Publications by authors named "Irma B Stowe"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

NINJ1 mediates plasma membrane rupture during lytic cell death.

Nature 2021 Mar 20;591(7848):131-136. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Plasma membrane rupture (PMR) is the final cataclysmic event in lytic cell death. PMR releases intracellular molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that propagate the inflammatory response. The underlying mechanism of PMR, however, is unknown. Here we show that the cell-surface NINJ1 protein, which contains two transmembrane regions, has an essential role in the induction of PMR. A forward-genetic screen of randomly mutagenized mice linked NINJ1 to PMR. Ninj1 macrophages exhibited impaired PMR in response to diverse inducers of pyroptotic, necrotic and apoptotic cell death, and were unable to release numerous intracellular proteins including HMGB1 (a known DAMP) and LDH (a standard measure of PMR). Ninj1 macrophages died, but with a distinctive and persistent ballooned morphology, attributable to defective disintegration of bubble-like herniations. Ninj1 mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to infection with Citrobacter rodentium, which suggests a role for PMR in anti-bacterial host defence. Mechanistically, NINJ1 used an evolutionarily conserved extracellular domain for oligomerization and subsequent PMR. The discovery of NINJ1 as a mediator of PMR overturns the long-held idea that cell death-related PMR is a passive event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03218-7DOI Listing
March 2021

MCC950/CRID3 potently targets the NACHT domain of wild-type NLRP3 but not disease-associated mutants for inflammasome inhibition.

PLoS Biol 2019 09 16;17(9):e3000354. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Inflammation Research Center, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.

The nucleotide-binding-domain (NBD)-and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing (NLR) family, pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome drives pathological inflammation in a suite of autoimmune, metabolic, malignant, and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, NLRP3 gain-of-function point mutations cause systemic periodic fever syndromes that are collectively known as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). There is significant interest in the discovery and development of diarylsulfonylurea Cytokine Release Inhibitory Drugs (CRIDs) such as MCC950/CRID3, a potent and selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, for the treatment of CAPS and other diseases. However, drug discovery efforts have been constrained by the lack of insight into the molecular target and mechanism by which these CRIDs inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Here, we show that the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1 (NACHT) domain of NLRP3 is the molecular target of diarylsulfonylurea inhibitors. Interestingly, we find photoaffinity labeling (PAL) of the NACHT domain requires an intact (d)ATP-binding pocket and is substantially reduced for most CAPS-associated NLRP3 mutants. In concordance with this finding, MCC950/CRID3 failed to inhibit NLRP3-driven inflammatory pathology in two mouse models of CAPS. Moreover, it abolished circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged wild-type mice but not in Nlrp3L351P knock-in mice and ex vivo-stimulated mutant macrophages. These results identify wild-type NLRP3 as the molecular target of MCC950/CRID3 and show that CAPS-related NLRP3 mutants escape efficient MCC950/CRID3 inhibition. Collectively, this work suggests that MCC950/CRID3-based therapies may effectively treat inflammation driven by wild-type NLRP3 but not CAPS-associated mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6762198PMC
September 2019

IRF2 transcriptionally induces expression for pyroptosis.

Sci Signal 2019 05 21;12(582). Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) is cleaved by caspase-1, caspase-4, and caspase-11 in response to canonical and noncanonical inflammasome activation. Upon cleavage, GSDMD oligomerizes and forms plasma membrane pores, resulting in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, pyroptotic cell death, and inflammatory pathologies, including periodic fever syndromes and septic shock-a plague on modern medicine. Here, we showed that IRF2, a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, was essential for the transcriptional activation of A forward genetic screen with -ethyl--nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized mice linked IRF2 to inflammasome signaling. expression was substantially attenuated in deficient macrophages, endothelial cells, and multiple tissues, which corresponded with reduced IL-1β secretion and inhibited pyroptosis. Mechanistically, IRF2 bound to a previously uncharacterized but unique site within the promoter to directly drive transcription for the execution of pyroptosis. Disruption of this single IRF2-binding site abolished signaling by both the canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes. Together, our data illuminate a key transcriptional mechanism for expression of the gene encoding GSDMD, a critical mediator of inflammatory pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aax4917DOI Listing
May 2019

Caspase-11 auto-proteolysis is crucial for noncanonical inflammasome activation.

