV were collected through routine clinical care at 4 clinical sites in Montreal, Canada. This study includes patients whose ARV therapy was switched to dolutegravir with 2 NRTIs since 2013 with undetectable viral load for ≥6 months before switch. The association between exposure and post-switch virologic outcome was measured by marginal hazard ratio estimated using the Inverse probability weighting Cox model.Among the 1199 eligible PLHIV, 478 (39.9%) previously experienced at least one virologic failure or were exposed to mono/dual therapy before dolutegravir switch. Post-switch virologic failure after 30 months occurred in 4.1% (95% CI 2.1-7.9) of exposed compared to 4.1% (95% CI 2.3-7.4) in unexposed participants. The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between exposure and post-switch virologic failure was 0.84 (95% CI 0.35-2.01).Our findings suggest that switch to dolutegravir with 2 NRTIs from a suppressive therapy is a safe option for PLHIV with documented virologic failure and/or previous exposure to mono/dual NRTI therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676601PMC
November 2020

Treatment Switch to Dolutegravir With 2 Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI) in Comparison to Continuation With Protease Inhibitor/Ritonavir Among Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus at Risk for Prior NRTI Resistance: A Cohort Analysis of Real-World Data.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 4;7(11):ofaa404. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Switching antiretroviral regimens when human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia is controlled for a new regimen is challenging when there is the potential for prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance. The objective was to study virologic outcomes after switching to dolutegravir compared with remaining on a boosted protease inhibitor (protease inhibitor/ritonavir [PI/r]) regimen in people with HIV (PWH) with prior documented virologic failure and/or exposure to mono/dual NRTIs.

Methods: We used the Quebec HIV Cohort including 10 219 PWH whose data were collected at 4 sites in Montreal, Canada. We included all PWH with documented virologic failure or exposure to mono/dual NRTI therapy who were virologically suppressed on a PI/r-based regimen for at least 6 months on or after January 1, 2014 (n = 532). A marginal structural Cox model analysis was used to estimate the effect of the switch to dolutegravir on virologic outcome compared with remaining on PI/r. The outcome was defined as 2 consecutive viral loads (VLs) >50 copies/mL or 1 VL >50 copies/mL if it occurred at the last VL available.

Results: Among 532 eligible participants, 216 (40.6%) had their regimen switched to dolutegravir with 2 NRTIs, whereas 316 (59.4%) remained on the PI/r with 2 NRTIs. The weighted hazard ratio for the effect of dolutegravir switch on virologic failure compared with patients whose regimen remained on PI/r was 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.21-1.52).

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of an increased risk for virologic failure after switching to dolutegravir from PI/r among patients with previous virologic failure or prior exposure to mono/dual NRTI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654378PMC
November 2020

Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Gastric Mucosa and Ocular Adnexa-Lack of Association With Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 May-Jun 01;37(3S):S1-S5

Department of Ophthalmology, Université de Montréal.

Purpose: Helicobacter pylori could theoretically induce ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) via 2 mechanisms: the first is that of infection within the ocular adnexa and the second is that of infection within the gastric mucosa, leading to the malignant transformation of lymphocytes that migrate to the ocular adnexa, forming a primary "ectopic" cancer. This study investigated if an association exists between gastric H. pylori or ocular adnexal H. pylori and OAL.

Methods: Prospective case-control study including cases with OAL and controls with nonlymphomatous pathologies. Gastric H. pylori infection was assessed via serologic antibody testing. Ocular adnexal infection was assessed via polymerase chain reaction testing for H. pylori and Chlamydia psittaci within ocular adnexal samples.

Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled, of whom 18 had lymphoma and 54 nonlymphomatous pathologies. H. pylori antibodies were present in 5 cases (28%) and 18 controls (33%) (95% CI, 0.24%-2.50%, p = 0.78). All ocular adnexal specimens were negative for H. pylori and C. psittaci infection. The only relevant statistically significant difference between cases and controls was a history of gastric ulcer (95% CI, 1.23%-44.80%, p = 0.03).

