Publications by authors named "Iris M Markusse"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison between low disease activity or DAS remission as treatment target in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis.

RMD Open 2018 20;4(1):e000649. Epub 2018 May 20.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To compare outcomes of targeted treatment aimed at either low disease activity or remission in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: Five-year outcomes were compared in 133 patients with early active RA (1987), starting with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and tapered high dose of prednisone (arm 3 of the BehandelStrategieën (Treatment Strategies for Rheumatoid Arthritis) (BeSt) study), targeted at Disease Activity Score (DAS) ≤2.4 (low disease activity), and 175 patients with early RA, starting methotrexate and tapered high dose of prednisone, targeted at DAS <1.6 (selected from IMPROVED study who would have fulfilled inclusion criteria of the BeSt study). Association of treatment target with outcomes DAS <1.6, Boolean remission at year 1 and drug-free DAS remission (DFR) at year 5 were analysed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: At baseline, DAS <1.6 steered patients had a milder disease than DAS ≤2.4 steered patients (mean DAS 4.1±SD 0.7vs4.4±0.9, p=0.012) and less radiological damage. DAS decrease, functional ability and radiological damage progression over time were similar in both patient groups. DAS ≤2.4 was achieved in similar percentages in both patient groups, but more DAS <1.6 steered patients achieved DAS <1.6 and DFR. DAS <1.6 steered treatment was associated with achieving DAS <1.6 (OR 3.04 (95% CI 1.64 to 5.62)) and Boolean remission (3.03 (1.45 to 6.33)) at year 1 and DFR at year 5 (3.77 (1.51 to 9.43)).

Conclusions: In patients with early active RA who start with comparable disease-modifying antirheumatic drug+prednisone combination therapy, subsequent DAS <1.6 steered treatment is associated with similar clinical and radiological outcomes over time as DAS ≤2.4 steered treatment; however, in the DAS <1.6 steered group, more patients achieved remission and drug-free remission.
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May 2018

What have we learned from BeSt?

Clin Immunol 2018 01 18;186:74-78. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.

Background: How have the long term outcomes of RA improved in the last decade?

Methods: Patients with DMARD naïve RA were randomized to 4 treatment strategies: 1. sequential DMARD monotherapy, 2. step-up combination therapy, 3. initial combination therapy including prednisone or 4. including infliximab. Treatment-to-target was aimed at DAS≤2.4 (three-monthly calculations). Functional ability (HAQ), radiologic damage progression (Sharp/vanderHeijde Score) and overall survival were reported.

Results: Patients in arms 3 and 4 showed earlier clinical improvement. Up to 50% achieved DAS-remission (<1.6), up to 29% achieved drug free remission. Damage progression was well suppressed (median after 10years in completers 2 SHS points), functional ability approached normality (mean HAQ 0.6). There was no increased mortality (Standardized Mortality Ratio 1.16, 95% CI 0.92-1.46).

Conclusions: Early treatment determines early clinical improvement, treatment-to-target determines long term outcomes. Prevention of relevant radiologic damage progression and disability, drug free remission and normalized survival are realistic goals.
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January 2018

Predicting cardiopulmonary involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis: complementary value of nailfold videocapillaroscopy patterns and disease-specific autoantibodies.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 07;56(7):1081-1088

Department of Rheumatology.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) antibodies in Dutch SSc patients and the predictive power of the combination of specific anti-ENA antibodies and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) patterns to improve identification of patients with high risk for cardiopulmonary involvement.

Methods: A total of 287 patients (79%) from the Leiden SSc-Cohort had data available on NVC-pattern (no SSc-specific, early, active, late) and anti-ENA antibodies. Associations between anti-ENA/NVC combinations with cardiopulmonary parameters were explored using logistic regression.