J Exp Med 2018 09 22;215(9):2279-2288. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA

Intracellular LPS sensing by caspase-4/5/11 triggers proteolytic activation of pore-forming gasdermin D (GSDMD), leading to pyroptotic cell death in Gram-negative bacteria-infected cells. Involvement of caspase-4/5/11 and GSDMD in inflammatory responses, such as lethal sepsis, makes them highly desirable drug targets. Using knock-in (KI) mouse strains, we herein provide genetic evidence to show that caspase-11 auto-cleavage at the inter-subunit linker is essential for optimal catalytic activity and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of GSDMD. Macrophages from caspase-11-processing dead KI mice ( ) exhibit defective caspase-11 auto-processing and phenocopy and caspase-11 enzymatically dead KI ( ) macrophages in attenuating responses to cytoplasmic LPS or Gram-negative bacteria infection. KI macrophages also fail to cleave GSDMD and are hypo-responsive to inflammasome stimuli, confirming that the GSDMD Asp residue is a nonredundant and indispensable site for proteolytic activation of GSDMD. Our data highlight the role of caspase-11 self-cleavage as a critical regulatory step for GSDMD processing and response against Gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20180589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122968PMC
September 2018

ASC- and caspase-8-dependent apoptotic pathway diverges from the NLRC4 inflammasome in macrophages.

Sci Rep 2018 02 28;8(1):3788. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

The NLRC4 inflammasome recognizes bacterial flagellin and components of the type III secretion apparatus. NLRC4 stimulation leads to caspase-1 activation followed by a rapid lytic cell death known as pyroptosis. NLRC4 is linked to pathogen-free auto-inflammatory diseases, suggesting a role for NLRC4 in sterile inflammation. Here, we show that NLRC4 activates an alternative cell death program morphologically similar to apoptosis in caspase-1-deficient BMDMs. By performing an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen with subsequent validation studies in gene-targeted mice, we highlight a critical role for caspase-8 and ASC adaptor in an alternative apoptotic pathway downstream of NLRC4. Furthermore, caspase-1 catalytically dead knock-in (Casp1 C284A KI) BMDMs genetically segregate pyroptosis and apoptosis, and confirm that caspase-1 does not functionally compete with ASC for NLRC4 interactions. We show that NLRC4/caspase-8-mediated apoptotic cells eventually undergo plasma cell membrane damage in vitro, suggesting that this pathway can lead to secondary necrosis. Unexpectedly, we found that DFNA5/GSDME, a member of the pore-forming gasdermin family, is dispensable for the secondary necrosis that follows NLRC4-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. Together, our data confirm the existence of an alternative caspase-8 activation pathway diverging from the NLRC4 inflammasome in primary macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21998-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830643PMC
February 2018

Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling.

Nature 2015 Oct 16;526(7575):666-71. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

Intracellular lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia thailandensis activates mouse caspase-11, causing pyroptotic cell death, interleukin-1β processing, and lethal septic shock. How caspase-11 executes these downstream signalling events is largely unknown. Here we show that gasdermin D is essential for caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis and interleukin-1β maturation. A forward genetic screen with ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenized mice links Gsdmd to the intracellular lipopolysaccharide response. Macrophages from Gsdmd(-/-) mice generated by gene targeting also exhibit defective pyroptosis and interleukin-1β secretion induced by cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide or Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, Gsdmd(-/-) mice are protected from a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. Mechanistically, caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D, and the resulting amino-terminal fragment promotes both pyroptosis and NLRP3-dependent activation of caspase-1 in a cell-intrinsic manner. Our data identify gasdermin D as a critical target of caspase-11 and a key mediator of the host response against Gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15541DOI Listing
October 2015

Noncanonical inflammasome activation by intracellular LPS independent of TLR4.

Science 2013 Sep 25;341(6151):1246-9. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri are sensed in an ill-defined manner by an intracellular inflammasome complex that activates caspase-11. We show that macrophages loaded with synthetic lipid A, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or S. typhimurium LPS activate caspase-11 independently of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consistent with lipid A triggering the noncanonical inflammasome, LPS containing a divergent lipid A structure antagonized caspase-11 activation in response to E. coli LPS or Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, LPS-mutant E. coli failed to activate caspase-11. Tlr4(-/-) mice primed with TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] to induce pro-caspase-11 expression were as susceptible as wild-type mice were to sepsis induced by E. coli LPS. These data unveil a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1240248DOI Listing
September 2013

A shared molecular mechanism underlies the human rasopathies Legius syndrome and Neurofibromatosis-1.

Genes Dev 2012 Jul;26(13):1421-6

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a critical role in transducing mitogenic signals from receptor tyrosine kinases. Loss-of-function mutations in one feedback regulator of Ras/MAPK signaling, SPRED1 (Sprouty-related protein with an EVH1 domain), cause Legius syndrome, an autosomal dominant human disorder that resembles Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1). Spred1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras/MAPK pathway; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product, is a Spred1-interacting protein that is necessary for Spred1's inhibitory function. We show that Spred1 binding induces the plasma membrane localization of NF1, which subsequently down-regulates Ras-GTP levels. This novel mechanism for the regulation of neurofibromin provides a molecular bridge for understanding the overlapping pathophysiology of NF1 and Legius syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.190876.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3403010PMC
July 2012