Publications by authors named "Isabel Quintanilla"

10 Publications

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Centrosome reduction in newly-generated tetraploid cancer cells obtained by separase depletion.

Sci Rep 2020 06 4;10(1):9152. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Oncology Team, Institut D'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Barcelona, 08036, Spain.

Tetraploidy, a common feature in cancer, results in the presence of extra centrosomes, which has been associated with chromosome instability (CIN) and aneuploidy. Deregulation in the number of centrosomes triggers tumorigenesis. However, how supernumerary centrosomes evolve during the emergence of tetraploid cells remains yet to be elucidated. Here, generating tetraploid isogenic clones in colorectal cancer and in non-transformed cells, we show that near-tetraploid clones exhibit a significant increase in the number of centrosomes. Moreover, we find that centrosome area in near-tetraploids is twice as large as in near-diploids. To evaluate whether centrosome clustering was occurring, we next analysed the number of centrioles revealing centriole amplification. Notwithstanding, more than half of the near-tetraploids maintained in culture do not present centrosome aberrations. To test whether cells progressively lost centrioles after becoming near-tetraploid, we transiently transfected diploid cells with siRNA against ESPL1/Separase, a protease responsible for triggering anaphase, to generate newly near-tetraploid cells. Finally, using this model, we assessed the number of centrioles at different time-points after tetraploidization finding that near-tetraploids rapidly lose centrosomes over time. Taken together, these data demonstrate that although most cells reduce supernumerary centrosomes after tetraploidization, a small fraction retains extra centrioles, potentially resulting in CIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65975-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272426PMC
June 2020

Pathologist Experience and Concordance in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Long-standing Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 07;44(7):955-961

Department of Gastroenterology, Barcelona Clinic Hospital.

Surveillance colonoscopies focused to detect dysplasia are recommended to prevent colorectal cancer in patients with long-standing colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To date, histologic diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia has been challenged by a high variability among pathologists. We aimed to analyze the observer characteristics that are correlated with concordance deviations in this diagnosis. Eight pathologists evaluated a set of 125 endoscopic biopsy samples with a representative distribution of nondysplastic and dysplastic lesions from long-standing IBD patients. Two rounds of diagnosis were carried out during a period of 18 months. The κ test was applied to analyze concordance. Pathologists were grouped on the basis of their experience. A subanalysis was performed by eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, as well as an analysis after observers' grouping. Overall interobserver agreement was good (κ=0.73), with an even higher pairwise value (κ=0.86) as well as the intraobserver agreement values (best κ=0.85). After eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, the interobserver agreement was still moderate to good (best overall κ=0.50; best paired κ=0.72). Notable differences were seen between the pathologists with a high-volume and low-volume practice (best overall κ=0.61 and 0.41, respectively). The agreement in the diagnosis of dysplasia in IBD endoscopic biopsies may have been undervalued over time. This is the first study evaluating pathologists' diagnostic robustness in this field. The results suggest that examining a large volume of samples is the key factor to increase the consistency in the diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001475DOI Listing
July 2020

Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci in Humans Are Not Surrogate Markers for Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2019 06;10(6):e00047

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Over the past 20 years, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have emerged as potential precursors and biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, data regarding their molecular pathogenesis, as well as their endoscopic and histological identification, remain inconsistent.

Methods: A wide cohort of ACF from 100 control subjects and 100 case patients, including patients with adenoma and CRC, were characterized for endoscopic, morphologic, and molecular features.

Results: We observed that among all the endoscopic features evaluated, only the number of large ACF correlated with CRC risk (P = 0.003), whereas the histological classification, as assessed by 2 different pathologists, was inconsistent and did not differ between control and case patients. Moreover, only a few APC and BRAF mutations and no microsatellite instability were detected in our samples. KRAS mutations were detected in 16.3% of ACF samples, which also exhibited increased MGMT hypermethylation. However, none of those events were found to be predictive of CRC risk.

Discussion: Although ACF might be preneoplastic lesions of the colon, they are not suitable biomarkers for assessing CRC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6613864PMC
June 2019

Implementation of maternal influenza immunization in El Salvador: Experiences and lessons learned from a mixed-methods study.

Vaccine 2018 06 30;36(28):4054-4061. Epub 2018 May 30.

Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA.

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries prioritize pregnant women for influenza vaccination, yet few low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) have implemented maternal influenza immunization programs. To inform vaccine decision-making and operational planning in LMICs, there is a need to document and share experiences from countries that provide seasonal influenza vaccine to pregnant women, particularly those with high coverage, like El Salvador.

Methods: In 2015 and 2016, PATH and country researchers conducted a mixed-methods study to document the experience and lessons learned from maternal influenza immunization delivery and acceptance in El Salvador as part of a collaborative effort between WHO and PATH. Researchers conducted focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, antenatal clinic exit interviews, and key informant interviews with 326 participants from two municipalities in each of the country's three regions. Respondents included pregnant and recently pregnant women, family members, community leaders, health personnel, public health managers and partners, and policymakers.

