Publications by authors named "Isabella Pali-Schöll"

51 Publications

PIPE-cloned human IgE and IgG4 antibodies: New tools for investigating cow's milk allergy and tolerance.

Allergy 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14604DOI Listing
September 2020

Use of biologicals in allergic and type-2 inflammatory diseases during the current COVID-19 pandemic: Position paper of Ärzteverband Deutscher Allergologen (AeDA), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allergologie und Klinische Immunologie (DGAKI), Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Allergologie und Umweltmedizin (GPA), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Allergologie und Immunologie (ÖGAI), Luxemburgische Gesellschaft für Allergologie und Immunologie (LGAI), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Pneumologie (ÖGP) in co-operation with the German, Austrian, and Swiss ARIA groups, and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI).

Authors:
Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Margitta Worm Thomas Eiwegger Jan Hagemann Markus Ollert Eva Untersmayr Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber Alessandra Vultaggio Ioana Agache Sevim Bavbek Apostolos Bossios Ingrid Casper Susan Chan Alexia Chatzipetrou Christian Vogelberg Davide Firinu Paula Kauppi Antonios Kolios Akash Kothari Andrea Matucci Oscar Palomares Zsolt Szépfalusi Wolfgang Pohl Wolfram Hötzenecker Alexander R Rosenkranz Karl-Christian Bergmann Thomas Bieber Roland Buhl Jeroen Buters Ulf Darsow Thomas Keil Jörg Kleine-Tebbe Susanne Lau Marcus Maurer Hans Merk Ralph Mösges Joachim Saloga Petra Staubach Uta Jappe Klaus F Rabe Uta Rabe Claus Vogelmeier Tilo Biedermann Kirsten Jung Wolfgang Schlenter Johannes Ring Adam Chaker Wolfgang Wehrmann Sven Becker Laura Freudelsperger Norbert Mülleneisen Katja Nemat Wolfgang Czech Holger Wrede Randolf Brehler Thomas Fuchs Peter-Valentin Tomazic Werner Aberer Antje-Henriette Fink-Wagner Fritz Horak Stefan Wöhrl Verena Niederberger-Leppin Isabella Pali-Schöll Wolfgang Pohl Regina Roller-Wirnsberger Otto Spranger Rudolf Valenta Mübecell Akdis Paolo M Matricardi François Spertini Nicolai Khaltaev Jean-Pierre Michel Larent Nicod Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Marco Idzko Eckard Hamelmann Thilo Jakob Thomas Werfel Martin Wagenmann Christian Taube Erika Jensen-Jarolim Stephanie Korn Francois Hentges Jürgen Schwarze Liam O Mahony Edward F Knol Stefano Del Giacco Tomás Chivato Pérez Jean Bousquet Anna Bedbrook Torsten Zuberbier Cezmi Akdis Marek Jutel

Allergol Select 2020 7;4:53-68. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI).

Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the treatment of patients with allergic and atopy-associated diseases has faced major challenges. Recommendations for "social distancing" and the fear of patients becoming infected during a visit to a medical facility have led to a drastic decrease in personal doctor-patient contacts. This affects both acute care and treatment of the chronically ill. The immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection is so far only insufficiently understood and could be altered in a favorable or unfavorable way by therapy with monoclonal antibodies. There is currently no evidence for an increased risk of a severe COVID-19 course in allergic patients. Many patients are under ongoing therapy with biologicals that inhibit type 2 immune responses via various mechanisms. There is uncertainty about possible immunological interactions and potential risks of these biologicals in the case of an infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Materials And Methods: A selective literature search was carried out in PubMed, Livivo, and the internet to cover the past 10 years (May 2010 - April 2020). Additionally, the current German-language publications were analyzed. Based on these data, the present position paper provides recommendations for the biological treatment of patients with allergic and atopy-associated diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: In order to maintain in-office consultation services, a safe treatment environment must be created that is adapted to the pandemic situation. To date, there is a lack of reliable study data on the care for patients with complex respiratory, atopic, and allergic diseases in times of an imminent infection risk from SARS-CoV-2. Type-2-dominant immune reactions, as they are frequently seen in allergic patients, could influence various phases of COVID-19, e.g., by slowing down the immune reactions. Theoretically, this could have an unfavorable effect in the early phase of a SARS-Cov-2 infection, but also a positive effect during a cytokine storm in the later phase of severe courses. However, since there is currently no evidence for this, all data from patients treated with a biological directed against type 2 immune reactions who develop COVID-19 should be collected in registries, and their disease courses documented in order to be able to provide experience-based instructions in the future.

