Publications by authors named "Isabel Navarro"

81 Publications

Roles of leptin and ghrelin in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2015 Oct 20;188:40-8. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

Leptin and ghrelin are important regulators of energy homeostasis in mammals, whereas their physiological roles in fish have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of leptin and ghrelin on adipogenesis, lipolysis and on expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were examined in rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro. Leptin expression and release increased from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes in culture, but did not affect the process of adipogenesis. While ghrelin and its receptor were identified in cultured differentiated adipocytes, ghrelin did not influence either preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation, indicating that it may have other adipose-related roles. Leptin and ghrelin increased lipolysis in mature freshly isolated adipocytes, but mRNA expression of lipolysis markers was not significantly modified. Leptin significantly suppressed the fatty acid transporter-1 expression, suggesting a decrease in fatty acid uptake and storage, but did not affect expression of any of the lipogenesis or β-oxidation genes studied. Ghrelin significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β, and thus appears to stimulate synthesis of triglycerides as well as their mobilization. Overall, the study indicates that ghrelin, but not leptin seems to be an enhancer of lipid turn-over in adipose tissue of rainbow trout, and this regulation may at least partly be mediated through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The mode of action of both hormones needs to be further explored to better understand their roles in regulating adiposity in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.06.017DOI Listing
October 2015

Characterisation and expression analysis of cathepsins and ubiquitin-proteasome genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) skeletal muscle.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Apr 15;8:149. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.

Background: The proteolytic enzymes involved in normal protein turnover in fish muscle are also responsible for post-mortem softening of the flesh and are therefore potential determinants of product quality. The main enzyme systems involved are calpains, cathepsins, and the ubiquitin-proteasome (UbP). In this study on Sparus aurata (Sa), the coding sequences of cathepsins (SaCTSB and SaCTSDb) and UbP family members (SaN3 and SaUb) were cloned from fast skeletal muscle, and their expression patterns were examined during ontogeny and in a fasting/re-feeding experiment.

Results: The amino acid sequences identified shared 66-100% overall identity with their orthologues in other vertebrates, with well conserved characteristic functional domains and catalytic residues. SaCTSDb showed phylogenetic, sequence and tissue distribution differences with respect to its paralogue SaCTSDa, previously identified in the ovary. Expression of gilthead sea bream cathepsins (B, L, Da, Db) and UbP members (N3, Ub, MuRF1 and MAFbx) in fast skeletal muscle was determined at three different life-history stages and in response to fasting and re-feeding in juveniles. Most of the proteolytic genes analysed were significantly up-regulated during fasting, and down-regulated with re-feeding and, between the fingerling (15 g) and juvenile/adult stages (~50/500 g), consistent with a decrease in muscle proteolysis in both later contexts. In contrast, SaCTSDa and SaMuRF1 expression was relatively stable with ontogeny and SaUb had higher expression in fingerlings and adults than juveniles.

Conclusions: The data obtained in the present study suggest that cathepsins and UbP genes in gilthead sea bream are co-ordinately regulated during ontogeny to control muscle growth, and indicate that feeding regimes can modulate their expression, providing a potential dietary method of influencing post-mortem fillet tenderisation, and hence, product quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1121-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431372PMC
April 2015

A systematic review of patient medication error on self-administering medication at home.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2015 Jun 16;14(6):815-38. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Departamento de Salud Alicante-Sant Joan d'Alacant , Alicante , Spain.

Introduction: Medication errors have been analyzed as a health professionals' responsibility (due to mistakes in prescription, preparation or dispensing). However, sometimes, patients themselves (or their caregivers) make mistakes in the administration of the medication. The epidemiology of patient medication errors (PEs) has been scarcely reviewed in spite of its impact on people, on therapeutic effectiveness and on incremental cost for the health systems.

Areas Covered: This study reviews and describes the methodological approaches and results of published studies on the frequency, causes and consequences of medication errors committed by patients at home. A review of research articles published between 1990 and 2014 was carried out using MEDLINE, Web-of-Knowledge, Scopus, Tripdatabase and Index Medicus.

Expert Opinion: The frequency of PE was situated between 19 and 59%. The elderly and the preschooler population constituted a higher number of mistakes than others. The most common were: incorrect dosage, forgetting, mixing up medications, failing to recall indications and taking out-of-date or inappropriately stored drugs. The majority of these mistakes have no negative consequences. Health literacy, information and communication and complexity of use of dispensing devices were identified as causes of PEs. Apps and other new technologies offer several opportunities for improving drug safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.2015.1026326DOI Listing
June 2015

Effects of nutritional status on plasma leptin levels and in vitro regulation of adipocyte leptin expression and secretion in rainbow trout.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2015 Jan 8;210:114-23. Epub 2014 Nov 8.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