Conclusions: In the study's population, infection of gastric mucosa with H. pylori does not appear to influence the development of OAL. Also, H. pylori or C. psittaci infection within the ocular adnexa does not appear to influence the development of OAL. In the study's practice, authors do not recommend antibiotic administration or routine gastroscopy for patients with OAL. The authors do recommend referral of OAL patients with gastric symptoms to a gastroenterologist.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001729DOI Listing
May 2021

Diet quality during preconception or pregnancy and gestational weight gain: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2020 02 28;10(2):e033130. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Introduction: Inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG), including inadequate and excessive GWG, has become pandemic across nations and continents. This review aims to synthesise the evidence on the correlation between diet quality and GWG. If this association is confirmed, improving diet quality could become an intervention target in the efforts to reduce inappropriate GWG.

Methods And Analysis: We will conduct a systematic review of all prospective cohort studies on diet quality in preconception or pregnancy and GWG. Our secondary outcomes include gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and birth weight. A comprehensive search of all published articles in MEDLINE ALL (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Food Science and Technology Abstracts (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCOHost), from database creation to 20 April 2019, will be conducted. Studies will be screened for eligibility by title, abstract and full text in duplicate by two independent reviewers. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed using the adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results will be reported following the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology guidelines. If sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted to synthesise the effect size reported as OR with 95% CI using both fixed-effect and random-effect models. I statistics and visual inspection of the forest plots will be used to assess heterogeneity and identify the potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias will be assessed by visual inspections of funnel plots and Egger's test.

Ethics And Dissemination: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. We aim to publish the results of this study in a peer-reviewed journal and present them at conferences and scientific meetings to promote knowledge transfer.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42019128732.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050399PMC
February 2020

Guidelines for vismodegib in the management of periocular basal cell carcinoma.

Can J Ophthalmol 2020 06 1;55(3):245-252. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Kitchener, Ont.

Objective: The management of advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the periocular region remains a clinical challenge. Vismodegib (Erivedge) has been approved in 2013 by Health Canada for adult patients with "histologically confirmed metastatic BCC or locally advanced BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiation." An expert consensus was sought to create a standardised approach in the use of this novel treatment.

Methods: Fourteen practicing oculoplastic surgeons across Canada were involved in formulating and reviewing guidelines until consensus was reached. A consultancy meeting was followed by further ratification of guidelines over email. Two voting surveys were performed of the group to objectively assess agreement over each statement within the guidelines. Ratification continued until at least two-thirds of the group agreed on every guideline statement.

Results: The guidelines summarize 21 statements in a major and minor criteria format. A multidisciplinary team review is suggested for each patient with the involvement of recommended specialists. The internal survey revealed 100% agreement over 9 statements, 91.7% agreement over 8 statements, 83.3% agreement over 4 statements, and 2 statements had 66.7% and 58.7% agreement each. All statements with less than 91.7% agreement were surveyed again, and they were kept, modified, or removed on the basis of a consensus of over 66.7%.

Conclusions: These guidelines serve to act as a framework for physicians considering vismodegib for the medical management of patients with advanced or metastatic periocular BCC. Future applications, including neoadjuvant uses of the drug, may become apparent through further research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2019.11.004DOI Listing
June 2020

Delayed linkage to HIV care among asylum seekers in Quebec, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 16;19(1):1683. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Chronic Viral Illness Service, Glen site, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Decarie Boulevard D02.4110, Montreal, Quebec, H4A 3J1, Canada.

Background: Migrants represent an increasing proportion of people living with HIV in many developed countries. We aimed to describe the HIV care cascade and baseline genotypic resistance for newly diagnosed asylum seekers referred to the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients linked to the MUHC from June 1, 2017 to October 31, 2018. We calculated the median time (days; interquartile range (IQR)) from: 1) entry into Canada to immigration medical examination (IME) (i.e. HIV screening); 2) IME to patient notification of diagnosis; 3) notification to linkage to HIV care (defined as a CD4 or viral load (VL) measure); 4) linkage to HIV care to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prescription; and 5) cART prescription to viral suppression (defined as a VL < 20 copies/mL). We reviewed baseline genotypes and interpreted mutations using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. We calculated the proportion with full resistance to > 1 antiretroviral.