Conclusion: The use of biologicals for the treatment of bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and spontaneous urticaria should be continued as usual in patients without suspected infection or proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. If available, it is recommended to prefer a formulation for self-application and to offer telemedical monitoring. Treatment should aim at the best possible control of difficult-to-control allergic and atopic diseases using adequate rescue and add-on therapy and should avoid the need for systemic glucocorticosteroids. If SARS-CoV-2 infection is proven or reasonably suspected, the therapy should be determined by weighing the benefits and risks individually for the patient in question, and the patient should be involved in the decision-making. It should be kept in mind that the potential effects of biologicals on the immune response in COVID-19 are currently not known. Telemedical offers are particularly desirable for the acute consultation needs of suitable patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/ALX02166EDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480069PMC
September 2020

Formulations for Allergen Immunotherapy in Human and Veterinary Patients: New Candidates on the Horizon.

Front Immunol 2020 4;11:1697. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Allergen immunotherapy is currently the only causal treatment for allergic diseases in human beings and animals. It aims to re-direct the immune system into a tolerogenic or desensitized state. Requirements include clinical efficacy, safety, and schedules optimizing patient or owner compliance. To achieve these goals, specific allergens can be formulated with adjuvants that prolong tissue deposition and support uptake by antigen presenting cells, and/or provide a beneficial immunomodulatory action. Here, we depict adjuvant formulations being investigated for human and veterinary allergen immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417425PMC
August 2020

Reply to "Acid inhibitors and allergy: comorbidity, causation and confusion".

Nat Commun 2020 08 7;11(1):3949. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel, 1090, Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17830-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414906PMC
August 2020

Immunology of COVID-19: Mechanisms, clinical outcome, diagnostics, and perspectives-A report of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI).

Allergy 2020 10;75(10):2445-2476

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

With the worldwide spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the SARS-CoV-2-induced coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become one of the main challenges of our times. The high infection rate and the severe disease course led to major safety and social restriction measures worldwide. There is an urgent need of unbiased expert knowledge guiding the development of efficient treatment and prevention strategies. This report summarizes current immunological data on mechanisms associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 development and progression to the most severe forms. We characterize the differences between adequate innate and adaptive immune response in mild disease and the deep immune dysfunction in the severe multiorgan disease. The similarities of the human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are underlined. We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular, and neuronal system. Finally, we discuss the known and potential mechanisms underlying the involvement of comorbidities, gender, and age in development of COVID-19. Consequently, we highlight the knowledge gaps and urgent research requirements to provide a quick roadmap for ongoing and needed COVID-19 studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361752PMC
October 2020

Allergen immunotherapy in the current COVID-19 pandemic: A position paper of AeDA, ARIA, EAACI, DGAKI and GPA: Position paper of the German ARIA Group in cooperation with the Austrian ARIA Group, the Swiss ARIA Group, German Society for Applied Allergology (AEDA), German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), Society for Pediatric Allergology (GPA) in cooperation with AG Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Environmental Medicine of the DGHNO-KHC and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI).

Allergol Select 2020 28;4:44-52. Epub 2020 May 28.

German ARIA Group.

