Publications by authors named "Isabel C F R Ferreira"

446 Publications

Antimicrobial activity, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of basidiocarp.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Paranaense University, Molecular Biology Laboratory, 87502-210, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.

Lentinus crinitus (L.) Fr. (Basidiomycota: Polyporales) is a wild mushroom with several biotechnological applications; however, there are few studies on its chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of L. crinitus basidiocarp. For that, its nutritional value (AOAC procedures) and its composition in some hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (chromatographic techniques) were assessed. Moreover, the potential hepatotoxic effects were evaluated using a primary cell culture obtained from porcine liver, and its growth inhibitory capacity was also evaluated against four human tumour cell lines (spectrophotometric assays). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by microdilution against eight bacteria and fungi. The basidiocarp has a high content of carbohydrates and, therefore, a relatively high energetic value. It is also rich in soluble sugars, β-tocopherol, phenolic acids, mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and organic acids, mainly malic acid. L. crinitus did not show cytotoxicity in non-tumour cells, but it did not inhibit the growth of human tumour cell lines either. The basidiocarp has a wide antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of different species of bacteria and fungi. It showed minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values similar to or lower than those verified by commercial antibiotics or food additives used as preservatives. The antimicrobial activity was more evident against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Penicillium ochrochloron, followed by Aspergillus ochraceus and Trichoderma viride, when compared to the controls. The results obtained in this study showed that L. crinitus basidiocarp has great potential to be used by the industry without toxicity risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00656hDOI Listing
June 2021

Chemical Composition, Diuretic, and Antityrosinase Activity of Traditionally Used Romanian .

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:647947. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, "Iuliu Haţieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Cherry stems (CS) represent a by-product intensively used in Eastern European countries as a traditional remedy for urinary tract disorders. Ethnopharmacological evidences sustain the use of CS as aqueous preparations (infusion and decoction), but few data were previously reported about phytochemical profile and pharmacological potential of CS hydroalcoholic extracts. In this regard, we aimed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory potential, and diuretic activity of 70% hydroethanolic cherry stems extract and cherry stems decoction (CSD). LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid-type compounds as main constituents for both preparations, especially flavanones (naringenin glycosides). Antioxidant activity evaluated through DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods was superior for cherry stems extract, probably due to the presence of phenolic-derived compounds in higher amounts than CSD. On the other hand, tyrosinase inhibitory potential and diuretic effect exerted by CSD were stronger, highlighting that other types of hydrophilic secondary metabolites are responsible for this bioactivity. Overall, our findings indicate that CS preparations could be used as promising mild diuretic agents and encourage further investigations regarding the correlation between their chemical composition and bioactive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.647947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144643PMC
May 2021

Combined effects of irradiation and storage time on the nutritional and chemical parameters of dried Agaricus bisporus Portobello mushroom flour.

J Food Sci 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, Bragança, Portugal.

Portobello variety of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, appreciated for its taste, makes it desirable to be eaten fresh and also as flour in soups and gravies. Gamma and electron-beam radiation at four doses (1, 2, 5, and 10 kGy) were used to analyze its preservation effect on Portobello mushroom flour. A proximate analysis, as well as the impact on fatty acids, tocopherols, soluble sugars, organic acids, and ergosterol profiles, were performed every 3 months, during a storage period of 1 year. Gamma rays preserved mannitol (most abundant soluble sugar) over the 12 months, while electron beam radiation preserved organic acids. No significant changes were sought for any radiation type, and the slight changes extracted from the estimated marginal means reveal a tendency for irradiation as having preserving effects of nutrients and other important molecules. Thus, both irradiation types, up to 10 kGy are suitable for preservation of A. bisporus Portobello flour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15755DOI Listing
May 2021

Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activities of (Phytolaccaceae) fruit essential oil.

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 18:1-6. Epub 2021 May 18.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia aplicada à Agricultura, Universidade Paranaense, Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil.

The chemical composition of fruits essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus was investigated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, the cytotoxicity activity against human tumor cell lines MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (large cell lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and non-tumor PLP2 (porcine liver primary cells) as well as the anti-inflammatory action was proposal. The compounds were predominantly organosulfates (2,8-dithianonane, dimethyl trisulfide, and lenthionine). Anti-inflammatory activity that provides 50% inhibition of nitric oxide production (55 µg/mL) of essential oil of the fruits. It also presents cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (GI = 66 µg/mL), NCI-H-460 (GI = 147 µg/mL), HeLa (GI = 182 µg/mL) and HepG2 (GI = 240 µg/mL). The essential oil is more active in tumor cells than in non-tumor cells and the GI values for essential oil reported in our work support future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1925270DOI Listing
May 2021

Toxicological and anti-tumor effects of a linden extract ( Scop.) in a HPV16-transgenic mouse model.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4005-4014

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Inov4Agro, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real, Portugal.