As leptin has a key role on appetite, knowledge about leptin regulation is important in order to understand the control of energy balance. We aimed to explore the modulatory effects of adiposity on plasma leptin levels in vivo and the role of potential regulators on leptin expression and secretion in rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro. Fish were fed a regular diet twice daily ad libitum or a high-energy diet once daily at two ration levels; satiation (SA group) or restricted (RE group) to 25% of satiation, for 8weeks. RE fish had significantly reduced growth (p<0.001) and adipose tissue weight (p<0.001), and higher plasma leptin levels (p=0.022) compared with SA fish. Moreover, plasma leptin levels negatively correlated with mesenteric fat index (p=0.009). Adipocytes isolated from the different fish were treated with insulin, ghrelin, leucine, eicosapentaenoic acid or left untreated (control). In adipocytes from fish fed regular diet, insulin and ghrelin increased leptin secretion dose-dependently (p=0.002; p=0.033, respectively). Leptin secretion in control adipocytes was significantly higher in RE than in SA fish (p=0.022) in agreement with the in vivo findings, indicating that adipose tissue may contribute to the circulating leptin levels. No treatment effects were observed in adipocytes from the high-energy diet groups, neither in leptin expression nor secretion, except that leptin secretion was significantly reduced by leucine in RE fish adipocytes (p=0.025). Overall, these data show that the regulation of leptin in rainbow trout adipocytes by hormones and nutrients seems to be on secretion, rather than at the transcriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.10.016DOI Listing
January 2015

IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2014 Sep 2;205:296-304. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.05.024DOI Listing
September 2014

Adipose tissue and liver metabolic responses to different levels of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2014 Sep 27;175:72-81. Epub 2014 May 27.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

This study analyzes the effects of replacing dietary lipids by carbohydrates and carbohydrates by fiber on gilthead sea bream growth, as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and liver over the course of a 15-week feeding trial. Six different diets were formulated and fish were classified into two experimental groups sharing one diet. In the first group (LS), fish were fed four diets where lipids were reduced (23%-17%) by increasing carbohydrates (12%-28%) and, the second group (SF) consisted on three diets where the amount of carbohydrates (28%-11%) was exchanged at expenses of fiber (1%-18%). Differences in growth were not observed; nevertheless, the hepatosomatic index was positively related to dietary starch levels, apparently not due to enhanced hepatic lipogenesis, partly supported by unchanged G6PDH expression. In the LS group, lipogenic activity of adipose tissue was stimulated with low-lipid/high-carbohydrate diets by up-regulating G6PDH expression and a tendency to increase FAS, and promoted carbohydrate utilization versus fatty acid oxidation by modulating the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα and PPARβ expression. In the SF group, PPARs and LXRα increased parallel to fiber levels in adipose tissue. Furthermore, an adaptation of hepatic GK to dietary starch inclusion was observed in both groups; however, the lack of effects on G6Pase expression indicated that gluconeogenesis was not nutritionally regulated under the conditions examined. Overall, metabolic adaptations directed to an efficient use of dietary carbohydrates are present in gilthead sea bream, supporting the possibility of increasing carbohydrate or fiber content in diets for aquaculture sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.05.014DOI Listing
September 2014

Interplay of adiponectin, TNFα and insulin on gene expression, glucose uptake and PPARγ, AKT and TOR pathways in rainbow trout cultured adipocytes.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2014 Sep 17;205:218-25. Epub 2014 May 17.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

Adipose tissue is being increasingly recognized as an important endocrine organ that produces and releases a variety of factors. In the present study we have evaluated in primary cultures of rainbow trout adipocytes, obtained from visceral adipose tissue, the interplay of the adiponectin system, TNFα and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ, as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways. Likewise, the implication of these adipokines in the regulation of glucose uptake in the adipocyte and their interactions with insulin or IGF-I were also evaluated. Similarly to the mammalian model, insulin enhanced adiponectin gene expression, while it exerted a negative modulation on adiponectin receptors. TNFα increased the mRNA levels of adiponectin receptor 1, but neither adiponectin nor TNFα modulated each other expression. Therefore, the reciprocal suppressive effect of both adipokines previously reported in mammals was not present in this model. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of TNFα was revealed by the down-regulation of PPARγ at a protein level, meanwhile adiponectin increased PPARγ expression in insulin-stimulated adipocytes, supporting its insulin-sensitizing role. Both adipokines stimulated glucose uptake without modifying AKT or TOR phosphorylation; however, glucose uptake in insulin-treated adipocytes was enhanced by TNFα but not by adiponectin. All in all, these results contribute to gain knowledge on the role of adipokines in rainbow trout adipose tissue and, to better understand the mechanisms that regulate glucose metabolism in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.05.005DOI Listing
September 2014

A Spanish pillbox app for elderly patients taking multiple medications: randomized controlled trial.

J Med Internet Res 2014 Apr 4;16(4):e99. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Sant Joan-Alicante Health District, Consellería Sanidad, Alicante, Spain.