No abstract available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/ALX02147EDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304289PMC
May 2020

Anwendung von Biologika bei allergischen und Typ-2-entzündlichen Erkrankungen in der aktuellen Covid-19-Pandemie: Positionspapier des Ärzteverbands Deutscher Allergologen (AeDA)A, der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allergologie und klinische Immunologie (DGAKI)B, der Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Allergologie und Umweltmedizin (GPA)C, der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Allergologie und Immunologie (ÖGAI)D, der Luxemburgischen Gesellschaft für Allergologie und Immunologie (LGAI)E, der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie (ÖGP)F in Kooperation mit der deutschen, österreichischen, und schweizerischen ARIA-GruppeG und der Europäischen Akademie für Allergologie und Klinische Immunologie (EAACI)H.

Allergo J 2020 24;29(4):14-27. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Zentrum für Rhinologie & Allergologie, An den Quellen 10, 65183 Wiesbaden, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15007-020-2553-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289636PMC
June 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Cow's milk protein β-lactoglobulin confers resilience against allergy by targeting complexed iron into immune cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jan 30;147(1):321-334.e4. Epub 2020 May 30.

The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is a bovine lipocalin in milk with an innate defense function. The circumstances under which BLG is associated with tolerance of or allergy to milk are not understood.

Objective: Our aims were to assess the capacity of ligand-free apoBLG versus loaded BLG (holoBLG) to protect mice against allergy by using an iron-quercetin complex as an exemplary ligand and to study the molecular mechanisms of this protection.

Methods: Binding of iron-quercetin to BLG was modeled and confirmed by spectroscopy and docking calculations. Serum IgE binding to apoBLG and holoBLG in children allergic to milk and children tolerant of milk was assessed. Mice were intranasally treated with apoBLG versus holoBLG and analyzed immunologically after systemic challenge. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation was evaluated with reporter cells and Cyp1A1 expression. Treated human PBMCs and human mast cells were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and degranulation, respectively.

Results: Modeling predicted masking of major IgE and T-cell epitopes of BLG by ligand binding. In line with this modeling, IgE binding in children allergic to milk was reduced toward holoBLG, which also impaired degranulation of mast cells. In mice, only treatments with holoBLG prevented allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis, while sustaining regulatory T cells. BLG facilitated quercetin-dependent AhR activation and, downstream of AhR, lung Cyp1A1 expression. HoloBLG shuttled iron into monocytic cells and impaired their antigen presentation.

Conclusion: The cargo of holoBLG is decisive in preventing allergy in vivo. BLG without cargo acted as an allergen in vivo and further primed human mast cells for degranulation in an antigen-independent fashion. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation why the same proteins can act either as tolerogens or as allergens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.05.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiome has a role in asthma.

Semin Immunopathol 2020 02 18;42(1):75-93. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute, Medical University Vienna and University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Worldwide 300 million children and adults are affected by asthma. The development of asthma is influenced by environmental and other exogenous factors synergizing with genetic predisposition, and shaping the lung microbiome especially during birth and in very early life. The healthy lung microbial composition is characterized by a prevalence of bacteria belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. However, viral respiratory infections are associated with an abundance of Proteobacteria with genera Haemophilus and Moraxella in young children and adult asthmatics. This dysbiosis supports the activation of inflammatory pathways and contributes to bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Exogenous factors can affect the natural lung microbiota composition positively (farming environment) or negatively (allergens, air pollutants). It is evident that also gut microbiota dysbiosis has a high influence on asthma pathogenesis. Antibiotics, antiulcer medications, and other drugs severely impair gut as well as lung microbiota. Resulting dysbiosis and reduced microbial diversity dysregulate the bidirectional crosstalk across the gut-lung axis, resulting in hypersensitivity and hyperreactivity to respiratory and food allergens. Efforts are undertaken to reconstitute the microbiota and immune balance by probiotics and engineered bacteria, but results from human studies do not yet support their efficacy in asthma prevention or treatment. Overall, dysbiosis of gut and lung seem to be critical causes of the increased emergence of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00775-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066092PMC
February 2020

The Secrets of the Mediterranean Diet. Does [Only] Olive Oil Matter?