Results: Prevalence of ACA was 37%, anti-Scl-70 24%, anti-RNP 9%, anti-RNAPIII 5%, anti-fibrillarin 4%, anti-Pm/Scl 3%, anti-Th/To 0.3% and anti-Ku 1.4%. NVC showed a SSc-specific pattern in 88%: 10% early, 42% active and 36% late. The prevalence of different NVC patterns was equally distributed among specific anti-ENA antibodies, except for the absence of early pattern in anti-RNP positive patients. Fifty-one percent had interstitial lung disease (ILD), 59% had decreased diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and 16% systolic pulmonary artery pressure >35 mmHg (sPAP↑). Regardless of ENA-subtype, NVC-pattern showed a stable association with presence of ILD or sPAP↑. For ILD, the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.3-1.4 ( P < 0.05 for analyses with anti-RNAPIII, anti-RNP). For diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, the OR was 1.5 ( P < 0.05 for analyses with ACA, anti-Scl-70, anti-RNAPIII, anti-RNP). For sPAP↑, the ORs were 2.2-2.4 ( P < 0.05 for analyses with anti-RNAPIII, anti-RNP).

Conclusion: In Dutch SSc patients, all SSc-specific auto-antibodies were found, with ACA and anti-Scl-70 being the most prevalent. Strikingly, the association between NVC-pattern and heart/lung involvement was independent of specific anti-ENA antibodies, which might indicate microangiopathy is an important cause of organ involvement.
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July 2017

Long-Term Outcomes of Patients With Recent-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis After 10 Years of Tight Controlled Treatment: A Randomized Trial.

Ann Intern Med 2016 Apr 1;164(8):523-31. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Background: Treat-to-target therapy is effective for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but long-term results of continued targeted treatment are lacking.

Objective: To evaluate long-term outcomes in patients with early RA after 10 years of targeted treatment in 4 treatment strategies.

Design: Randomized trial. (Nederlands Trial Register: NTR262 and NTR265).

Setting: The Netherlands.

Patients: 508 patients with early active RA.

Intervention: Sequential monotherapy (strategy 1), step-up combination therapy (strategy 2), or initial combination therapy with prednisone (strategy 3) or with infliximab (strategy 4), all followed by targeted treatment aiming at low disease activity.

Measurements: Functional ability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score) and radiographic progression (Sharp-van der Heijde score) were primary end points. Survival in the study population was compared with the general population using the standardized mortality ratio.

Results: 195 of 508 of patients (38%) dropped out of the study (28% in strategy 4 vs. 40% to 45% in strategies 1 to 3, respectively). At year 10, mean HAQ score (SD) was 0.57 (0.56); 53% and 14% of patients were in remission and drug-free remission, respectively, without differences among the strategies. Over 10 years, mean HAQ scores were 0.69, 0.72, 0.64, and 0.58 in strategies 1 to 4, respectively (differences not clinically relevant). Radiographic damage was limited for all strategies, with mean Sharp-van der Heijde estimates during follow-up of 11, 8, 8, and 6 in strategies 1 to 4, respectively (P = 0.15). Standardized mortality ratio was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.46) based on 72 observed and 62 expected deaths, with similar survival among the 4 strategies (P = 0.81).

Limitation: Dropout rate varied by strategy.

Conclusion: In patients with early RA, initial (temporary) combination therapy results in faster clinical improvement and targeted treatment determines long-term outcomes. Drug-free remission, with prevention of functional deterioration and clinically relevant radiographic damage, and normalized survival are realistic outcomes.

Primary Funding Source: Dutch College of Health Insurance Companies, Schering-Plough, and Janssen.
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April 2016

Linear extrapolation of missing radiographic change scores in clinical trials does not spuriously overestimate group radiographic changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016 07 4;55(7):1295-300. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden.

Objective: To assess linear extrapolation (LE) and last observation carried forward (LOCF) as imputation methods for radiographic change in patients with RA.

Methods: The OSKIRA-1 trial enrolled 918 patients with active RA for studying the efficacy of fostamatinib. Radiographs were scheduled for all patients at baseline and week 12, regardless of early escape, and at weeks 24 and 52 for patients who remained in the study. Complete radiographic data for the 24-week follow-up were available for 623 patients and were assessed according to the Sharp/van der Heijde score. From this complete set of data, a random selection of 10% missingness was generated. This was done 1000 times, and for each replicate the missing radiographic change at week 24 was imputed, first by LE, then by LOCF. The mean of the mean and mean of the s.d. across the 1000 replications was calculated. A similar approach was iterated for different proportions of missingness.