Background: Nonadherence and medication errors are common among patients with complex drug regimens. Apps for smartphones and tablets are effective for improving adherence, but they have not been tested in elderly patients with complex chronic conditions and who typically have less experience with this type of technology.

Objective: The objective of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a medication self-management app (called ALICE) for elderly patients taking multiple medications with the intention of improving adherence and safe medication use.

Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with a control and an experimental group (N=99) in Spain in 2013. The characteristics of ALICE were specified based on the suggestions of 3 nominal groups with a total of 23 patients and a focus group with 7 professionals. ALICE was designed for Android and iOS to allow for the personalization of prescriptions and medical advice, showing images of each of the medications (the packaging and the medication itself) together with alerts and multiple reminders for each alert. The randomly assigned patients in the control group received oral and written information on the safe use of their medications and the patients in the experimental group used ALICE for 3 months. Pre and post measures included rate of missed doses and medication errors reported by patients, scores from the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), level of independence, self-perceived health status, and biochemical test results. In the experimental group, data were collected on their previous experience with information and communication technologies, their rating of ALICE, and their perception of the level of independence they had achieved. The intergroup intervention effects were calculated by univariate linear models and ANOVA, with the pre to post intervention differences as the dependent variables.

Results: Data were obtained from 99 patients (48 and 51 in the control and experimental groups, respectively). Patients in the experimental group obtained better MMAS-4 scores (P<.001) and reported fewer missed doses of medication (P=.02). ALICE only helped to significantly reduce medication errors in patients with an initially higher rate of errors (P<.001). Patients with no experience with information and communication technologies reported better adherence (P<.001), fewer missed doses (P<.001), and fewer medication errors (P=.02). The mean satisfaction score for ALICE was 8.5 out of 10. In all, 45 of 51 patients (88%) felt that ALICE improved their independence in managing their medications.

Conclusions: The ALICE app improves adherence, helps reduce rates of forgetting and of medication errors, and increases perceived independence in managing medication. Elderly patients with no previous experience with information and communication technologies are capable of effectively using an app designed to help them take their medicine more safely.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02071498; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02071498.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4004137PMC
April 2014

The special issue on the 17th International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, (ICCE 2013).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2014 Sep 3;205:1-3. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Local Organizers of ICCE 2013, Department of Physiology and Immunology, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.03.031DOI Listing
September 2014

Circadian rhythms of gene expression of lipid metabolism in Gilthead Sea bream liver: synchronisation to light and feeding time.

Chronobiol Int 2014 Jun 11;31(5):613-26. Epub 2014 Feb 11.

Department of Physiology, University of Murcia, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum" , Murcia , Spain and.

This research aimed at investigating circadian rhythm expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of a teleost fish (Sparus aurata), and their synchronisation to different light-dark (L-D) and feeding cycles. To this end, 90 gilthead sea bream were kept in 12:12 h (light:dark, LD, lights on at ZT0) and fed a single daily meal at mid-light (ML = ZT6), mid-darkness (MD = ZT18) and randomly (RD) at a 1.5% body weight ration. A total of 18 tanks were used, six tanks per feeding treatment with five fishes per tank; locomotor activity was recorded in each tank. After 25 days of synchronisation to these feeding regimes, fishes were fasted for one day and liver samples were taken every 4 hours during a 24 h cycle (ZT2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22) and stored at -80 °C until analysis. To determine whether the rhythm expression presented an endogenous control, another experiment was performed using 30 fish kept in complete darkness and fed randomly (DD/RD). Samples were taken following the same procedure as above. The results revealed that all genes investigated exhibited well defined daily rhythms. The lipolysis-related and fatty acid turnover genes (hormone-sensitive lipase (hsl) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (pparα)) exhibited a nocturnal achrophase (Ø = ZT18:03-19:21); lipoprotein lipase (lpl) also showed the same nocturnal achrophase (Ø = ZT20:04-21:36). In contrast, lipogenesis-related gene, fatty acid synthase (fas), and of fatty acid turnover, cyclooxygenase (cox-2), showed a diurnal rhythm (Ø = ZT2:27-8:09); while pparγ was nocturnal (Ø = ZT16:16-18:05). Curiously, feeding time had little influence on the phase of these daily rhythms, since all feeding groups displayed similar achrophases. Furthermore, under constant conditions pparα and hsl showed circadian rhythmicity. These findings suggest that lipid utilisation in the liver is rhythmic and strongly synchronised to the LD cycle, regardless of feeding time, which should be taken into consideration when investigating fish nutrition and the design of feeding protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2014.881837DOI Listing
June 2014

Characterisation and expression of myogenesis regulatory factors during in vitro myoblast development and in vivo fasting in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2014 Jan 21;167:90-9. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Barcelona Knowledge Campus, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain; Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, St Andrews, Scotland, UK.