Results: Overall, 43% (60/139) of asylum seekers were newly diagnosed in Canada. Among these, 62% were late presenters (CD4 < 350 cells/μl), 22% presented with advanced HIV (CD4 < 200 cells/μl), and 25% with high-level viremia (VL > 100,000 copies/ml). Median time from entry to IME: 27 days [IQR:13;55]; IME to notification: 28 days [IQR:21;49]; notification to linkage: 6 days [IQR:2;19]; linkage to cART prescription: 11 days [IQR:6;17]; and cART to viral suppression: 42 days [IQR:31;88]; 45% were linked to HIV care within 30 days. One-fifth (21%) had baseline resistance to at least one antiretroviral agent; the K103 N/S mutation was the most common mutation.

Conclusions: While the majority of newly diagnosed asylum seekers were late presenters, only 45% were linked to care within 30 days. Once linked, care and viral suppression were rapid. Delays in screening and linkage to care present increased risk for onward transmission, and in the context of 21% baseline resistance, consideration of point-of-care testing and immediate referral at IME screening should be made.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8052-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916083PMC
December 2019

Female reproduction bears no survival cost in captivity for gray mouse lemurs.

Ecol Evol 2019 Jun 18;9(11):6189-6198. Epub 2019 May 18.

Eco-Anthropologie, UMR 7206 CNRS, MNHN, Univ. Paris Diderot Paris France.

The survival cost of reproduction has been revealed in many free-ranging vertebrates. However, recent studies on captive populations failed to detect this cost. Theoretically, this lack of survival/reproduction trade-off is expected when resources are not limiting, but these studies may have failed to detect the cost, as they may not have fully accounted for potential confounding effects, in particular interindividual heterogeneity. Here, we investigated the effects of current and past reproductive effort on later survival in captive females of a small primate, the gray mouse lemur. Survival analyses showed no cost of reproduction in females; and the pattern was even in the opposite direction: the higher the reproductive effort, the higher the chances of survival until the next reproductive event. These conclusions hold even while accounting for interindividual heterogeneity. In agreement with aforementioned studies on captive vertebrates, these results remind us that reproduction is expected to be traded against body maintenance and the survival prospect only when resources are so limiting that they induce an allocation trade-off. Thus, the cost of reproduction has a major extrinsic component driven by environmental conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580269PMC
June 2019

Caloric restriction increases lifespan but affects brain integrity in grey mouse lemur primates.

Commun Biol 2018 5;1:30. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

UMR CNRS/MNHN 7179, Mécanismes Adaptatifs et Evolution, 1 Avenue du Petit Château, 91800, Brunoy, France.

The health benefits of chronic caloric restriction resulting in lifespan extension are well established in many short-lived species, but the effects in humans and other primates remain controversial. Here we report the most advanced survival data and the associated follow-up to our knowledge of age-related alterations in a cohort of grey mouse lemurs (, lemurid primate) exposed to a chronic moderate (30%) caloric restriction. Compared to control animals, caloric restriction extended lifespan by 50% (from 6.4 to 9.6 years, median survival), reduced aging-associated diseases and preserved loss of brain white matter in several brain regions. However, caloric restriction accelerated loss of grey matter throughout much of the cerebrum. Cognitive and behavioural performances were, however, not modulated by caloric restriction. Thus chronic moderate caloric restriction can extend lifespan and enhance health of a primate, but it affects brain grey matter integrity without affecting cognitive performances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0024-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123706PMC
April 2018

Personality and performance are affected by age and early life parameters in a small primate.

Ecol Evol 2018 May 15;8(9):4598-4605. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Département Adaptations du Vivant UMR 7179 C.N.R.S/M.N.H.N. Paris Cedex 5 France.