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. is a popular broad-leaved tree, native to Central and Southern Europe. Hydroethanolic extracts rich in phenolic compounds obtained from T. platyphyllos Scop. have shown in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic properties of a hydroethanolic extract obtained from T. platyphyllos in HPV16-transgenic mice. The animals were divided into eight groups according to their sex and phenotype. Four groups of female: HPV+ exposed to linden (HPV linden; n = 6), HPV+ (HPV water; n = 4), HPV- exposed to linden (WT linden; n = 5) and HPV- (WT water; n = 4) and four groups of male: HPV+ exposed to linden (HPV linden; n = 5), HPV+ (HPV water; n = 5), HPV- exposed to linden (WT linden; n = 5) and HPV- (WT water; n = 7). The linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) extract was orally administered at a dose of 4.5 mg/10 mL per animal (dissolved in water) and changed daily for 33 days. The hydroethanolic extract of T. platyphyllos consisted of protocatechuic acid and (-)-epicatechin as the most abundant phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, and was found to be stable during the studied period. In two male groups a significant positive weight gain was observed but without association with the linden extract. Histological, biochemical, and oxidative stress analyses for the evaluation of kidney and liver damage support the hypothesis that the linden extract is safe and well-tolerated under the present experimental conditions. Skin histopathology does not demonstrate the chemopreventive effect of the linden extract against HPV16-induced lesions. The linden extract has revealed a favourable toxicological profile; however, additional studies are required to determine the chemopreventive potential of the linden extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00225bDOI Listing
May 2021

Optimization of the drying process of autumn fruits rich in antioxidants: a study focusing on rosehip ( L.) and sea buckthorn ( (L.) A. Nelson) and their bioactive properties.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):3939-3953

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Nowadays, it is very important to identify the traditional uses of different plants and to create the context in which new cultural or economic value is given to local resources. In this study, two wild fruits traditionally harvested in autumn in Romania were selected to investigate the effects of drying conditions on the chemical compositions and bioactivities exerted by the extracts and to select the best conditions in terms of air temperature and time of drying. The extracts obtained were assessed in terms of antioxidant capacity and enzyme inhibitory activity, and their main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified. The data presented in this article represent a step forward in applying this process on an industrial-scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02783aDOI Listing
May 2021

Valorization of Bio-Residues from the Processing of Main Portuguese Fruit Crops: From Discarded Waste to Health Promoting Compounds.

Molecules 2021 Apr 30;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Food processing generates a large amount of bio-residues, which have become the focus of different studies aimed at valorizing this low-cost source of bioactive compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects and, therefore, bio-waste and its constituents arouse therapeutic interest. The present work focuses on the main Portuguese fruit crops and revises (i) the chemical constituents of apple, orange, and pear pomace as potential sources of functional/bioactive compounds; (ii) the bioactive evidence and potential therapeutic use of bio-waste generated in the processing of the main Portuguese fruit crops; and (iii) potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The current evidence of the effect of these bio-residues as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents is also summarized. Conclusions of the revised data are that these bio-wastes hold great potential to be employed in specific nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124571PMC
April 2021

Chickpea and Chestnut Flours as Non-Gluten Alternatives in Cookies.

Foods 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Food Technology Area, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Valladolid, 34071 Palencia, Spain.

This study proposes the use of a mix composed of chickpea flour and chestnut flour in cookies, aiming to improve their acceptability. Cookie properties and nutritional value were also analysed. The gluten-free cookies were made by using different mixes of chickpea and chestnut flours (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0). Dough rheology and cookie dimensions, texture, external colour and acceptability were evaluated. The presence of the chestnut flour increased the values of G' and G", but reduced the loss factor (tan δ) when compared with the doughs made with chickpea flour. Chestnut flour also decreased the diameter and the spread ratio of the cookies, while increasing the hardness and darkening of the cookies. Furthermore, adding chestnut to the flour mixture increased the nutritional quality of the cookies by adding unsaturated fatty acids and fibre. The use of reduced percentages of chestnut flour (25%) resulted in masking the off-flavour of the chickpea flour, which improved the cookie's acceptability without significantly changing the dough rheology, cookie dimensions, hardness, or lightness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143132PMC
April 2021

Chemical and Bioactive Features of L. Flowers and Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Betalains.