The aim of this study was to characterise a primary cell culture isolated from fast skeletal muscle of the gilthead sea bream. Gene expression profiles during culture maturation were compared with those obtained from a fasting-refeeding model which is widely used to modulate myogenesis in vivo. Myogenesis is controlled by numerous extracellular signals together with intracellular transcriptional factors whose coordinated expression is critical for the appropriate development of muscle fibres. Full-length cDNAs for the transcription factors Myf5, Mrf4, Pax7 and Sox8 were cloned and sequenced for gilthead sea bream. Pax7, sox8, myod2 and myf5 levels were up-regulated during the proliferating phase of the myogenic cultures coincident with the highest expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In contrast, myogenin and mrf4 transcript abundance was highest during the differentiation phase of the culture when myotubes were present, and was correlated with increased myosin heavy chain (mhc) and desmin expression. In vivo, 30days of fasting resulted in muscle fibre atrophy, a reduction in myod2, myf5 and igf1 expression, lower number of Myod-positive cells, and decreased PCNA protein expression, whereas myogenin expression was not significantly affected. Myostatin1 (mstn1) and pax7 expression were up-regulated in fasted relative to well-fed individuals, consistent with a role for Pax7 in the reduction of myogenic cell activity with fasting. The primary cell cultures and fasting-feeding experiments described provide a foundation for the future investigations on the regulation of muscle growth in gilthead sea bream.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.10.020DOI Listing
January 2014

Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

PLoS One 2013 25;8(9):e75349. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a) to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b) to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a) fasting and re-feeding or (b) feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39%) diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075349PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3783371PMC
July 2014

Hospital reputation and perceptions of patient safety.

Med Princ Pract 2014 21;23(1):92-4. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Departamento Salud San Juan-Alicante, Conselleria de Sanitat, Alicante, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the theoretical relationship between the social reputation and the perceived safety of a hospital.

Subjects And Methods: A random sample of 316 patients and 27 relatives of patients who were unable to respond themselves at four public hospitals in Madrid, Barcelona and Alicante were interviewed to establish a measure of reputation and perceived safety.

Results: There were no different perceptions between patients and relatives regarding hospital reputation or safety perception (p > 0.05). The perception of patients or relatives of health professionals' competence (β = 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.12), the perception of a positive treatment output of surgical or medical treatment (β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.22-0.49) and hospital reputation (β = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.14) were directly and positively associated with their perception that the hospital was a safe clinical environment in which few clinical errors are committed.

Conclusions: The data suggested that the social reputation of these hospitals and the perceptions of patients or relatives of patient safety were indeed correlated. Future research should assess whether efforts to enhance hospital reputation, by improving patients' perceptions of clinical safety, may contribute to reducing the frequency of litigation cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000353152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5586829PMC
September 2014

Insulin-like growth factors effects on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in gilthead sea bream muscle cells.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 Jul 14;188:151-8. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Barcelona Knowledge Campus, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) is a widely cultured fish; however, muscle development regulation is poorly known. Myogenesis can be activated by the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs: MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and MRF4) and by endocrine signals from the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis. We cultured gilthead sea bream myocytes to better understand the role of IGFs in muscle growth and differentiation through the regulation of MRFs expression. First, we studied the expression pattern during culture development of IGFs and IGF-I splice variants. The expression of igf-II was highest at the beginning of the culture and decreased when the cells started to differentiate, similarly to that observed for total igf-I. Igf-Ib showed a paralleled expression pattern as that of total igf-I, whereas igf-Ic was more stable during culture progression. Next, we analyzed the expression of IGFs and MRFs after incubation of cells at day 4 with GH, IGF-I, IGF-II and combinations of them at 3, 6 and 18 h. IGF-II increased myod2 and myf5 expression, genes involved in early muscle cell proliferation. Moreover, IGF-I caused an increase on mrf4 and myogenin expression, both involved in the later stages of development corresponding to differentiation. Regarding the regulation of IGFs expression, igf-I was stimulated by GH and IGF-II alone and combined, whereas igf-II expression was increased in response to IGF-I, suggesting a nice model of crossed regulation. Overall, the present model could be very useful to understand the different regulatory roles of these endocrine and transcription factors on fish myogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.02.033DOI Listing
July 2013

[Design and validation of the CSR-Hospital-SP scale to measure corporate social responsibility].

Gac Sanit 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):529-32. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Departamento de Psicología de la Salud, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Alicante, España; Departamento de Salud Sant Joan-Alacant, Alicante, España. Electronic address:

Objective: To design and validate a scale (CSR-Hospital-SP) to determine health professionals' views on the approach of management to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in their hospital.

Methods: The literature was reviewed to identify the main CSR scales and select the dimensions to be evaluated. The initial version of the scale consisted of 25 items. A convenience sample of a minimum of 224 health professionals working in five public hospitals in five autonomous regions were invited to respond. Floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity were analyzed.