Nutrients 2019 Dec 3;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Diet plays a key role in the maintenance and optimal functioning of immune cells. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is an example of a prudent choice of lifestyle and scientifically accepted to help preserve human health by protecting against major chronic and inflammatory diseases. Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) are characteristically high in the consumption of fruits, vegetables and salad, bread and whole grain cereals, potatoes, legumes/beans, nuts, and seeds. Their common central feature is the usage of olive oil as the main source of fat. The health benefits attributed to olive oil are specifically related to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) intake with its high nutritional quality and multiple positive effects on health. Overall, MedDiets have direct (mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), tocopherols, polyphenols) and indirect (low saturated fats, well-balanced linoleic/alpha linolenic acid) effects on the immune system and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the effect of olive oil per se and MedDiets generally on immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD)/cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, type-2 diabetes, cancer, asthma, and allergies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11122941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949890PMC
December 2019

EAACI position paper on diet diversity in pregnancy, infancy and childhood: Novel concepts and implications for studies in allergy and asthma.

Allergy 2020 03;75(3):497-523

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.

To fully understand the role of diet diversity on allergy outcomes and to set standards for conducting research in this field, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Task Force on Diet and Immunomodulation has systematically explored the association between diet diversity and allergy outcomes. In addition, a detailed narrative review of information on diet quality and diet patterns as they pertain to allergic outcomes is presented. Overall, we recommend that infants of any risk category for allergic disease should have a diverse diet, given no evidence of harm and some potential association of benefit in the prevention of particular allergic outcomes. In order to harmonize methods for future data collection and reporting, the task force members propose relevant definitions and important factors for consideration, when measuring diet diversity in the context of allergy. Consensus was achieved on practice points through the Delphi method. It is hoped that the definitions and considerations described herein will also enable better comparison of future studies and improve mechanistic studies and pathway analysis to understand how diet diversity modulates allergic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14051DOI Listing
March 2020

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Country-wide medical records infer increased allergy risk of gastric acid inhibition.

Nat Commun 2019 07 30;10(1):3298. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Gastric acid suppression promotes allergy in mechanistic animal experiments and observational human studies, but whether gastric acid inhibitors increase allergy incidence at a population level remains uncharacterized. Here we aim to assess the use of anti-allergic medication following prescription of gastric acid inhibitors. We analyze data from health insurance records covering 97% of Austrian population between 2009 and 2013 on prescriptions of gastric acid inhibitors, anti-allergic drugs, or other commonly prescribed (lipid-modifying and antihypertensive) drugs as controls. Here we show that rate ratios for anti-allergic following gastric acid-inhibiting drug prescriptions are 1.96 (95%CI:1.95-1.97) and 3.07 (95%-CI:2.89-3.27) in an overall and regional Austrian dataset. These findings are more prominent in women and occur for all assessed gastric acid-inhibiting substances. Rate ratios increase from 1.47 (95%CI:1.45-1.49) in subjects <20 years, to 5.20 (95%-CI:5.15-5.25) in > 60 year olds. We report an epidemiologic relationship between gastric acid-suppression and development of allergic symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10914-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667461PMC
July 2019

EAACI position paper: Influence of dietary fatty acids on asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis.

Allergy 2019 08 3;74(8):1429-1444. Epub 2019 May 3.

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.

The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis has increased dramatically during the last decades, which is associated with altered environmental exposures and lifestyle practices. The purpose of this review was to highlight the potential role for dietary fatty acids, in the prevention and management of these disorders. In addition to their nutritive value, fatty acids have important immunoregulatory effects. Fatty acid-associated biological mechanisms, human epidemiology, and intervention studies are summarized in this review. The influence of genetics and the microbiome on fatty acid metabolism is also discussed. Despite critical gaps in our current knowledge, it is increasingly apparent that dietary intake of fatty acids may influence the development of inflammatory and tolerogenic immune responses. However, the lack of standardized formats (ie, food versus supplement) and standardized doses, and frequently a lack of prestudy serum fatty acid level assessments in clinical studies significantly limit our ability to compare allergy outcomes across studies and to provide clear recommendations at this time. Future studies must address these limitations and individualized medical approaches should consider the inclusion of specific dietary factors for the prevention and management of asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13764DOI Listing
August 2019

Edible insects: Cross-recognition of IgE from crustacean- and house dust mite allergic patients, and reduction of allergenicity by food processing.