Foods 2021 Apr 5;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

The vibrant colours of many plants are due to secondary metabolites, such as nitrogen-containing compounds, where betacyanins are included. These compounds can be found in plants such as L. that, due to their high nutritional benefits, have been overproduced, which leads to the accumulation of large amounts of bio-residues. Among these bio-residues, the flowers which have a very intense pink colour and present no economic value or subsequent destination can be exploited as sources of natural colouring agents (betacyanins). This work aimed at characterising the flower's extract in terms of bioactive molecules such as tocopherols, organic acids, but essentially in terms of betacyanins, in order to obtain a natural colouring agent. For the extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) ideal conditions were obtained using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM), allowing the attainment of an enriched extract of betacyanins in high yields and purity. The obtained extracts were analysed for their bioactive potential, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. From the obtained results, three isoforms of tocopherols were detected, β-tocopherol (0.884 ± 0.003 mg/100 g dry weight (dw)) being the most abundant one. Regarding the organic acids, oxalic (2.48 ± 0.05 mg/100 g dw), shikimic (0.170 ± 0.003 mg/100 g dw) and traces of fumaric acid were found. Four betacyanins were identified and quantified, namely: amaranthine (171 ± 1 mg/g extract), isoamaranthine (38 ± 1 mg/g extract), betanin (1.6 ± 0.1 mg/g), and isobetanin (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/g extract). The obtained extract also presented antioxidant activity with inhibition concentration (IC values) of 29.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL and 114 ± 4 μg/mL for Δ of 60 min and 120 min, respectively in the oxidative haemolysis inhibition assay (OxHLIA) assay. The obtained extract also presented an interesting antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 mg/mL against pathogenic bacteria and revealed no toxicity for normal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067032PMC
April 2021

Phenolic Compounds and Bioactive Properties of L. (Asparagaceae): The Pharmacological Potential of an Underexploited Subshrub.

Molecules 2021 Mar 26;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

L. is a subshrub used in traditional medicine in different parts of the world, namely in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. According to reported folk knowledge, the aerial parts are mainly used as diuretics and the underground organs are used for the treatment of disorders of the urinary system and as a laxative. In this work, the aerial part and the roots and rhizomes of were chemically characterized with regard to the content of phenolic compounds and bioactive properties. Aqueous (infusions and decoctions) preparations and hydroethanolic extracts from the two mentioned parts of the plant were prepared. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in all the extracts. Apigenin--hexoside--pentoside isomer II was the major compound in aqueous extracts and, in the hydroethanolic extract was quercetin--deoxyhexoside-hexoside followed by apigenin--hexoside--pentoside isomer II. All extracts revealed antioxidant activity and potential to inhibit some of the assayed bacteria; aqueous extracts of the aerial part and infusions of roots and rhizomes did not show cytotoxic effects on a non-tumor primary cell culture. This preliminary study provides suggestions of the biological potential associated with the empirical uses and knowledge of this species, in particular its bioactivities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037534PMC
March 2021

Promising Preserving Agents from Sage and Basil: A Case Study with Yogurts.

Foods 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

In the present work, sage ( L.) and basil ( L.) were exploited for their preservative purposes, as viable alternatives to artificial ones. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds was pre-optimized using factorial screening analysis, prior to applying response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector and mass spectrometer HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and bioactivities, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential. In addition, the most promising extracts were incorporated into yogurts, that were further screened for nutritional and physico-chemical properties and microbial load, over a shelf life of 14 days. According to the obtained results, the solvent percentage is the most relevant factor for obtaining rosmarinic acid-rich extract, followed by the extraction time and ultrasonic power. For the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, sage showed the best result for both analysis and none of the two plant extracts were hepatotoxic. Finally, both extracts did not show changes in the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of the yogurts and did not interfere with the growth of lactic acid bacteria, an important microorganism during yogurt fermentation. These results highlight the high potential of sage and basil as natural preservatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004741PMC
March 2021

Chemical Profile and Bioactivities of Extracts from Edible Plants Readily Available in Portugal.