A whole suite of parameters is likely to influence the behavior and performance of individuals as adults, including correlations between phenotypic traits or an individual's developmental context. Here, we ask the question whether behavior and physical performance traits are correlated and how early life parameters such as birth weight, litter size, and growth can influence these traits as measured during adulthood. We studied 486 captive gray mouse lemurs () and measured two behavioral traits and two performance traits potentially involved in two functions: exploration behavior with pull strength and agitation score with bite force. We checked for the existence of behavioral consistency in behaviors and explored correlations between behavior, performance, morphology. We analyzed the effect of birth weight, growth, and litter size, while controlling for age, sex, and body weight. Behavior and performance were not correlated with one another, but were both influenced by age. Growth rate had a positive effect on adult morphology, and birth weight significantly affected emergence latency and bite force. Grip strength was not directly affected by early life traits, but bite performance and exploration behavior were impacted by birth weight. This study shows how early life parameters impact personality and performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938443PMC
May 2018

Cheerleading injuries in children: What can be learned?

Paediatr Child Health 2017 Jun 5;22(3):130-133. Epub 2017 May 5.

Sainte-Justine Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec.

Introduction: Cheerleading has gradually become more popular in Canada and represents an accessible way for youth to be physically active.

Objective: To determine the differences in the injuries encountered by cheerleaders according to their age, in order to propose safety guidelines that take into account the developmental stages of children.

Method: Retrospective database review of cheerleading injuries extracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database between 1990 and 2010. The injuries were compared by age group (5 to 11 versus 12 to 19) according to their sex, mechanism of injury and injury severity.

Results: Overall, in 20 years, there were 1496 cases of injuries documented secondary to cheerleading (median age 15, 4 (interquartile range [IQR]=2, 2) years); mostly females (1410 [94%]). Of that number, 101 cases were 5 to 11 years old (age group [AG]1), while 1385 were 12 to 19 (AG2). Participants in AG1 were found to have a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe injury (46.5% compared with 28.2% in AG2). The odds ratio of moderate/severe injury for AG1 compared with AG2 was found to be 2.217 (95% CI [1.472; 3.339]). No fatalities were known to have occurred.

Conclusion: Children's developmental stages affect their ability to participate in sports and the responses of their bodies to impact forces. Our findings concerning cheerleading injuries indicate that younger children (5 to 11 years old) are more likely to suffer moderate-to-severe injuries. Thus, on a local basis, the use of appropriate safety measures including appropriate flooring/safety mats and spotters to catch falling athletes should be mandatory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxx048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805112PMC
June 2017

Prospective case-control trial evaluating silicone gel for the treatment of direct brow lift scars.

Can J Ophthalmol 2018 02;53(1):29-33

Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Que.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a topical silicone gel on scars in patients who had undergone bilateral direct brow lift surgery.

Design: A randomized double-blind clinical trial with a placebo applied to one scar and topical silicone gel (Dermatix Ultra; Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Laval, Que.) used on the other scar for 2 months.

Participants: Twelve patients (for a total of 24 surgical scars evaluated) were included in the study.

Methods: This study was performed in 2 academic hospitals of the University of Montreal in Montreal, Que. (Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital and Notre-Dame Hospital). Inclusion criteria were all bilateral direct brow lift surgeries performed in our hospitals. Exclusion criteria included revision surgery, silicone or latex allergy, and wound infection. Each patient received 2 tubes (1 with silicone gel and 1 with placebo) and applied 1 tube to their right brow scar and the other tube to their left brow scar, following the preassigned instructions. The patient and surgeon were blinded to the nature of the substance that was applied to each scar. At each visit, pictures of both scars were taken, and a questionnaire titled "The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale" was filled out by the patient and the surgeon. A grade ranging from 0 to 10 was given on the multiple criteria in the questionnaire, and the sum of these grades was subsequently used for the data analysis. A lower sum was interpreted as improved scarring. At the end of the study, an independent evaluator graded both scars based on pictures. Follow-up visits were held on day 7, week 6, month 3, and month 6 after surgery. A comparison of the experimental and placebo group was performed with nonparametric tests of Wilcoxon signed rank.

