Publications by authors named "Isabelle Christen"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and safety of ronidazole treatment against Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat colony with multiple disorders.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2019 12 2;18:100344. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Clinical Unit of Internal Medicine Small Animals, University Hospital for Small Animals, Department/Hospital for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In a group of pedigree cats (n = 17) in poor health condition housed in an animal shelter in Vienna, Austria, with a history of persistent diarrhea, Tritrichomonas foetus infection was detected by PCR. Despite pre-existing clinical conditions all cats were treated with ronidazole (30 mg/kg PO q24h for 14 days) under close observation. After treatment, 11 of 14 initially positive animals remained negative for T. foetus during the observation period (six to eight weeks post treatment) and no diarrhea was observed. During treatment, nine cats showed mild to moderate neurological disorders (incoordination, mild tremor) at least once; six of these had already shown similar signs before treatment. Ronidazole treatment of multimorbid animals is acceptable if the benefit (here: clinical resolution and release from quarantine for adoption) is high. It is hypothesized that a high degree of inbreeding is a significant risk factor for the development of tritrichomonosis in cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100344DOI Listing
December 2019

IL-27-Induced Type 1 Regulatory T-Cells Produce Oxysterols that Constrain IL-10 Production.

Front Immunol 2017 25;8:1184. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Laboratories of Neuroimmunology, Division of Neurology and Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The behaviors of lymphocytes, including CD4 T helper cells, are controlled on many levels by internal metabolic properties. Lipid metabolites have recently been ascribed a novel function as immune response modulators and perturbation of steroids pathways modulates inflammation and potentially promotes a variety of diseases. However, the impact of lipid metabolism on autoimmune disease development and lymphocyte biology is still largely unraveled. In this line, oxysterols, oxidized forms of cholesterol, have pleiotropic roles on the immune response aside from their involvements in lipid metabolism. The oxysterols 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) regulate antiviral immunity and immune cell chemotaxis. However, their physiological effects on adaptive immune response in particular on various subset CD4 T lymphocytes are largely unknown. Here, we assessed oxysterol levels in subset of CD4 T cells and demonstrated that 25-OHC and transcript levels of its synthesizing enzyme, cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, were specifically increased in IL-27-induced type 1 regulatory T (T1) cells. We further showed that 25-OHC acts as a negative regulator of T1 cells in particular of IL-10 secretion liver X receptor signaling. Not only do these findings unravel molecular mechanisms accounting for IL-27 signaling but also they highlight oxysterols as pro-inflammatory mediators that dampens regulatory T cell responses and thus unleash a pro-inflammatory response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622150PMC
September 2017

EBI2 Is Highly Expressed in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and Promotes Early CNS Migration of Encephalitogenic CD4 T Cells.

Cell Rep 2017 01;18(5):1270-1284

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Arrival of encephalitogenic T cells at inflammatory foci represents a critical step in development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis. EBI2 and its ligand, 7α,25-OHC, direct immune cell localization in secondary lymphoid organs. CH25H and CYP7B1 hydroxylate cholesterol to 7α,25-OHC. During EAE, we found increased expression of CH25H by microglia and CYP7B1 by CNS-infiltrating immune cells elevating the ligand concentration in the CNS. Two critical pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-23 (IL-23) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), maintained expression of EBI2 in differentiating Th17 cells. In line with this, EBI2 enhanced early migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS in a transfer EAE model. Nonetheless, EBI2 was dispensable in active EAE. Human Th17 cells do also express EBI2, and EBI2 expressing cells are abundant within multiple sclerosis (MS) white matter lesions. These findings implicate EBI2 as a mediator of CNS autoimmunity and describe mechanistically its contribution to the migration of autoreactive T cells into inflamed organs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.020DOI Listing
January 2017

The EBI2 signalling pathway plays a role in cellular crosstalk between astrocytes and macrophages.

Sci Rep 2016 05 11;6:25520. Epub 2016 May 11.

Drug Development, School of Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.

EBI2 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by oxysterol 7α, 25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α25HC) and regulates T cell-dependant antibody response and B cell migration. We recently found EBI2 is expressed in human astrocytes, regulates intracellular signalling and modulates astrocyte migration. Here, we report that LPS treatment of mouse astrocytes alters mRNA levels of EBI2 and oxysterols suggesting that the EBI2 signalling pathway is sensitive to LPS-mediated immune challenge. We also find that conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated mouse astrocytes induces macrophage migration, which is inhibited by the EBI2 antagonist NIBR189. These results demonstrate a role for the EBI2 signalling pathway in astrocytes as a sensor for immune challenge and for communication with innate immune cells such as macrophages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863252PMC
May 2016

Detection of dihydroxycholesterols in human plasma using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

Steroids 2015 Jul 12;99(Pt B):131-8. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

Analytical Sciences and Imaging, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

We report a straightforward sample preparation procedure and a direct liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 7alpha,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α25-OHC) and 7alpha,27-dihydroxycholesterol (7α27-OHC). By applying a slow protein precipitation approach using cold ethanol, we were able to detect and quantify 7α25-OHC and 7α27-OHC in a fast and reliable manner. The average concentrations from 20 healthy individuals were determined to be 0.21±0.05nM for 7α25-OHC and 3.4±0.1nM for 7α27-OHC. In addition, we are the first to report the average degrees of esterification (n=8) to be 73.8% and 82% for 7α25-OHC and 7α27-OHC, respectively. Using the established method, we achieved the sensitivity sufficient for detecting low abundant dihydroxylated oxysterols in healthy individuals. This result should enable extension of these studies towards a comprehensive analysis of oxysterol levels under disease conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2015.02.002DOI Listing
July 2015

Oxysterols direct immune cell migration via EBI2.

Nature 2011 Jul 27;475(7357):524-7. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Euroscreen S.A., 6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2, also known as GPR183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is required for humoral immune responses; polymorphisms in the receptor have been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The natural ligand for EBI2 has been unknown. Here we describe the identification of 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (also called 7α,25-OHC or 5-cholesten-3β,7α,25-triol) as a potent and selective agonist of EBI2. Functional activation of human EBI2 by 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols was verified by monitoring second messenger readouts and saturable, high-affinity radioligand binding. Furthermore, we find that 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols act as chemoattractants for immune cells expressing EBI2 by directing cell migration in vitro and in vivo. A critical enzyme required for the generation of 7α,25-OHC is cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). Similar to EBI2 receptor knockout mice, mice deficient in CH25H fail to position activated B cells within the spleen to the outer follicle and mount a reduced plasma cell response after an immune challenge. This demonstrates that CH25H generates EBI2 biological activity in vivo and indicates that the EBI2-oxysterol signalling pathway has an important role in the adaptive immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297623PMC
July 2011