Foods 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Plant extracts have been proposed as alternative biocides and antioxidants to be included in a variety of food products. In this work, to assess the potential of rosemary, lemon balm, basil, tarragon, sage, and spearmint to be used as food additives, the chemical profiles and bioactivities of such plant extracts were studied. Furthermore, to evaluate the influence of extraction methods and solvents on the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of the plant extracts, two extraction methods (solid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction) and two solvents (water and ethanol 70% (/)) were tested for each plant. Groupwise summary statistics were calculated by plant, extraction method, and solvent, and linear models were built to assess the main effects of those terms and their interactions on the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of the extracts. The results revealed that all factors-type of plant, extraction method and solvent-have influence on the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of the resultant extracts. Interactions between factors were also observed. Hydroethanolic Soxhlet extracts presented the least potential as biopreservatives due to their low phenolic content and reduced antioxidant capacity. Oppositely, aqueous Soxhlet extracts and hydroethanolic solid-liquid extracts showed high contents in phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activities. In particular, the hydroethanolic solid-liquid extracts of lemon balm, spearmint, and sage presented the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, accompanied by a high antioxidant activity, and they revealed antimicrobial activity against four pathogens ( ser. Typhimurium, , and ). These results demonstrate the potential of these natural resources to be incorporated as bioactive preservatives in foods or their packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004287PMC
March 2021

Valorization of (Vell.) Naudin Epicarp as a Source of Bioactive Compounds: Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Its Bioactive Properties.

Foods 2021 Mar 25;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Fruit bio-residues can be interesting for the recovery of bioactive molecules, such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, vitamins, among others. These compounds can be targeted at the food industry and used for the development of functional foods or as food additives. In some cases, fruit epicarps are converted into by-products with non-commercial value, and generally, these fruit parts have a higher content in bioactive compounds than the fruit pulp. From this perspective, , a Brazilian fruit, has an inedible epicarp that could be explored to obtain biological compounds. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial bioactivities of this by-product. epicarp showed a total of four organic acids, four phenolic compounds, highlighting the high concentration of anthocyanins (24 ± 1 mg/g dry weight (dw)) and high content of tocopherols (366 ± 2 mg/100 g dw). The hydroethanolic extract showed considerable antioxidant activity (EC values of 48.2 ± 0.5 and 27 ± 1 µg/mL for TBARS and OxHLIA assays, respectively), as also antibacterial and antifungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≤ 2.2 mg/mL). The results obtained in this study suggest that epicarp represents a reliable option for the development of novel natural-based colorants with functional/bioactive proprieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064462PMC
March 2021

Bioactive and Nutritional Potential of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant (MAP) Seasoning Mixtures.

Molecules 2021 Mar 13;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), worldwide appreciated and used as condiments, dyes, and preservatives, possess several biological properties that justify their continuous application in the food industry. In the present study, the nutritional and chemical profiles, as well as the bioactive properties of four combinations of condiments, sold for seasoning poultry, meat, fish, and salads, were evaluated. Twenty-five phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) were identified, with apigenin--malonyl-pentoside-hexoside as the major compound detected in all extracts. Oxalic and citric acids were identified in all mixtures (UFLC-PDA), as well as all the four tocopherol isoforms (HPLC-fluorescence). Regarding bioactivities, the mixtures for meat and salads (TBARS) and meat and poultry (OxHLIA) stood out for their antioxidant potential, whereas for the anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, the mixtures revealing the greatest results were those for poultry and salad, respectively. In terms of antimicrobial activity, all the mixtures revealed the capacity to inhibit the growth of some bacterial strains. In brief, condiment mixtures showed to be a good source of bioactive compounds, as they confer health benefits, validating the importance of their inclusion in the human diet as a good dietary practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999629PMC
March 2021

Chemical Composition and Bioactive Characterisation of .