Results: A total of 24 scars of 12 patients were analyzed (based on 4 follow-up visits). General improvement of scars was reported by the patient, the surgeon, and based on pictures. No statistically significant difference was found between the group treated with silicone gel and the group treated with placebo. All tests had a p value ≥0.08.

Conclusions: We did not find a statistically significant difference between scars treated with silicone gel and scars treated with the placebo after direct brow lift surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2017.07.017DOI Listing
February 2018

Genotypic and Phylogenetic Insights on Prevention of the Spread of HIV-1 and Drug Resistance in "Real-World" Settings.

Viruses 2017 12 28;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Département de Microbiologie et d'Immunologie et Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada.

HIV continues to spread among vulnerable heterosexual (HET), Men-having-Sex with Men (MSM) and intravenous drug user (IDU) populations, influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioral and societal factors. Phylogenetics analyses of large sequence datasets from national drug resistance testing programs reveal the evolutionary interrelationships of viral strains implicated in the dynamic spread of HIV in different regional settings. Viral phylogenetics can be combined with demographic and behavioral information to gain insights on epidemiological processes shaping transmission networks at the population-level. Drug resistance testing programs also reveal emergent mutational pathways leading to resistance to the 23 antiretroviral drugs used in HIV-1 management in low-, middle- and high-income settings. This article describes how genotypic and phylogenetic information from Quebec and elsewhere provide critical information on HIV transmission and resistance, Cumulative findings can be used to optimize public health strategies to tackle the challenges of HIV in "real-world" settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5795423PMC
December 2017

High sensitivity optical biosensor based on polymer materials and using the Vernier effect.

Opt Express 2017 Nov;25(24):30799-30806

We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10 RIU.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.030799DOI Listing
November 2017

Training the Next Generation of Biobankers: A Two-Year Master's Course in the Management of Biobanks.

Biopreserv Biobank 2017 Oct 18;15(5):438-450. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

6 University Côte d'Azur, Hospital-Related Biobank (BB-0033-00025), Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology and FHU OncoAge, Nice University Center Hospital , Nice, France .

The growing complexity of biobanking requires dedicated professional staff who are trained in multiple aspects of the biobanking process, including technical, managerial, regulatory, and ethical aspects, and who have a good understanding of the challenges of biospecimen research, but also of the challenges related to the sustainability of future biobanks. Up to the present, biobanking staff have been trained in an ad-hoc manner, usually through specific short duration courses, for example, summer schools. In this article, we describe the development/establishment of a systematic 2-year training program at the Master level intended for students with a background in life sciences and providing them with a professional qualification as a "Biobank Manager." This course was developed in 2010 as a joint initiative of the Catholic University of Lyon and the University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis (France). The multidisciplinary training offers courses on biobank design and infrastructure, on pre- and postanalytical processing of different types of biospecimens, on protocol development, on ethical and regulatory aspects, as well as an introduction to epidemiology and translational research. In parallel, students also receive generic training in management, budget planning, data analysis, and statistics, as well as 11 months of hands-on training in various biobanks handling human, animal, plant, or microbial biospecimens. Four groups of students have graduated since 2012, for a total of 44 students, who all found jobs in biobanking within 6 months of graduation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2017.0002DOI Listing
October 2017

State transitions: a major mortality risk for seasonal species.

Ecol Lett 2017 07 8;20(7):883-891. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, UMR 7206 CNRS, MNHN, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Universités, Musée de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75016, Paris, France.