World Allergy Organ J 2019 26;12(1):100006. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Food Technology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Insects have become increasingly interesting as alternative nutrient sources for feeding humans and animals, most reasonably in processed form. Initially, some safety aspects - among them allergenicity - need to be addressed.

Objective: To reveal the cross-reactivity of shrimp-, mite- and flies-allergic patients to different edible insects, and further to assess the efficacy of food processing in reducing the recognition of insect proteins by patients' IgE and in skin prick testing of shrimp-allergic patients.

Methods: IgE from patients allergic to crustaceans, house dust mite or flies was evaluated for cross-recognition of proteins in house cricket (AD), desert locust (SG) and Yellow mealworm (TM). Changes in IgE-binding and SPT-reactivity to processed insect extracts were determined for migratory locust (, LM), after different extraction methods, enzymatic hydrolysis, and thermal processing were applied.

Results: IgE from patients with crustacean-allergy shows cross-recognition of AD, SG and stable flies; house dust mite allergics' IgE binds to AD and SG; and the flies-allergic patient recognized cricket, desert locust and migratory locust. Cross-reactivity and allergenicity in SPT to LM can be deleted by conventional processing steps, such as hydrolysis with different enzymes or heat treatment, during the preparation of protein concentrates.

Conclusion: The results show that crustacean-, HDM- and stable flies-allergic patients cross-recognize desert locust and house cricket proteins, and crustacean-allergic patients also flies proteins. Furthermore, this study shows that appropriate food processing methods can reduce the risk of cross-reactivity and allergenicity of edible insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2018.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439408PMC
January 2019

Gender aspects in food allergy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 06;19(3):249-255

Comparative Medicine, Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna.

Purpose Of Review: The difference of food allergy prevalence between male and female individuals is well documented and should have more impact for personalized diagnosis and management. Although in younger age male sex dominates, in adults more women are affected by food allergies. This sex disparity diminishes again around menopause, underlining the influence of sex hormones, but in addition, also metabolic gender-specific factors and differences in microbiome composition might contribute to the different expression of food allergy in the two genders. The sex-dependent and gender-dependent influence on development of food allergy, disease severity, as well as on social, dietary and neuropsychological factors in studies mainly published within past 18 months are discussed in this review.

Recent Findings: Sex and gender differences likely play a role in food allergy development, for instance via influence on immune cells and mediators, or on the composition of the microbiome, but only few controlled studies on this specific topic are available.

Summary: Future prospective studies need to clearly take into account the sex and gender difference in order to provide personalized diagnosis, management and treatment of food allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000529DOI Listing
June 2019

EAACI position paper: Comparing insect hypersensitivity induced by bite, sting, inhalation or ingestion in human beings and animals.

Allergy 2019 05 6;74(5):874-887. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Comparative Medicine, The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna and University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Adverse reactions to insects occur in both human and veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in all species. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on insect allergy induced via stings, bites, inhalation or ingestion, and compare reactions in companion animals to those in people. With few exceptions, the situation in human insect allergy is better documented than in animals. We focus on a review of recent literature and give overviews of the epidemiology and clinical signs. We discuss allergen sources and allergenic molecules to the extent described, and aspects of diagnosis, prophylaxis, management and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13722DOI Listing
May 2019

Correction to: Prospective cohort study of pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in women with asthma.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2019 Feb;299(2):597

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mobini Hospital, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

In the original publication, the university name of the authors in the affiliations was published as University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran. The correct university name should read as Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4986-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828191PMC
February 2019

The Effect of Digestion and Digestibility on Allergenicity of Food.