Molecules 2021 Mar 3;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

The attractive colour characteristics of the flowers of the species have been arousing great interest in the food industry, which is looking for potential natural sources of colouring ingredients. In this sense, the present work focused on the chemical and bioactive characterization of pink and orange flowers of . The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS; in addition, different bioactivities (antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity) were also analysed. Both samples studied showed significant amounts of phenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, which justifies the excellent performance in the different bioactivities studied. The orange variety, despite having a greater variety of phenolic compounds, showed a total amount of compounds lower than the pink variety. Overall, the flowers of emerge as a promising resource to be explored by the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962038PMC
March 2021

Phytochemical Characterization and Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Tisanes Prepared from Promising Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

Foods 2021 Feb 22;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

The chemical composition and biological properties correlation in several medicinal and aromatic plants is still underexplored, especially in its most common form of consumption as tisane. The present study aims to characterize the organic acids and vitamin E composition of five tisanes and their extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector techniques, respectively, and the phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS (mass spectrometry by electrospray ionization). It also focuses on their bioactive properties, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-diabetic activities. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to understand the correlation between the chemical composition and bioactive properties of the tisanes. The tisane 5 (T5) composed by lemon thyme, tutsan, cloves, and cinnamon, was the most promising mixture, presenting the lowest values for the lipid peroxidation inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activity. It also presented the highest concentration of phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids derivatives), and flavan-3-ols (catechin derivatives). Only the dry plants presented tocopherols. For the antihemolytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity, T2 and T4 (with lemon thyme) were highlighted as the best herbal mixtures. The PCA proved to be a valid tool to select the most promising tisane according to the bioactivity. These results suggest that the studied tisanes can be source of high added-value bioactive compounds with health-promoting effects and potential for application in the food and nutraceutical industries, among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926303PMC
February 2021

Chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of Tuber and Terfezia truffles.

Food Res Int 2021 02 28;140:110071. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa de Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Ten truffle species of Tuber and Terfezia genera were chemical characterized, assessing their proximate composition, individual nutrient compounds and some bioactive molecules. The bioactive properties of these species were also evaluated, namely their antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrients present in truffles, followed by proteins. Furthermore, the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), subsequently presented as a percentage, were higher in truffles (38.2-79.3%) except in Tuber magnatum and Terfezia arenaria, which have a more saturated fatty acids (SFA) profile (70.7% and 53.7%, respectively). Comparing the species, T. magnatum revealed the highest levels of total phenolic compounds (TPC) (290 mg GAE/100 g truffle), as also the best results in the four methods used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. On the other hand, only five extracts obtained from some studied truffle species (Terfezia magnusii, Tuber aestivum, Tuber gennadii, and Tuber melanosporum) showed a slight inhibition of microbial growth, tested against different bacteria. Terfezia and T. gennadii extracts, showed potential to inhibit the cellular growth of NCI-H460, HeLa, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines (GI concentrations range: 19-78, 33-301, 83-321 and 102-321 µg/mL, respectively), indicating anti-proliferative activity. Nevertheless, T. arenaria revealed some potential hepatotoxicity, inhibiting the growth of PLP2 cells (GI concentration of 220 µg/mL), a primary cell culture obtained from porcine liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110071DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of a Myrciaria jaboticaba peel extract on starch and triglyceride absorption and the role of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 1;12(6):2644-2659. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Post-Graduate Program in Food Sciences, State University of Maringa, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to perform a parallel and comparative investigation of the effects of a Myrciaria jaboticaba (common name jabuticaba) peel extract and of its constituent cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on the overall process of starch and triglyceride intestinal absorption. The peel extract inhibited both the porcine pancreactic α-amylase and the pancreatic lipase but was 13.6 times more potent on the latter (IC values of 1963 and 143.9 μg mL, respectively). Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside did not contribute significantly to these inhibitions. The jabuticaba peel extract inhibited starch absorption in mice at doses that were compatible with its inhibitory action on the α-amylase. No inhibition of starch absorption was found with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside doses compatible with its content in the extract. The extract also inhibited triglyceride absorption, but at doses that were considerably smaller than those predicted by its strength in inhibiting the pancreatic lipase (ID = 3.65 mg kg). In this case, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was also strongly inhibitory, with 72% inhibition at the dose of 2 mg kg. When oleate + glycerol were given to mice, both the peel extract and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside strongly inhibited the appearance of triglycerides in the plasma. The main mechanism seems, thus, not to be the lipase inhibition but rather the inhibition of one or more steps (e.g., transport) in the events that lead to the transformation of free fatty acids in the intestinal tract into triglycerides. Due to the low active doses, the jabuticaba peel extract presents many favourable perspectives as an inhibitor of fat absorption and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside seems to play a decisive role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02927kDOI Listing
March 2021

Chemical characterization of carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and use of different extraction techniques to promote its bioactivity.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 13;351:129263. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

University of Monastir, High Institute of Biotechnology of Monastir, Genetics, Biodiversity and Valorization of Bioresources Laboratory, Street Tahar Haddad, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia.