Results: A total of 233 health professionals responded. The CSR-Hospital-SP scale had 20 items grouped into four factors. The item-total correlation was higher than 0.30; all factor loadings were greater than 0.50; 59.57% of the variance was explained; Cronbach's alpha was 0.90; Spearman-Brown's coefficient was 0.82.

Conclusion: The CSR-Hospital-SP scale is a tool designed for hospitals that implement accountability mechanisms and promote socially responsible management approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2012.11.010DOI Listing
October 2014

Assessment of the quality of medication information for patients in Spain.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2013 Jan 10;12(1):9-18. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Health Department Sant Joan - Alacant, Health Authority, Alicante, Spain.

Objective: To analyze the extent to which Spanish leaflets and drug information on the Net met quality criteria.

Research Design And Methods: A descriptive study was conducted comparing readability (REA) and comprehensibility (COM) criteria of a random sample of 77 marketed products of the 12 active ingredients most frequently sold in 2010 in Spain. Leaflets were approved by the Spanish Agency for Medication (AEMPS). Flesch index, DISCERN, ELF, MIDAS and CIRF scales were used to evaluate quality criteria.

Results: COM assessment yielded between 63 and 77% of the maximum possible scores on the scales. None of the websites or leaflets met all the quality criteria of the DISCERN, CIRF or MIDAS scales. Four (3%) leaflets met all the 22 quality criteria of ELF. The leaflets showed shortcomings regarding: medication benefits (17 required substantial improvements, 31.5%), correct forms of storage (13, 24.1%), contraindications (12, 22.2%), side effects (11, 20.4%) and precautions to be taken (9, 16.7%).

Conclusions: The quality of the information approved by the AEMPS is superior to that which can be found by surfing the Net. More specific information on precautions, complications and how to avoid common patient errors would allow patients the best chance to contribute to their own clinical safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.2013.744965DOI Listing
January 2013

mRNA expression of fatty acid transporters in rainbow trout: in vivo and in vitro regulation by insulin, fasting and inflammation and infection mediators.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2012 Oct 4;163(2):177-88. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

In the present study, we analyzed endocrine and nutritional regulation of fatty acid (FA) transporters mRNA expression fatty acid transport protein (FATP1) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) in rainbow trout in vivo and in adipocytes and myocytes in vitro. The expression of FATP1 increased with adipocyte and that of CD36 with myocyte in vitro differentiation suggesting a different role for each transporter during the two cell differentiation programs. Food deprivation (15, 25 and 35 days) increased FATP1 and CD36 mRNA expression in white muscle, red muscle and adipose tissue while insulin administration decreased the FATP1 expression in adipose tissue in vivo (21.6 pmol/g body mass) and in vitro (1 μM) in adipocytes. In trout myotubes insulin (1 μM) decreased FATP1 and increased CD36 mRNA expression. Thus, regulation of FA transporters expression by insulin is complex and directed to specific tissue needs. Although FATP1 and CD36 mRNA levels are controlled by insulin, it appears that FATP1 respond more clearly to situations of hyper and hypo-insulinemia in trout muscle and adipose tissue than CD36. FATP1 and CD36 transcription was also modulated by growth hormone in cultured myotubes and isolated adipocytes. Lipopolysaccharide administration (E. coli, serotype O26:B6, 6 μg/g body mass) decreased FATP1 mRNA expression in red muscle, adipose tissue and liver after 24h according to changes in lipid metabolism during infection. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) (100 ng/ml) reduced FATP1 expression in isolated adipocytes. Further, insulin (1μM) and IGF-I (100 nM) increased the FA uptake in rainbow trout myotubes through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Overall, we demonstrated not only that feeding condition regulates FATP1 and CD36 mRNA expression in a tissue-specific manner, but also that insulin is an important regulator of these genes in vivo and in vitro and also it stimulates FA uptake in trout muscle cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.06.010DOI Listing
October 2012

Metabolic Effects of Insulin and IGFs on Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Muscle Cells.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2012 26;3:55. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

Primary cultures of gilthead sea bream myocytes were performed in order to examine the relative metabolic function of insulin compared with IGF-I and IGF-II (insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) at different stages in the cell culture. In these cells, the in vitro effects of insulin and IGFs on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and l-alanine uptake were studied in both myocytes (day 4) and small myotubes (day 9). 2-DG uptake in gilthead sea bream muscle cells was increased in the presence of insulin and IGFs in a time dependent manner and along with muscle cell differentiation. On the contrary, l-alanine uptake was also stimulated by insulin and IGFs but showed an inverse pattern, being the uptake higher in small myocytes than in large myotubes. The results of preincubation with inhibitors (PD-98059, wortmannin, and cytochalasin B) on 2-DG uptake indicated that insulin and IGFs stimulate glucose uptake through the same mechanisms, and evidenced that mitogenesis activator protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K-Akt transduction pathways mediate the metabolic function of these peptides. In the same way, we observed that GLUT4 protein synthesis was stimulated in the presence of insulin and IGFs in gilthead sea bream muscle cells in a different manner at days 4 or 9 of the culture. In summary we describe here, for the first time, the effects of insulin and IGFs on 2-DG and l-alanine uptake in primary culture of gilthead sea bream muscle cells. We show that both MAPK and PI3K-Akt transduction pathways are needed in order to control insulin and IGFs actions in these cells. Moreover, changes in glucose uptake can be explained by the action of the GLUT4 transporter, which is stimulated in the presence of insulin and IGFs throughout the cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2012.00055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356123PMC
August 2012