Nutrients 2018 Aug 21;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Comparative Medicine, The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Food allergy prevalence numbers are still on the rise. Apart from environmental influences, dietary habits, food availability and life-style factors, medication could also play a role. For immune tolerance of food, several contributing factors ensure that dietary compounds are immunologically ignored and serve only as source for energy and nutrient supply. Functional digestion along the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the molecular breakdown and a prerequisite for appropriate uptake in the intestine. Digestion and digestibility of carbohydrates and proteins thus critically affect the risk of food allergy development. In this review, we highlight the influence of amylases, gastric acid- and trypsin-inhibitors, as well as of food processing in the context of food allergenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164088PMC
August 2018

Prospective cohort study of pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in women with asthma.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 08 24;298(2):279-287. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mobini Hospital, University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

Background: Asthma is the most common potentially serious medical complication in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between maternal asthma and a spectrum of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes.

Methods: Events during pregnancy and birth outcome were evaluated in 34 asthmatic as well as 1569 non-asthmatic pregnant women who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study undertaken at the antenatal clinics of Mobini Hospital in Iran. The women were interviewed and classified according to clinical severity and asthma control as per GINA guidelines. Information on asthma symptoms was collected by a questionnaire as well as by spirometry and physical examination. All subjects were followed until delivery, and postpartum charts were reviewed to assess neonatal and maternal outcomes. Eosinophil cells counts were obtained and total IgE was measured by ELISA. Results were assessed by multivariate logistic regression adjusting for maternal age and parity, and for birth outcomes, for gestational diabetes, and hypertension/pre-eclampsia.

Results: The well-known relationship between family history of asthma and asthma in pregnancy was again supported (p < 0.001). Women with asthma had more bleeding events 3 weeks or more before delivery (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.41-7.26), more often placenta problems (OR 6.86, 95% CI 1.42-33.02), and gestational diabetes mellitus (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.06-13.75). No significant differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic mothers regarding duration of gestation, birthweight, low Apgar scores, or neonatal respiratory difficulties were found. Total IgE antibody levels and eosinophil counts did not differ by asthma control and severity.

Conclusions: Asthma in pregnancy poses some risk for pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. Managing asthma effectively throughout pregnancy could benefit women and their babies and help to reduce the health burden associated with asthma during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4800-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060764PMC
August 2018

Edible insects - defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 17;59(17):2760-2771. Epub 2018 May 17.

Ethics and Human-Animal Studies, Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna , Vienna , Austria.

While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing. Recent results from neurophysiological, neuroanatomical and behavioral sciences prompt caution when denying consciousness and therefore the likelihood of presence of pain and suffering or something closely related to it to insects. From an animal protection point of view, these issues should be satisfyingly solved before propagating and establishing intensive husbandry systems for insects as a new type of mini-livestock factory farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1468731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816476PMC
February 2020

Characterization of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase as an immunomodulator for novel formulation of oral allergy immunotherapy.

Clin Immunol 2018 07 30;192:30-39. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

To improve current mucosal allergen immunotherapy Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NA) was evaluated as a novel epithelial targeting molecule for functionalization of allergen-loaded, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) and compared to the previously described epithelial targeting lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). All targeters revealed binding to Caco-2 cells, but only NA had high binding specificity to α-L fucose and monosialoganglioside-1. An increased transepithelial uptake was found for NA-MPs in a M-cell co-culture model. NA and NA-MPs induced high levels of IFN-γ and IL10 in naive mouse splenocytes and CCL20 expression in Caco-2. Repeated oral gavage of NA-MPs resulted in a modulated, allergen-specific immune response. In conclusion, NA has enhanced M-cell specificity compared to the other targeters. NA functionalized MPs induce a Th1 and T-regulatory driven immune response and avoid allergy effector cell activation. Therefore, it is a promising novel, orally applied formula for allergy therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2018.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002774PMC
July 2018

Adverse reactions to food: the female dominance - A secondary publication and update.

