Publications by authors named "Iris Blandon-Gitlin"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Learning to Detect Deception from Evasive Answers and Inconsistencies across Repeated Interviews: A Study with Lay Respondents and Police Officers.

Front Psychol 2017 4;8:2207. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Social Psychology and Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, University of the Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain.

Previous research has shown that inconsistencies across repeated interviews do not indicate deception because liars deliberately tend to repeat the same story. However, when a strategic interview approach that makes it difficult for liars to use the repeat strategy is used, both consistency and evasive answers differ significantly between truth tellers and liars, and statistical software (binary logistic regression analyses) can reach high classification rates (Masip et al., 2016b). Yet, if the interview procedure is to be used in applied settings the decision process will be made by humans, not statistical software. To address this issue, in the current study, 475 college students (Experiment 1) and 142 police officers (Experiment 2) were instructed to code and use consistency, evasive answers, or a combination or both before judging the veracity of Masip et al.'s (2016b) interview transcripts. Accuracy rates were high (60% to over 90%). Evasive answers yielded higher rates than consistency, and the combination of both these cues produced the highest accuracy rates in identifying both truthful and deceptive statements. Uninstructed participants performed fairly well (around 75% accuracy), apparently because they spontaneously used consistency and evasive answers. The pattern of results was the same among students, all officers, and veteran officers only, and shows that inconsistencies between interviews and evasive answers reveal deception when a strategic interview approach that hinders the repeat strategy is used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758596PMC
January 2018

Can credibility criteria be assessed reliably? A meta-analysis of criteria-based content analysis.

Psychol Assess 2017 06;29(6):819-834

Department of Psychology, California State University.

This meta-analysis synthesizes research on interrater reliability of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA). CBCA is an important component of Statement Validity Assessment (SVA), a forensic procedure used in many countries to evaluate whether statements (e.g., of sexual abuse) are based on experienced or fabricated events. CBCA contains 19 verbal content criteria, which are frequently adapted for research on detecting deception. A total of k = 82 hypothesis tests revealed acceptable interrater reliabilities for most CBCA criteria, as measured with various indices (except Cohen's kappa). However, results were largely heterogeneous, necessitating moderator analyses. Blocking analyses and meta-regression analyses on Pearson's r resulted in significant moderators for research paradigm, intensity of rater training, type of rating scale used, and the frequency of occurrence (base rates) for some CBCA criteria. The use of CBCA summary scores is discouraged. Implications for research vs. field settings, for future research and for forensic practice in the United States and Europe are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000426DOI Listing
June 2017

Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews.

Front Psychol 2016 1;7:1702. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Department of Social Psychology and Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, University of the Basque Country San Sebastián, Spain.

Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a "repeat strategy" to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers) and guilty participants (liars) had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi), contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after 1 week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars' answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers' answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable), 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable), to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable). These classification rates were higher than the interviewers' accuracy rate (54%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5088571PMC
November 2016

An empirical test of the decision to lie component of the Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT).

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2016 Sep 22;169:45-55. Epub 2016 May 22.

Department of Social Psychology and Anthropology, University of Salamanca, School of Psychology, Avda. de la Merced, 109-131, 37005 Salamanca, Spain.

Meta-analyses reveal that behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers are small. To facilitate lie detection, researchers are currently developing interviewing approaches to increase these differences. Some of these approaches assume that lying is cognitively more difficult than truth telling; however, they are not based on specific cognitive theories of lie production, which are rare. Here we examined one existing theory, Walczyk et al.'s (2014) Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT). We tested the Decision component. According to ADCAT, people decide whether to lie or tell the truth as if they were using a specific mathematical formula to calculate the motivation to lie from (a) the probability of a number of outcomes derived from lying vs. telling the truth, and (b) the costs/benefits associated with each outcome. In this study, participants read several hypothetical scenarios and indicated whether they would lie or tell the truth in each scenario (Questionnaire 1). Next, they answered several questions about the consequences of lying vs. telling the truth in each scenario, and rated the probability and valence of each consequence (Questionnaire 2). Significant associations were found between the participants' dichotomous decision to lie/tell the truth in Questionnaire 1 and their motivation to lie scores calculated from the Questionnaire 2 data. However, interestingly, whereas the expected consequences of truth telling were associated with the decision to lie vs. tell the truth, the expected consequences of lying were not. Suggestions are made to refine ADCAT, which can be a useful theoretical framework to guide deception research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2016.05.004DOI Listing
September 2016

A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions.

Front Psychol 2015 31;6:1298. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Department of Psychology, California State University Fullerton Fullerton, CA, USA.

Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4553365PMC
September 2015

The inhibitory spillover effect: Controlling the bladder makes better liars.

Conscious Cogn 2015 Dec 11;37:112-22. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

California State University, Fullerton, United States.

The Inhibitory-Spillover-Effect (ISE) on a deception task was investigated. The ISE occurs when performance in one self-control task facilitates performance in another (simultaneously conducted) self-control task. Deceiving requires increased access to inhibitory control. We hypothesized that inducing liars to control urination urgency (physical inhibition) would facilitate control during deceptive interviews (cognitive inhibition). Participants drank small (low-control) or large (high-control) amounts of water. Next, they lied or told the truth to an interviewer. Third-party observers assessed the presence of behavioral cues and made true/lie judgments. In the high-control, but not the low-control condition, liars displayed significantly fewer behavioral cues to deception, more behavioral cues signaling truth, and provided longer and more complex accounts than truth-tellers. Accuracy detecting liars in the high-control condition was significantly impaired; observers revealed bias toward perceiving liars as truth-tellers. The ISE can operate in complex behaviors. Acts of deception can be facilitated by covert manipulations of self-control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2015.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4639445PMC
December 2015

Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception.