Role of LXR in trout adipocytes: target genes, hormonal regulation, adipocyte differentiation and relation to lipolysis.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2012 Sep 22;163(1):120-6. Epub 2012 May 22.

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

In the present study, we describe an initial approach to investigate the role of LXR in fish adipose tissue. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isolated adipocytes were incubated with LXR agonists, unsaturated fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), insulin or growth hormone (GH) for 6h and LXR expression was analyzed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with one of the LXR agonists and LXR expression was compared with levels of lipolysis. LXR expression was also analyzed during the differentiation of adipocytes in culture. The incubations with agonists in isolated adipocytes indicated that ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is an LXR target gene, but lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) are not. LXR agonists also induced LXR expression and raised lipolysis levels. Besides, LXR expression was upregulated in parallel with basal lipolysis. LXR mRNA expression was regulated by unsaturated fatty acids, insulin, TNFα and GH in isolated adipocytes. Besides, LXR showed an upregulation during adipocyte differentiation. All these data indicate that LXR is involved in orchestrating the transcriptional regulatory network in trout adipocyte lipid metabolism, specifically, in cholesterol transport, adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.05.193DOI Listing
September 2012

[Frequency of medication errors by patients].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2012 Feb;31(2):95-101

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, España.

Objective: Analyze the frequency of medication errors committed and reported by patients.

Methods: Descriptive study based on a telephone survey of a random sample of adult patients from the primary care level of the Spanish public health care system. A total of 1 247 patients responded (75% response rate); 63% were women and 29% were older than 70 years.

Results: While 37 patients (3%, 95% CI: 2-4) experienced complications associated with medication in the course of treatment, 241 (19.4%, 95% CI: 17-21) reported having made some mistake with their medication. A shorter consultation time (P < 0.01) and a worse assessment of the information provided by the physician (P < 0.01) were associated with the fact that during pharmacy dispensing the patient was told that the prescribed treatment was not appropriate.

Conclusions: In addition to the known risks of an adverse event due to a health intervention resulting from a system or practitioner error, there are risks associated with patient errors in the self-administration of medication. Patients who were unsatisfied with the information provided by the physician reported a greater number of errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892012000200001DOI Listing
February 2012

[Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure hospitals' social reputation].

Gac Sanit 2012 Sep-Oct;26(5):444-9. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche (Alicante), España.

Objective: To design and validate a questionnaire (MeFio) to measure the social reputation of a hospital from patients' and citizens' perspective.

Material And Methods: We performed a literature review to define the concept of a hospital's social reputation. Four nominal groups were conducted to set up the a priori factors of the MeFio questionnaire. These groups consisted of 47 managers and health professionals and 32 potential customers. Reactive items were identified and a pilot test was conducted to examine comprehension. A random sample of 385 subjects was selected. Ceiling and floor effects, internal consistency, reliability, and construct and criteria validity were analyzed.

Results: A total of 343 validated questionnaires (response rate 89%) were collected. The MeFio questionnaire has 21 items grouped into five factors. All items had an item-total correlation higher than 0.30. All factor loads were higher than 0.5; between 66.2% and 80.4% of the variance was explained and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7- 0.88. The construct-composite-reliability scores were higher than 0.7. Standardized scores in the convergent discriminant validity test were higher than 0.6. The factors explained 50% of the variability in satisfaction with the health care received (F = 66.5; p <0.001).

Conclusion: The MeFio questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to measure the five dimensions that define the reputation of a hospital in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2011.11.020DOI Listing
January 2013

Adiponectin effects and gene expression in rainbow trout: an in vivo and in vitro approach.