World Allergy Organ J 2017 27;10(1):43. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Comparative Medicine, The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Gender-specific differences are evident in food intolerance and allergy. In this review, we will highlight and summarize the dissimilarities in prevalence of adverse food reactions, focusing on IgE-mediated food allergies and intolerances regarding frequency of symptoms and predisposing factors. After puberty, females suffer more frequently from food-related symptoms than males. Several factors may be responsible for this observation, for example hormonal effects, gender-specific behavior, perception of risk, or intake of medications. In this context, concrete studies related to adverse food reactions are still lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40413-017-0174-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746020PMC
December 2017

Outstanding animal studies in allergy II. From atopic barrier and microbiome to allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jun;17(3):180-187

aInstitute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology bThe Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: Animal studies published within the past 18 months were assessed, focusing on innate and specific immunomodulation, providing knowledge of high translational relevance for human atopic and allergic diseases.

Recent Findings: Allergic companion animals represent alternative models, but most studies were done in mice. Atopic dermatitis mouse models were refined by the utilization of cytokines like IL-23 and relevant skin allergens or enzymes. A novel IL-6 reporter mouse allows biomonitoring of inflammation. Both skin pH and the (transferable) microflora have a pivotal role in modulating the skin barrier. The microflora of the gastrointestinal mucosa maintains tolerance to dietary compounds and can be disturbed by antiacid drugs. A key mouse study evidenced that dust from Amish households, but not from Hutterites protected mice against asthma. In studies on subcutaneous and sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy, much focus was given on delivery and adjuvants, using poly-lacto-co-glycolic particles, CpGs, probiotics or Vitamin D3. The epicutaneous and intralymphatic routes showed promising results in mice and horses in terms of prophylactic and therapeutic allergy treatment.

Summary: In atopic dermatitis, food allergies and asthma, environmental factors, together with the resident microflora and barrier status, decide on sensitization versus tolerance. Also allergen-specific immunotherapy operates with immunomodulatory principles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424576PMC
June 2017

Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jun;17(3):169-179

aInstitute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna bThe Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed.

Recent Findings: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures.

Summary: Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424575PMC
June 2017

Allergic diseases and asthma in pregnancy, a secondary publication.

World Allergy Organ J 2017 2;10(1):10. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Comparative Medicine, The Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Every fifth pregnant woman is affected by allergies, especially rhinitis and asthma. Allergic symptoms existing before pregnancy may be either attenuated, or equally often promoted through pregnancy. Optimal allergy and asthma diagnosis and management during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of mother and baby. For allergy diagnosis in pregnancy, preferentially anamnestic investigation as well as in vitro testing should be applied, whereas skin testing or provocation tests should be postponed until after birth. Pregnant women with confirmed allergy should avoid exposure to, or consumption of the offending allergen. Allergen immunotherapy should not be initiated during pregnancy. In patients on immunotherapy since before pregnancy, maintenance treatment may be continued, but the allergen dose should not be increased further. Applicable medications for asthma, rhinitis or skin symptoms in pregnancy are discussed and listed. In conclusion, i) allergies in pregnancy should preferentially be diagnosed in vitro; ii) AIT may be continued, but not started, and symptomatic medications must be carefully selected; iii) management of asthma and allergic diseases is important during pregnancy for welfare of mother and child.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40413-017-0141-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333384PMC
March 2017

A distinct microbiota composition is associated with protection from food allergy in an oral mouse immunization model.

Clin Immunol 2016 Dec 24;173:10-18. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In our mouse model, gastric acid-suppression is associated with antigen-specific IgE and anaphylaxis development. We repeatedly observed non-responder animals protected from food allergy. Here, we aimed to analyse reasons for this protection. Ten out of 64 mice, subjected to oral ovalbumin (OVA) immunizations under gastric acid-suppression, were non-responders without OVA-specific IgE or IgG1 elevation, indicating protection from allergy. In these non-responders, allergen challenges confirmed reduced antigen uptake and lack of anaphylactic symptoms, while in allergic mice high levels of mouse mast-cell protease-1 and a body temperature reduction, indicative for anaphylaxis, were determined. Upon OVA stimulation, significantly lower IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 levels were detected in non-responders, while IL-22 was significantly higher. Comparison of fecal microbiota revealed differences of bacterial communities on single bacterial Operational-Taxonomic-Unit level between the groups, indicating protection from food allergy being associated with a distinct microbiota composition in a non-responding phenotype in this mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2016.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5464391PMC
December 2016