Results: The mean (s.d.) observed Sharp/van der Heijde score change from baseline to week 24 was 0.36 (2.39). With LE, the mean (s.d.) change was estimated as 0.36 (2.65), 0.35 (2.88), 0.35 (3.17), 0.34 (3.57) and 0.32 (4.45) with 10/20/30/50/90% missingness, respectively. With LOCF, the mean (s.d.) change was estimated as 0.34 (2.39), 0.32 (2.38), 0.30 (2.37), 0.26 (2.36) and 0.18 (2.34) with 10/20/30/50/90% missingness, respectively.

Conclusion: LE led to stable estimates of progression at the group level, but increasing variability with increasing proportions of missingness. In contrast, LOCF imputation systemically underestimated mean progression with increasing proportions of missingness, with artificially reduced variability estimates.
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July 2016

Erosions in the foot at baseline are predictive of orthopaedic shoe use after 10 years of treat to target therapy in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Rheumatol 2016 Aug 22;35(8):2101-2107. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The objective of this study is to investigate if foot joint damage due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can predict whether patients will start wearing orthopaedic shoes (OS) within 10 years after treatment start. Data from recent onset RA patients with 10 years follow-up from the BeSt (Dutch acronym for treatment strategies) study were used. Treatment was tightly controlled, targeted at disease activity score (DAS) ≤2.4, according to 1 of 4 pre-specified treatment strategies. After 10 years of follow-up, orthopaedic shoe use was recorded in 285/508 patients (responders to questionnaires at 10 years). Between-group differences for orthopaedic shoe users and non-users were calculated at baseline, after 10 years, and change scores over the 10-year period were calculated. Predictors for orthopaedic shoe use were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Orthopaedic shoe use was reported by 57/285 patients after 10 years. Orthopaedic shoe users had more joint damage, joint swelling and pain in the feet already at baseline and after 10 years. At both time points, DAS of orthopaedic shoe users and non-users was similar. Multivariable logistic regression showed that dichotomized foot erosions score (cut-off ≥1 erosion) (OR 2.42), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) (OR 4.64) and DAS (OR 1.77) were independent predictors of orthopaedic shoe use. Despite intensive targeted treatment, 57/285 recent onset RA patients started using orthopaedic shoes over 10 year of follow-up. Presence of foot erosions at treatment start predicts orthopaedic shoe use after 10 years. The risk of orthopedic shoe use increased for ACPA-positive patients and for those with higher baseline disease activity.
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August 2016

Disease flares in rheumatoid arthritis are associated with joint damage progression and disability: 10-year results from the BeSt study.

Arthritis Res Ther 2015 Aug 31;17:232. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Flares in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are suggested to sometimes spontaneously resolve. Targeted therapy could then entail possible overtreatment. We aimed to determine the flare prevalence in patients who are treated-to-target and to evaluate associations between flares and patient-reported outcomes and radiographic progression.

Methods: In the BeSt study, 508 patients were treated-to-target for 10 years. After initial treatment adjustments to achieve disease activity score ≤2.4, a flare was defined from the second year of follow-up onwards, according to three definitions. The first definition is a disease activity score >2.4 with an increase of ≥0.6 regardless of the previous disease activity score. The other definitions will be described in the manuscript.

Results: The flare prevalence was 4-11 % per visit; 67 % of the patients experienced ≥1 flare during 9 years of treatment (median 0 per patient per year). During a flare, functional ability decreased with a mean difference of 0.25 in health assessment questionnaire (p < 0.001), and the odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for an increase in patients' assessment of disease activity, pain and morning stiffness of ≥20 mm on a visual analogue scale were 8.5 (7.3-9.8), 8.4 (7.2-9.7) and 5.6 (4.8-6.6), respectively, compared to the absence of a flare. The odds ratio for radiographic progression was 1.7 (1.1-2.8) in a year with a flare compared to a year without a flare. The more flares a patient experienced, the higher the health assessment questionnaire at year 10 (p < 0.001) and the more radiographic progression from baseline to year 10 (p = 0.005).