J Exp Biol 2012 Apr;215(Pt 8):1373-83

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

Here we present the presence of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors [type 1 (adipoR1) and type 2 (adipoR2)] in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues and cell cultures together with the response to different scenarios. In response to fasting, adiponectin expression was up-regulated in adipose tissue, while the expression of its receptors increased in white and red muscle. Insulin injection decreased adipoR1 expression in white and red muscles. We deduce that the adipoRs in trout muscle show opposite responses to increasing insulin plasma levels, which may maintain sensitivity to insulin in this tissue. Adiponectin expression was inhibited by the inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in adipose tissue and red muscle. Moreover, results indicate that LPS may lead to mobilization of fat reserves, increasing adipoR1 expression in adipose tissue. The effects of LPS could be mediated through tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), at least in red muscle. Insulin, growth hormone and TNFα all diminished expression of adipoR2 in adipocytes and adipoR1 in myotubes, while insulin increased the expression of adipoR2 in the muscle cells. Adiponectin activates Akt in rainbow trout myotubes, which may lead to an increase in fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Overall, our results show that the adiponectin system responds differently to various physiological challenges and that it is hormonally controlled in vivo and in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this has been demonstrated in teleosts, and it may be a valuable contribution to our understanding of adipokines in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.061697DOI Listing
April 2012

Benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation in primary refractory myeloma? Different outcomes in progressive versus stable disease.

Haematologica 2012 Apr 4;97(4):616-21. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Hospital Clínic, Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Several studies of autologous stem cell transplantation in primary refractory myeloma have produced encouraging results. However, the outcome of primary refractory patients with stable disease has not been analyzed separately from the outcome of patients with progressive disease.

Design And Methods: In the Spanish Myeloma Group 2000 trial, 80 patients with primary refractory myeloma (49 with stable disease and 31 with progressive disease), i.e. who were refractory to initial chemotherapy, were scheduled for tandem transplants (double autologous transplant or a single autologous transplant followed by an allogeneic transplant). Patients with primary refractory disease included those who never achieved a minimal response (≥ 25% M-protein decrease) or better. Responses were assessed using the European Bone Marrow Transplant criteria.

Results: There were no significant differences in the rates of partial response or better between patients with stable or progressive disease. However, 38% of the patients with stable disease at the time of transplantation remained in a stable condition or achieved a minimal response after transplantation versus 7% in the group with progressive disease (P=0.0017) and the rate of early progression after transplantation was significantly higher among the group with progressive disease at the time of transplantation (22% versus 2%; P=0.0043). After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the median survival after first transplant of the whole series was 2.3 years. Progression-free and overall survival from the first transplant were shorter in patients with progressive disease (0.6 versus 2.3 years, P=0.00004 and 1.1 versus 6 years, P=0.00002, respectively).

Conclusions: Our results show that patients with progressive refractory myeloma do not benefit from autologous transplantation, while patients with stable disease have an outcome comparable to those with chemosensitive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2011.051441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347671PMC
April 2012

In vivo and in vitro insulin and fasting control of the transmembrane fatty acid transport proteins in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2011 Oct 20;301(4):R947-57. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain, Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

We have examined the nutritional and insulin regulation of the mRNA expression of transmembrane fatty acid (FA) transporters [FA transport protein-1 (FATP1) and CD36] together with the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the cytosolic FA carrier FA binding protein (FABP3), and mitochondrial FA-CoA and -carnitine palmitoyl transferase carriers (CPT)1 and -2 in Atlantic salmon tissues and myocyte cell culture. Two weeks of fasting diminished FATP1, CD36, and LPL in adipose tissue, suggesting a reduction in FA uptake, while FABP3 increased in liver, probably enhancing the transport of FA to the mitochondria. Insulin injection decreased FATP1 and CD36 in white and red muscles, while both transporters were upregulated in the adipose tissue in agreement with the role of insulin-inhibiting muscle FA oxidation and stimulating adipose fat stores. Serum deprivation of 48 h in Atlantic salmon myotubes increased FATP1, FABP3, and CPT-2, while CPT-1 was diminished. In myotubes, insulin induced FATP1 expression but decreased CD36, FABP3, and LPL, suggesting that FATP1 could be more involved in the insulin-stimulated FA uptake. Insulin increased the FA uptake in myotubes mediated, at least in part, through the relocation of FATP1 protein to the plasma membrane. Overall, Atlantic salmon FA transporters are regulated by fasting and insulin on in vivo and in vitro models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00289.2011DOI Listing
October 2011

Regulation of LXR by fatty acids, insulin, growth hormone and tumor necrosis factor-α in rainbow trout myocytes.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2011 Oct 24;160(2):125-36. Epub 2011 May 24.

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The liver X receptor (LXR) has recently been described in salmonids. In mammals, this receptor is already known as a transcriptional factor that regulates diverse aspects of cholesterol, fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in various tissues, including muscle. Here we examined LXR in trout myocytes. For this purpose, we analyzed LXR target gene expression and gene profile during myocyte development. In addition, we studied the transcriptional regulation of LXR by hormones, a pro-inflammatory mediator and unsaturated fatty acids. Trout myocytes were incubated with LXR agonists (T091317, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol) and unsaturated fatty acids for 24h. Furthermore, differentiated myocytes were incubated with insulin and growth hormone (GH) for 3h, 6h and 18h, and with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) for 24h. Samples were also obtained in various stages of cell differentiation. Our results demonstrate that lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and β (PPARα, β) are target genes of LXR in trout muscle. LXR agonists increased LXR expression, thereby indicating that this receptor is autoregulated. Unsaturated fatty acids downregulated LXR gene expression. This observation suggests a regulatory mechanism of these molecules on LXR-mediated fatty acid synthesis and uptake. TNFα did not modulate LXR gene transcription. Expression of the LXR gene was activated by insulin and GH. These results suggest that LXR may play a lipogenic role through insulin stimulation and a tendency to promote anabolic effects through GH on trout myocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.05.013DOI Listing
October 2011