Results: Factors perceived as positively influencing maternal influenza immunization delivery and acceptance in El Salvador include the use of multiple vaccine delivery strategies, targeted education and community engagement efforts, and a high degree of trust between the community and health care providers. Influenza vaccine acceptance by pregnant women is high and has improved over time, largely attributed to education targeting health care advisors. Perceived challenges to pregnant women receiving health care and vaccination include the need for permission to attend services and limited access to health services in insecure areas related to the presence of criminal gang activity.

Conclusions: We identified approaches and barriers perceived to affect maternal influenza vaccine delivery in El Salvador. This information will be useful to public health decision-makers and implementers in El Salvador and other countries considering introduction of new maternal vaccines or striving to increase coverage of vaccines currently provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.096DOI Listing
June 2018

The evolution of single cell-derived colorectal cancer cell lines is dominated by the continued selection of tumor-specific genomic imbalances, despite random chromosomal instability.

Carcinogenesis 2018 07;39(8):993-1005

Genetics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Intratumor heterogeneity is a major challenge in cancer treatment. To decipher patterns of chromosomal heterogeneity, we analyzed six colorectal cancer cell lines by multiplex interphase FISH (miFISH). The mismatch-repair-deficient cell lines DLD-1 and HCT116 had the most stable copy numbers, whereas aneuploid cell lines (HT-29, SW480, SW620 and H508) displayed a higher degree of instability. We subsequently assessed the clonal evolution of single cells in two colorectal carcinoma cell lines, SW480 and HT-29, which both have aneuploid karyotypes but different degrees of chromosomal instability. The clonal compositions of the single cell-derived daughter lines, as assessed by miFISH, differed for HT-29 and SW480. Daughters of HT-29 were stable, clonal, with little heterogeneity. Daughters of SW480 were more heterogeneous, with the single cell-derived daughter lines separating into two distinct populations with different ploidy (hyper-diploid and near-triploid), morphology, gene expression and tumorigenicity. To better understand the evolutionary trajectory for the two SW480 populations, we constructed phylogenetic trees which showed ongoing instability in the daughter lines. When analyzing the evolutionary development over time, most single cell-derived daughter lines maintained their major clonal pattern, with the exception of one daughter line that showed a switch involving a loss of APC. Our meticulous analysis of the clonal evolution and composition of these colorectal cancer models shows that all chromosomes are subject to segregation errors, however, specific net genomic imbalances are maintained. Karyotype evolution is driven by the necessity to arrive at and maintain a specific plateau of chromosomal copy numbers as the drivers of carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgy068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067130PMC
July 2018

Near-tetraploid cancer cells show chromosome instability triggered by replication stress and exhibit enhanced invasiveness.

FASEB J 2018 07 8;32(7):3502-3517. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Oncology Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A considerable proportion of tumors exhibit aneuploid karyotypes, likely resulting from the progressive loss of chromosomes after whole-genome duplication. Here, by using isogenic diploid and near-tetraploid (4N) single-cell-derived clones from the same parental cell lines, we aimed at exploring how polyploidization affects cellular functions and how tetraploidy generates chromosome instability. Gene expression profiling in 4N clones revealed a significant enrichment of transcripts involved in cell cycle and DNA replication. Increased levels of replication stress in 4N cells resulted in DNA damage, impaired proliferation caused by a cell cycle delay during S phase, and higher sensitivity to S phase checkpoint inhibitors. In fact, increased levels of replication stress were also observed in nontransformed, proliferative posttetraploid RPE1 cells. Additionally, replication stress promoted higher levels of intercellular genomic heterogeneity and ongoing genomic instability, which could be explained by high rates of mitotic defects, and was alleviated by the supplementation of exogenous nucleosides. Finally, our data found that 4N cancer cells displayed increased migratory and invasive capacity, both in vitro and in primary colorectal tumors, indicating that tetraploidy can promote aggressive cancer cell behavior.-Wangsa, D., Quintanilla, I., Torabi, K., Vila-Casadesús, M., Ercilla, A., Klus, G., Yuce, Z., Galofré, C., Cuatrecasas, M., Lozano, J. J., Agell, N., Cimini, D., Castells, A., Ried, T., Camps, J. Near-tetraploid cancer cells show chromosome instability triggered by replication stress and exhibit enhanced invasiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201700247RRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998968PMC
July 2018

Patterns of somatic uniparental disomy identify novel tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2015 Oct 4;36(10):1103-10. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Unitat de Biologia Cellular i Genètica Mèdica, Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia 08193, Spain, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia 08193, Spain,