Ageing results from the accumulation of multifactorial damage over time. However, the temporal distribution of this damage remains unknown. In seasonal species, transitions between seasons are critical periods of massive physiological remodelling. We hypothesised that these recurrent peaks of physiological remodelling are costly in terms of survival. We tested whether captive small primates exposed to an experimentally increased frequency of seasonal transitions die sooner than individuals living under natural seasonality. The results show that experiencing one additional season per year increases the mortality hazard by a factor of 3 to 4, whereas the expected number of seasons lived is only slightly impacted by the seasonal rhythm. These results demonstrate that physiological transitions between periods of high and low metabolic activity represent a major mortality risk for seasonal organisms, which has been ignored until now.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12785DOI Listing
July 2017

HIV-1 strains belonging to large phylogenetic clusters show accelerated escape from integrase inhibitors in cell culture compared with viral isolates from singleton/small clusters.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 08;72(8):2171-2183

McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Viral phylogenetics revealed two patterns of HIV-1 spread among MSM in Quebec. While most HIV-1 strains ( n  =   2011) were associated with singleton/small clusters (cluster size 1-4), 30 viral lineages formed large networks (cluster size 20-140), contributing to 42% of diagnoses between 2011 and 2015. Herein, tissue culture selections ascertained if large cluster lineages possessed higher replicative fitness than singleton/small cluster isolates, allowing for viral escape from integrase inhibitors.

Methods: Primary HIV-1 isolates from large 20+ cluster ( n  =   11) or singleton/small cluster ( n  =   6) networks were passaged in vitro in escalating concentrations of dolutegravir, elvitegravir and lamivudine for 24-36 weeks. Sanger and deep sequencing assessed genotypic changes under selective drug pressure.

Results: Large cluster HIV-1 isolates selected for resistance to dolutegravir, elvitegravir and lamivudine faster than HIV-1 strains forming small clusters. With dolutegravir, large cluster HIV-1 variants acquired solitary R263K ( n  =   7), S153Y ( n  =   1) or H51Y ( n  =   1) mutations as the dominant quasi-species within 8-12 weeks as compared with small cluster lineages where R263K ( n  =   1/6), S153Y (1/6) or WT species (4/6) were observed after 24 weeks. Interestingly, dolutegravir-associated mutations compromised viral replicative fitness, precluding escalations in concentrations beyond 5-10 nM. With elvitegravir, large cluster variants more rapidly acquired first mutations (T66I, A92G, N155H or S147G) by week 8 followed by sequential accumulation of multiple mutations leading to viral escape (>10 μM) by week 24.

Conclusions: Further studies are needed to understand virological features of large cluster viruses that may favour their transmissibility, replicative competence and potential to escape selective antiretroviral drug pressure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263826PMC
August 2017

Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates.

Aging (Albany NY) 2016 12;9(1):173-186

MECADEV UMR 7179, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 91800 Brunoy, France.

Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, , spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (r=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (r=0.56) and hippocampus (r=-0.62) or septum (r=-0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5310663PMC
December 2016

Large cluster outbreaks sustain the HIV epidemic among MSM in Quebec.

AIDS 2017 03;31(5):707-717

aMcGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research bDépartement de Microbiologie et d'Immunologie et Centre de Recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) cDepartment of Mathematics and Statistics, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University dUniversité du Québec eDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada fTel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel gDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium hCenter for Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Unidade de Microbiologia, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objective: HIV-1 epidemics among MSM remain unchecked despite advances in treatment and prevention paradigms. This study combined viral phylogenetic and behavioural risk data to better understand underlying factors governing the temporal growth of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Quebec (2002-2015).

Methods: Phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences was used to deduce HIV-1 transmission dynamics (cluster size, size distribution and growth rate) in first genotypes of treatment-naïve MSM (2002-2015, n = 3901). Low sequence diversity of first genotypes (0-0.44% mixed base calls) was used as an indication of early-stage infection. Behavioural risk data were obtained from the Montreal rapid testing site and primary HIV-1-infection cohorts.

Results: Phylogenetic analyses uncovered high proportion of clustering of new MSM infections. Overall, 27, 45, 48, 53 and 57% of first genotypes within one (singleton, n = 1359), 2-4 (n = 692), 5-9 (n = 367), 10-19 (n = 405) and 20+ (n = 1277) cluster size groups were early infections (<0.44% diversity). Thirty viruses within large 20+ clusters disproportionately fuelled the epidemic, representing 13, 25 and 42% of infections, first genotyped in 2004-2007 (n = 1314), 2008-2011 (n = 1356) and 2012-2015 (n = 1033), respectively. Of note, 35, 21 and 14% of MSM belonging to 20+, 2-19 and one (singleton) cluster groups were under 30 years of age, respectively. Half of persons seen at the rapid testing site (2009-2011, n = 1781) were untested in the prior year. Poor testing propensity was associated with fewer reported partnerships.