Differential effects on proliferation of GH and IGFs in sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured myocytes.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2011 May 31;172(1):44-9. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Departament de Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal, 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Primary culture of gilthead sea bream skeletal muscle cells was used to examine the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in fish muscle proliferation and growth. Proliferation was measured as the percentage of positive cells expressing the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) analyzed by immunocytochemistry. First, the effects of GH from two different origins (mammals and fish) were tested. GH from human (hGH) did not stimulate proliferation except at 3h at the dose of 1 nM. On the other hand, sea bream GH (sbGH) significantly stimulated proliferation, without differences between the three incubation times studied (3, 6, and 18 h), at the dose of 10nM, demonstrating that the homologous hormone has a more potent effect. In addition, the results with the IGFs indicated that both peptides, IGF-I and IGF-II significantly stimulated proliferation of sea bream myocytes, but IGF-II showed higher effects than IGF-I, and even than those of sbGH. Finally, the combinations of peptide treatments (GHs with IGFs) indicated that IGF-I has higher effects on proliferation when it is combined with GHs compared with IGF-I alone, while IGF-II has similar effects alone or combined with either GH. These results indicate that IGF-II may have an important role on muscle proliferation that appears to be independent of GH. On the contrary, IGF-I seems to play a synergistic action with GH stimulating myocyte proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.03.024DOI Listing
May 2011

Insulin and IGF-I effects on the proliferation of an osteoblast primary culture from sea bream (Sparus aurata).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2011 May 3;172(1):107-14. Epub 2011 Apr 3.

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, Barcelona 08028, Spain.

Bone deformities in several fish species, like gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), are currently a major problem in aquaculture. To gain knowledge of fish skeletal development, a primary cell culture has been established from sea bream vertebra. The initial fibroblastic phenotype of the cells changed to a polygonal shape during the culture, and the addition of an osteogenic medium promoted the deposition of minerals in the extracellular matrix. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the MTT assay in control and mineralizing conditions at different culture days, up to day 20. The capacity of the cells to differentiate into osteoblasts was evaluated using Alizarin red stain. The cells showed slightly increased proliferation and differentiation in the presence of osteogenic medium. Furthermore, pluripotentiality of these cells was demonstrated by inducing them to differentiate into adipocytes, and the accumulation of lipids into the cells was detected with Oil Red O staining. Subsequently, the effects of insulin (1, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) and IGF-I (0.1, 1 and 10nM) on cell proliferation were evaluated with the MTT assay at day 3. Both peptides significantly stimulated the proliferation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner after either 24 or 48 h of incubation, with IGF-I apparently being more potent than insulin. In summary, a primary culture of sea bream osteoblasts has been characterized. This cellular system can be a good model to study the process of osteoblastogenesis in fish and its endocrine regulation, which may help to improve the quality of the product in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.03.020DOI Listing
May 2011

Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2011 Apr 3;158(4):391-9. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.11.024DOI Listing
April 2011

Endocrine control of oleic acid and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle cells in culture.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2010 Aug 19;299(2):R562-72. Epub 2010 May 19.

Dept. de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

The effects of insulin and IGF-I on fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism were examined using oleic acid or glucose as tracers in differentiated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes. Insulin and IGF-I significantly reduced the production of CO(2) from oleic acid with respect to the control values. IGF-I also significantly reduced the production of acid-soluble products (ASP) and the concentration of FA in the medium, while cellular triacylglycerols (TAG) tended to increase. Only insulin produced a significant accumulation of glycogen inside the cells in glucose distribution experiments. Incubation with catecholamines did not affect oleic acid metabolism. Cells treated with rapamycin [a target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor] significantly increased the oxidation of oleic acid to CO(2) and ASP, while the accumulation of TAG diminished. Rosiglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist) and etomoxir (a CPT-1 inhibitor) produced a severe and significant reduction in the production of CO(2) and ASP. Rosiglitazone and etomoxir also produced a significant accumulation of FA outside and inside the cells, respectively. No significant effects of these drugs on glucose distribution were observed. These data indicate that insulin and IGF-I act as anabolic hormones in trout myotubes in both oleic acid and glucose metabolism, although glucose oxidation appears to be less sensitive than FA oxidation to insulin and IGF-I. The use of rapamycin, etomoxir, and rosiglitazone may help us to understand the mechanisms of regulation of lipid metabolism in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00696.2009DOI Listing
August 2010
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