Nowadays, the use of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is reduced to its seeds. In fact, the food additive E410, locust bean gum, is obtained from its endosperm. However, the available information regarding the bioactive potential of carob seeds is limited and, often, with poorly established terminologies, not allowing the reader to know if the studied samples included seedless or seeded samples. So, the present study intended to carry out a chemical characterization of carob seeds focused on their bioactive compounds and test their bioactive properties. Carob seeds proved to be a source of tocopherols and organic acids, including phenolic compounds. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated in vitro, as well as its antimicrobial capacity. This work proves that carob seeds have other functions in addition to those associated with E410. Thus, another potential can be given to the locust bean seed, namely the function of food preservative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129263DOI Listing
July 2021

Preservation of Chocolate Muffins with Lemon Balm, Oregano, and Rosemary Extracts.

Foods 2021 Jan 15;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Muffins are snacks made from flour and chocolate and preserved with synthetic additives. Following consumer trends, the search for natural food additives has gained traction. Plants such as rosemary, lemon balm, and oregano were analyzed following an optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction, screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and incorporated in chocolate muffins, comparing them to synthetic preservatives over the course of 8 days. The nutritional profile, organic and fatty acids, soluble sugars, texture profile, external color and digital imaging of the muffin pores were analyzed. Slight changes were sought for the muffins incorporated with the natural extracts. By means of linear discriminant analysis, rosemary extract was considered the most promising extract to preserve the muffins due to its similarity to potassium sorbate, showing no changes in the muffins it was incorporated in, although it showed a lower amount of phenolic compounds when compared to lemon balm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830663PMC
January 2021

Camphor and Eucalyptol-Anticandidal Spectrum, Antivirulence Effect, Efflux Pumps Interference and Cytotoxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 6;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković"-National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

represents one of the most common fungal pathogens. Due to its increasing incidence and the poor efficacy of available antifungals, finding novel antifungal molecules is of great importance. Camphor and eucalyptol are bioactive terpenoid plant constituents and their antifungal properties have been explored previously. In this study, we examined their ability to inhibit the growth of different species in suspension and biofilm, to block hyphal transition along with their impact on genes encoding for efflux pumps ( and ), ergosterol biosynthesis (), and cytotoxicity to primary liver cells. Camphor showed excellent antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.125-0.35 mg/mL while eucalyptol was active in the range of 2-23 mg/mL. The results showed camphor's potential to reduce fungal virulence traits, that is, biofilm establishment and hyphae formation. On the other hand, camphor and eucalyptol treatments upregulated was positively regulated after eucalyptol application while camphor downregulated it. Neither had an impact on expression. The beneficial antifungal activities of camphor were achieved with an amount that was non-toxic to porcine liver cells, making it a promising antifungal compound for future development. The antifungal concentration of eucalyptol caused cytotoxic effects and increased expression of efflux pump genes, which suggests that it is an unsuitable antifungal candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825113PMC
January 2021

Flavones, Flavonols, and Glycosylated Derivatives-Impact on Growth and Virulence, Expression of and , Cytotoxicity.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Dec 30;14(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

Due to the high incidence of fungal infections worldwide, there is an increasing demand for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. A wide range of natural products has been extensively studied, with considerable focus on flavonoids. The antifungal capacity of selected flavones (luteolin, apigenin), flavonols (quercetin), and their glycosylated derivatives (quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, and apigetrin) along with their impact on genes encoding efflux pumps () and ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme () has been the subject of this study. Cytotoxicity of flavonoids towards primary liver cells has also been addressed. Luteolin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and rutin inhibited growth of with the minimal inhibitory concentration of 37.5 µg/mL. The application of isoquercitrin has reduced biofilm establishing capacities for 76%, and hyphal formation by yeast. In vitro treatment with apigenin, apigetrin, and quercitrin has downregulated . Contrary to rutin and apigenin, isoquercitrin has upregulated . Except apigetrin and quercitrin (90 µg/mL and 73 µg/mL, respectively inhibited 50% of the net cell growth), the examined flavonoids did not exhibit cytotoxicity. The reduction of both fungal virulence and expression of antifungal resistance-linked genes was the most pronounced for apigenin and apigetrin; these results indicate flavonoids' indispensable capacity for further development as part of an anticandidal therapy or prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14010027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824033PMC
December 2020

Food Bioactive Compounds and Emerging Techniques for Their Extraction: Polyphenols as a Case Study.