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by specific patterns of copy number alterations (CNAs), which helped with the identification of driver oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). More recently, the usage of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays provided information of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, thus suggesting the occurrence of somatic uniparental disomy (UPD) and uniparental polysomy (UPP) events. The aim of this study is to establish an integrative profiling of recurrent UPDs/UPPs and CNAs in sporadic CRC. Our results indicate that regions showing high frequencies of UPD/UPP mostly coincide with regions typically involved in genomic losses. Among them, chromosome arms 3p, 5q, 9q, 10q, 14q, 17p, 17q, 20p, 21q and 22q preferentially showed UPDs/UPPs over genomic losses suggesting that tumor cells must maintain the disomic state of certain genes to favor cellular fitness. A meta-analysis using over 300 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed our findings. Several regions affected by recurrent UPDs/UPPs contain well-known TSGs, as well as novel candidates such as ARID1A, DLC1, TCF7L2 and DMBT1. In addition, VCAN, FLT4, SFRP1 and GAS7 were also frequently involved in regions of UPD/UPP and displayed high levels of methylation. Finally, sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the gene APC underlined that a somatic UPD event might represent the second hit to achieve biallelic inactivation of this TSG in colorectal tumors. In summary, our data define a profile of somatic UPDs/UPPs in sporadic CRC and highlights the importance of these events as a mechanism to achieve the inactivation of TSGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgv115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4598814PMC
October 2015

Prevalence of somatic mutl homolog 1 promoter hypermethylation in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.

Cancer 2015 May 29;121(9):1395-404. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Barcelona Hospital Clinic, Networked Biomedical Research Center on Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that have microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) immunoloss are observed in 3 clinical scenarios: Lynch syndrome (LS), sporadic MSI CRC, and Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutational analysis is used to differentiate LS from sporadic MSI CRC. The role of MLH1 promoter methylation status for the differential diagnosis of these clinical forms is not well established. The objectives of this study were: 1) to analyze MLH1 promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient CRCs by pyrosequencing, and 2) to assess its role in the differential diagnosis of MLH1-deficient CRCs.

Methods: In total, 165 CRCs were analyzed, including LS (n = 19), MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 37), MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (n = 60), and a control group of CRCs without MSI (microsatellite stable [MSS] CRC; n = 49). MLH1 promoter methylation status was analyzed by pyrosequencing, and the ability of different strategies to identify LS was assessed.

Results: The average ± standard deviation methylation in LS (9% ± 7%) was significantly lower than that in MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (42% ± 17%; P < .001) and in MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (25% ± 19%; P = .002). Somatic MLH1 hypermethylation was detected in 3 patients (15.8%) with LS, in 34 patients (91.9%) with MSI BRAF-mutated CRC, and in 37 patients (61.7%) with MSI BRAF wild-type tumors. Patients with MSI BRAF wild-type, unmethylated tumors (ie, LLS) had a stronger family history of CRC than those who had tumors with MLH1 methylation (P < .05). The sensitivity for ruling out LS was 100% for BRAF analysis, 84.2% for MLH1 methylation analysis, and 84.2% for the combination of both analyses.

Conclusions: Somatic MLH1 promoter methylation occurs in up to 15% of LS CRCs. Somatic BRAF analysis is the most sensitive strategy for ruling out LS. Patients who have CRCs with loss of MLH1 protein expression and neither BRAF mutation nor MLH1 methylation resemble patients with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29190DOI Listing
May 2015

LINE-1 hypomethylation is neither present in rectal aberrant crypt foci nor associated with field defect in sporadic colorectal neoplasia.

Clin Epigenetics 2014 10;6(1):24. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are considered the first identifiable preneoplastic lesion in colorectal cancer (CRC), and have been proposed as a potential biomarker for CRC risk. Global DNA hypomethylation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis, and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation status is a well-known surrogate marker for genome-wide DNA methylation levels. Despite the gradual increase in DNA hypomethylation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, LINE-1 methylation in ACF has never been studied. Moreover, recent studies have reported a field defect for LINE-1 hypomethylation, suggesting that LINE-1 methylation status in normal mucosa could be used to stratify CRC risk and tailor preventive strategies. Thus, we assessed LINE-1 status by pyrosequencing in rectal ACF and paired normal colorectal mucosa from individuals with sporadic colon cancer (CC) (n = 35) or adenoma (n = 42), and from healthy controls (n = 70).

Findings: Compared with normal mucosa, LINE-1 in ACF were hypermethylated across all groups (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, LINE-1 methylation status in normal colorectal mucosa was independent of the presence of adenoma or CC (P = 0.1072), and did not differ depending on the distance to the adenoma or CC. Interestingly, when we compared the LINE-1 methylation status in normal mucosa from different segments of the colorectum, we found higher hypomethylation in the rectum compared with the descending colon (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that global hypomethylation is not present in rectal ACF and argues against the existence of LINE-1 methylation field defect in sporadic colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1868-7083-6-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391726PMC
April 2015