Conclusion: Flares were associated with concurrent increase in patient's assessment of disease activity, pain and morning stiffness, functional deterioration and development of radiographic progression with a dose-response-effect, both during the flare and long term. This suggests that intensifying treatment during a flare outweighs the risk of possible overtreatment.

Trial Registration: Dutch trial registry NTR262 (7 September 2005) and NTR265 (8 September 2005).
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August 2015

Rheumatoid Factor Is Associated With the Distribution of Hand Joint Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2015 Dec;67(12):3113-23

Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease leading to joint destruction. Although many studies have addressed factors potentially correlated with the speed of joint destruction, less attention has been paid to the distribution of joint destruction in patients with RA. In this study, destruction of the hand bones in patients with RA was classified into 2 anatomic subgroups, the fingers and the non-fingers, with the aim of analyzing which factors are associated with destruction of the finger joints.

Methods: A total of 1,215 Japanese patients with RA were recruited from 2 different populations. The degree of joint destruction was assessed using the total modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) of radiographic joint damage. The SHS score of joint damage in the finger joints was used as the dependent variable, and the SHS score in the non-finger joints was used as a covariate. Age, sex, disease duration, smoking, C-reactive protein level, treatment for RA, and positivity for and levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor (RF) were evaluated as candidate correlates. Overall effect sizes were assessed in a meta-analysis. In addition, associations observed in the Japanese patients were compared to those in a cohort of 157 Dutch RA patients in the BeSt study (a randomized, controlled trial involving 4 different strictly specified treatment strategies for early RA).

Results: Not surprisingly, disease duration in Japanese patients with RA was associated with the finger SHS score (P ≤ 0.00037). Both positivity for and levels of RF showed significant associations with the finger SHS score after adjustment for covariates (P = 0.0022 and P = 8.1 × 10(-7) , respectively). These associations were also true in relation to the time-averaged finger SHS score. An association between RF positivity and the finger SHS score was also observed in Dutch patients with RA in the BeSt study (P = 0.049).

Conclusion: Positivity for and levels of RF are associated with finger joint destruction independent of non-finger joint destruction and other covariates. Our findings suggest that there are different mechanisms of joint destruction operating in the finger joints of patients with RA.
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December 2015

Response to 'Feasibility of tailored treatment based on risk stratification in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis'--authors' reply.

Arthritis Res Ther 2015 Jul 2;17:171. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, C-01-R, PO BOX 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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July 2015

Continued participation in a ten-year tight control treat-to-target study in rheumatoid arthritis: why keep patients doing their best?

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2015 May;67(6):739-45

Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: To identify risk factors for early study termination and motivators for adherence to a long-term followup trial and to improve completeness of long-term studies.

Methods: Risk factors for early termination in 508 included patients were identified through Cox regression analysis. Patients completing the 10-year followup filled in a questionnaire on possible motives for continued study participation.

Results: Risk factors for early termination were higher age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.04), functional disability during the preceding year (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20-1.99), having achieved drug-free remission (HR 6.62, 95% CI 2.07-21.14), limited joint damage (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.995 for actual damage; HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94 for damage progression), and few adverse events (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.26-0.47). A total of 288 of 313 patients (92%) attending the last visit answered the questionnaire. The majority mentioned contributing to scientific research (97% agreed), helping other patients (91%), and learning about new treatment strategies (84%) and their disease (85%) as reasons to continue participation. Next, patients mentioned tight control (202 of 278 patients), good treatment strategy (128 of 278), good medication (117 of 278), and good half-term results (102 of 278) as motivators. More than 95% of patients experienced participation "as expected" or "better than expected." Additional examinations during yearly visits (extra questionnaires, imaging) were mentioned as "worse than expected" (10%), as was answering routine questionnaires (7%).