Foods 2020 Dec 24;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, and fibres, among others, derived from their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilator properties. Polyphenols as one of the most abundant classes of bioactive compounds present in plant-based foods emerge as a promising approach for the development of efficacious preventive agents against NCDs with reduced side effects. The aim of this review is to present comprehensive and deep insights into the potential of polyphenols, from their chemical structure classification and biosynthesis to preventive effects on NCDs, namely cancer, CVDs, and NDDS. The challenge of polyphenols bioavailability and bioaccessibility will be explored in addition to useful industrial and environmental applications. Advanced and emerging extraction techniques will be highlighted and the high-resolution analytical techniques used for FBCs characterization, identification, and quantification will be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823739PMC
December 2020

Potato biodiversity: A linear discriminant analysis on the nutritional and physicochemical composition of fifty genotypes.

Food Chem 2021 May 10;345:128853. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address:

Fifty potato genotypes from twenty-four different countries of origin, four different flesh colours (yellow, purple, red and marble) and different cultivation types (Andean accessions, landraces, breeder lines and cultivated varieties) were studied in terms of their nutritional and physicochemical characteristics. In general, cultivated varieties and breeder lines showed the highest similarity (slight differences only in some particular fatty acids distributions: C10:0, C12:0 and C22:0) concerning the physicochemical parameters assayed in this work, independently of the geographical origin or tuber flesh colour of these genotypes. Nonetheless, some of the studied landraces and Andean accessions proved to be similar enough to be considered as genotypes with good potential for commercial cultivation. These results can contribute to the supply of new potato genotypes into sustainable farming systems, supporting the protection of potato biodiversity, particularly Andean accessions, landraces and coloured genotypes (red or purple flesh) which are not widely cultivated so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128853DOI Listing
May 2021

Fighting Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Innovations in Food Fortificants and Biofortification Strategies.

Foods 2020 Dec 15;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Iron deficiency remains one of the main nutritional disorders worldwide and low iron intake and/or bioavailability are currently the major causes of anemia. To fight this public health problem, the scientific challenge is to find an iron form with sufficient bioavailability to increase its levels in humans through food fortification. In turn, biofortification appears as a comparatively advantageous and bearable strategy for the delivery of vitamins and other micronutrients for people without access to a healthy and diverse diet. This approach relies on plant breeding, transgenic techniques, or agronomic practices to obtain a final food product with a higher iron content. It is also known that certain food constituents are able to favor or inhibit iron absorption. The management of these compounds can thus successfully improve the absorption of dietary iron and, ultimately, contribute to fight this disorder present all over the world. This review describes the main causes/manifestations of iron-deficiency anemia, forms of disease prevention and treatment, and the importance of a balanced and preventive diet. A special focus was given to innovative food fortification and biofortification procedures used to improve the iron content in staple food crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765292PMC
December 2020

Bioactive Properties and Phenolic Compound Profiles of Turnip-Rooted, Plain-Leafed and Curly-Leafed Parsley Cultivars.

Molecules 2020 Nov 28;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Mountain Research Center (CIMO), Institute Polytechnic of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Mill., Fuss., is a culinary vegetable used as an aromatic herb that garnishes and flavours a great variety of dishes. In the present study, the chemical profiles and bioactivities of leaf samples from 25 cultivars (three types: plain- and curly-leafed and turnip-rooted) from this species were assessed. Seven phenolic compounds were identified in all the varieties, including apigenin and kaempherol derivates. Apigenin--pentoside--hexoside was the major compound in all the tested parsley types (20, 22 and 13 mg/g of extract, respectively) and responsible for its excellent antioxidant activity, also investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were also explored, and the results revealed a good bioactivity against specific tested pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi. In conclusion, the leaves of all the types of are a good source of natural bioactive compounds that confer health benefits, and thus, they should be part of a balanced and diversified diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730503PMC
November 2020

Phenolic compounds: current industrial applications, limitations and future challenges.