Conclusion: Addressing the heterogeneity in transmission dynamics among HIV-1-infected MSM populations may help guide testing, treatment and prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001383DOI Listing
March 2017

Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared.

Opt Express 2016 Oct;24(20):23109-23117

A selenide integrated platform working in the mid-infrared was designed, fabricated and optically characterized at 7.7 µm. Ge-Sb-Se multilayered structures were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Using i-line photolithography and fluorine-based reactive ion etching, ridge waveguides were processed as Y-junction, spiral and S-shape waveguides. Single-mode optical propagation at 7.7 µm was observed by optical near-field imaging and optical propagation losses of 2.5dB/cm are measured. Limits of detection of 14.2 ppm and 1.6 ppm for methane and nitrous oxide, respectively, could be potentially measured by using this platform as an evanescent field sensor. Hence, these technological, experimental and theoretical results represent a first step towards the development of an integrated optical sensor operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.023109DOI Listing
October 2016

Comparison of Two Polypropylene Frontalis Suspension Techniques in 92 Patients With Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jan/Feb;33(1):57-60

*Department of Ophthalmology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and †Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; and §Hôpital du Suroît, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: To compare the functional outcome of the polypropylene trapezoid frontalis suspension with the polypropylene modified Crawford frontalis suspension in a large cohort of patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Retrospective, nonrandomized comparative case series. Patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy who underwent bilateral polypropylene frontalis suspension were selected for chart review. Main outcome measures were margin reflex distance, duration of surgery, and ptosis recurrence.

Results: Ninety-two patients qualified for chart review; 39 patients underwent the trapezoid sling and 53 patients the modified Crawford sling. There was no difference in preoperative margin reflex distance or levator function between the 2 surgical groups. Postoperative improvement in margin reflex distance was 2.95 ± 1.56 mm in the trapezoid group compared with 2.85 ± 1.65 mm in the modified Crawford group (p = 0.67). Duration of surgery was 40.49 ± 13.33 minutes in the trapezoid group compared with 53.77 ± 16.04 minutes in the modified Crawford group (p < 0.001). Five percent of eyes in the trapezoid group had ptosis recurrence compared with 13% of eyes in the modified Crawford group (p = 0.07).

Conclusion: Both polypropylene frontalis suspension techniques generated an equivalent increase in margin reflex distance. However, the trapezoid frontalis suspension required less operative time and trended toward a lower rate of ptosis recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000000648DOI Listing
March 2017

Neck and spine injuries in Canadian cheerleaders: An increasing trend.

J Pediatr Surg 2015 May 19;50(5):790-2. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Cheerleading, now increasingly practiced in Canada, has a high propensity to cause traumatic neck and spine injuries. We aimed to evaluate the importance of neck and spine injuries in the practice of cheerleading and their occurrence mechanisms in order to propose preventive measures.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of cheerleading injuries extracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database between 1990 and 2010 was performed.

Results: Overall, there were 1496 cases of injuries documented secondary to cheerleading (median age 15, 4 (IQR=2, 2) years; 1410 women (94%)). Of those, 125 cases (8%) were neck and spine injuries. The most frequent injury was a sprain/strain (47%). More severe injuries included fractures (4%), muscle or tendon injury (3%), dislocation (1%), and nerve injury (1%). Over half of these injuries were caused by either falling from (26%) or basing/spotting a stunt from height (26%). Other mechanisms include being thrown/falling from a high toss (10%) and falling from a pyramid (8%). Of the 125 cases, 3 (2, 4%) were admitted to hospital.

Conclusions: Most neck and spine injuries were related to stunts. Although the proportion of serious injury is low, the increasing trend for the practice of cheerleading calls for preventive measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.02.039DOI Listing
May 2015
-->