Conclusion: Continued participation was relatively high in the Treatment Strategies for Rheumatoid Arthritis (BeSt) Study. Higher age, functional disability, drug-free remission, little joint damage, and few adverse events predicted early study termination. Main motives for continued participation were a willingness to contribute to research, help future patients, and because patients had good experiences with the study protocol.
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May 2015

Feasibility of tailored treatment based on risk stratification in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2014 Sep 25;16(5):430. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Introduction: Personalized medicine is the holy grail of medicine. The EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) support differential treatment between patients with baseline characteristics suggestive of a non-poor prognosis (non-PP) or poor prognosis (PP) (presence of autoantibodies, a high inflammatory activity and damage on radiographs). We aimed to determine which prognostic risk groups benefit more from initial monotherapy or initial combination therapy.

Methods: 508 patients were randomized to initial monotherapy (iMono) or initial combination therapy (iCombo). Disease outcomes of iMono and iCombo were compared within non-PP or PP groups as determined on baseline characteristics

Results: PP patients treated with iCombo after three months more often achieved ACR20 (70% vs 38%, P <0.001), ACR50 (48% vs 13%, P <0.001) and ACR70 response (24% vs 4%, P <0.001) than those treated with iMono, and had more improvement in HAQ (median decrease 0.75 vs 0.38, P <0.001). After 1 year, differences in ACR20 response and DAS-remission remained; PP patients treated with iCombo (vs iMono) had less radiographic progression (median 0.0 vs 1.5, P =0.001).

Conclusions: Since PP and non-PP patients benefit equally from iCombo through earlier clinical response and functional improvement than with iMono, we conclude that personalized medicine as suggested in the guidelines is not yet feasible. The choice of treatment strategy should depend more on rapid relief of symptoms than on prognostic factors.

Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register NTR262 (registered 7 September 2005) and NTR265 (8 September 2005).
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September 2014

A multibiomarker disease activity score for rheumatoid arthritis predicts radiographic joint damage in the BeSt study.

J Rheumatol 2014 Nov 15;41(11):2114-9. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

From the Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Reinier de Graaf Hospital, Delft; Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam; Haga Hospital, the Hague; Reade organization; VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Crescendo Bioscience, South San Francisco, California, USA.I.M. Markusse, MD; L. Dirven, PhD; M. van den Broek, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center; C. Bijkerk, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Reinier de Graaf Hospital; K.H. Han, MD, Department of Rheumatology, Maasstad Hospital; H.K. Ronday, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Haga Hospital; R. Bolce, MSN; E.H. Sasso, MD, Crescendo Bioscience; P.J.S.M. Kerstens, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Reade; W.F. Lems, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Reade, and VU Medical Center; T.W.J. Huizinga, MD, PhD; C.F. Allaart, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center.

Objective: To determine whether a multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score predicts radiographic damage progression in the subsequent year in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: There were 180 serum samples available in the BeSt study (trial numbers NTR262, NTR 265): 91 at baseline (84 with radiographs available) and 89 at 1-year followup (81 with radiographs available). Radiographs were assessed using the Sharp/van der Heijde Score (SvdH). Twelve serum biomarkers were measured to determine MBDA scores using a validated algorithm. Receiver-operating curves and Poisson regression analyses were performed, with Disease Activity Score (DAS) and MBDA score as independent variables, and radiographic progression as dependent variable.

Results: At baseline, MBDA scores discriminated more between patients who developed radiographic progression (increase in SvdH≥5 points) and patients who did not [area under the curve (AUC) 0.767, 95% CI 0.639-0.896] than did DAS (AUC 0.521, 95% CI 0.358-0.684). At 1 year, MBDA score had an AUC of 0.691 (95% CI 0.453-0.929) and DAS had an AUC of 0.649 (95% CI 0.417-0.880). Adjusted for anticitrullinated protein antibody status and DAS, higher MBDA scores were associated with an increased risk for SvdH progression [relative risk (RR) 1.039, 95% CI 1.018-1.059 for baseline MBDA score; 1.037, 95% CI 1.009-1.065 for Year 1 MBDA score]. Categorized high MBDA scores were also correlated with SvdH progression (RR for high MBDA score at baseline 3.7; low or moderate MBDA score as reference). At 1 year, high MBDA score gave a RR of 4.6 compared to low MBDA score.

Conclusion: MBDA scores predict radiographic damage progression at baseline and during disease course.
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November 2014