Food Funct 2021 Jan 26;12(1):14-29. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Phenolic compounds are natural bioactive molecules found mainly in plant tissues that have shown interesting bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, among others, which has led to great interest in their use by several industries. However, despite the large number of scientific studies on this topic, some issues still need to be studied and solved, such as the understanding of the main actions of these compounds in organisms. Besides their large potential applicability in industry, phenolic compounds still face some issues making it necessary to develop strategies to improve bioavailability, sustainable technologies of extraction and refinement, and stability procedures to increase the range of applicability. This review focuses on the most recent advances in the applications of phenolic compounds in different technological and medicinal areas. In addition, techniques to improve their sustainable resourcing, stability and bioavailability will be presented and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02324hDOI Listing
January 2021

Nutritional quality and staling of wheat bread partially replaced with Peruvian mesquite (Prosopis pallida) flour.

Food Res Int 2020 11 13;137:109621. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partially replacing two types of wheat flour (low ash content [type 55] and high ash content [type 65]) with Peruvian Prosopis pallida (mesquite) pod flour (0, 5, 10, 15%) on the nutritional quality and staling of composite breads. Mesquite flour (MF) enhanced the nutritional quality by increasing the fibre contents and unsaturated fatty acids of the bread. MF did not affect crumb hardness either when prepared with wheat flour type 65 (p = 0.374) or 55 (p = 0.122), but reduced crumb resilience (p < 0.001) and water activity (p = 0.003) in both wheat flour types. When blended with wheat flour type 55, increasing levels of MF delayed the dehydration (p < 0.001) and resilience loss rates. Likewise, the higher the MF level, the slower the crumb hardening of composite breads formulated with wheat flour type 55 (p = 0.028). Thus, MF did not only enhance the nutritional profile of composite breads, but could also retard staling as a supplement of wheat flour type 55.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109621DOI Listing
November 2020

Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) grains: A good source of phenolic compounds.

Food Res Int 2020 11 20;137:109574. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address:

The ingestion of bioactive compounds has revealed health benefits, namely in the prevention and/or treatment of several diseases. This work aims to characterize the phenolic profile of three colour varieties of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. grains (black, red and white), and also evaluate their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity. All varieties revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, namely, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. In this study, quinoa grains did not reveal any anti-proliferative capacity in tumour cell lines, and, as expected, they were devoid of any toxicity. All of the analysed extracts possessed antibacterial and antifungal activities (inhibitory and bactericidal/fungicidal) against the microbial strains considered, exhibiting promising values of minimum bactericidal concentrations (mean MBC 0.153-0.916 mg/mL) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (mean MFC 0.211-0.884 mg/mL). Quinoa varieties represent a good source of bioactive compounds, interfering beneficially in the organism, specifically as antimicrobial agents. Thus, these extracts could be used in the development of bioactive ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109574DOI Listing
November 2020

Potential anti-diabetic properties of Merlot grape pomace extract: An in vitro, in silico and in vivo study of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition.

Food Res Int 2020 11 20;137:109462. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Biochemistry, and Post-graduate Program of Food Science, State University of Maringa, Parana 87020-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

A practical approach to control glycemia in diabetes is to use plant natural products that delay hydrolysis of complex sugars and promote the diminution of the release of glucosyl units into the blood plasma. Polyphenolics have been described as being effective in inhibiting amylases and α-glucosidases. Grape pomace is an important sub product of the wine industry, still rich in many compounds such as polyphenolics. In this context, the purpose of this study was to search for possible effects of a grape pomace extract on salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidase, as well as on intestinal glucose absorption. The Merlot grape pomace extract (MGPE) was prepared using a hydroalcoholic mixture (40% ethanol + 60% water). In vitro inhibition was quantified using potato starch (for amylases) and maltose (for α-glucosidase) as substrates. In vivo inhibition was evaluated by running starch and maltose tolerance tests in rats with or without administration of MGPE. Ranking of the extract compounds for its affinity to the α-amylases was accomplished by computer simulations using three different programs. Both α-amylases, pancreatic and salivary, were inhibited by the MGPE. No inhibition on α-glucosidase, however, was detected. The IC values were 90 ± 10 μg/mL and 143 ± 15 μg/mL for salivary and pancreatic amylases, respectively. Kinetically this inhibition showed a complex pattern, with multiple binding of the extract constituents to the enzymes. Furthermore, the in silico docking simulations indicated that several phenolic substances, e.g., peonidin-3-O-acetylglucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, besides catechin, were the most likely polyphenols responsible for the α-amylase inhibition caused by MGPE. The hyperglycemic burst, an usual phenomenon that follows starch administration, was substantially inhibited by the MGPE. Our results suggest that the MGPE can be adequate for maintaining normal blood levels after food ingestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109462DOI Listing
November 2020