Pers Soc Psychol Rev 2015 Nov 11;19(4):307-42. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088868314556539DOI Listing
November 2015

Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms.

Trends Cogn Sci 2014 Sep;18(9):441-4

Department of Psychology, California State University Fullerton, P.O. Box 6846, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA.

A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the 'cognitive' in these new approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309739PMC
September 2014

Oxytocin eliminates the own-race bias in face recognition memory.

Brain Res 2014 Sep 18;1580:180-7. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

California State University, Fullerton, USA.

The neuropeptide Oxytocin influences a number of social behaviors, including processing of faces. We examined whether Oxytocin facilitates the processing of out-group faces and reduce the own-race bias (ORB). The ORB is a robust phenomenon characterized by poor recognition memory of other-race faces compared to the same-race faces. In Experiment 1, participants received intranasal solutions of Oxytocin or placebo prior to viewing White and Black faces. On a subsequent recognition test, whereas in the placebo condition the same-race faces were better recognized than other-race faces, in the Oxytocin condition Black and White faces were equally well recognized, effectively eliminating the ORB. In Experiment 2, Oxytocin was administered after the study phase. The ORB resulted, but Oxytocin did not significantly reduce the effect. This study is the first to show that Oxytocin can enhance face memory of out-group members and underscore the importance of social encoding mechanisms underlying the own-race bias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2013.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311875PMC
September 2014

The effects of photographs and event plausibility in creating false beliefs.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2010 Nov;135(3):330-4

California State University, Fullerton, United States.

Recent studies have shown that using photographs as memory retrieval aids can significantly increase the likelihood of false memories. The current study further investigated this effect by examining the interactive effects of photographs and event plausibility in developing false beliefs. At Time 1 and two weeks later at Time 2, participants rated 20 events on the Life Events Inventory (LEI) as to whether each occurred to them in childhood. One week after Time 1, participants were told that two target events were plausible and two were implausible. They then used event-related photographs to visualize one plausible and one implausible event. Occurrence ratings significantly increased from Time 1 to Time 2 for plausible events in the photo condition. These results suggest that the use of photographs as a memory enhancing technique is unlikely to cause false memories for events that are not perceived personally plausible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.08.008DOI Listing
November 2010

Twins switched at birth: a case from the Canary Islands.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2010 Feb;13(1):115-7

Department of Psychology, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92834, USA.

Monozygotic (MZ) twins switched at birth represent a rare class of twins who are reared apart and reunited (MZA). Background data and descriptive findings from a case study of such a pair, born thirty-six years ago in the Canary Islands, are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/twin.13.1.115DOI Listing
February 2010

Is knowing believing? The role of event plausibility and background knowledge in planting false beliefs about the personal past.

Mem Cognit 2006 Dec;34(8):1628-35

Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711-3955, USA.

False memories are more likely to be planted for plausible than for implausible events, but does just knowing about an implausible event make individuals more likely to think that the event happened to them? Two experiments assessed the independent contributions o f plausibility a nd background knowledge to planting false beliefs. In Experiment 1, subjects rated 20 childhood events as to the likelihood of each event having happened to them. The list included the implausible target event "received an enema," a critical target event of Pezdek, Finger, and Hodge (1997). Two weeks later, subjects were presented with (1) information regarding the high prevalence rate of enemas; (2) background information on how to administer an enema; (3) neither type of information; or (4) both. Immediately or 2 weeks later, they rated the 20 childhood events again. Only plausibility significantly increased occurrence ratings. In Experiment 2, the target event was changed from "barium enema administered in a hospital" to "home enema for constipation"; significant effects of both plausibility and background knowledge resulted. The results suggest that providing background knowledge can increase beliefs about personal events, but that its impact is limited by the extent of the individual's familiarity with the context of the suggested target event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03195925DOI Listing
December 2006

Imagination and memory: does imagining implausible events lead to false autobiographical memories?

Psychon Bull Rev 2006 Oct;13(5):764-9

Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, CA 91711-3955, USA.

Previous studies have reported that imagination can induce false autobiographical memories. This finding has been used to suggest that psychotherapists who have clients imagine suspected repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse may, in fact, be inducing false memories for the imagined events. In this study, at Time 1 and then, 2 weeks later, at Time 2, 145 subjects rated each of 20 events on the Life Events Inventory as to whether each had occurred to them in childhood. One week after Time 1, the subjects were told that 2 target events were plausible and 2 were implausible. They were then asked to imagine 1 plausible and 1 implausible target event. Plausibility and imagining interacted to affect occurrence ratings; whereas imagining plausible events increased the change in occurrence ratings, imagining implausible events had no effect on occurrence ratings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03193994DOI Listing
October 2006

Detecting deception in children: an experimental study of the effect of event familiarity on CBCA ratings.

Law Hum Behav 2005 Apr;29(2):187-97

Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California 91711, USA.

The CBCA is the most commonly used deception detection. technique worldwide. Pezdek et al. (2004) used a quasi-experimental design to assess children's accounts of a traumatic medical procedure; CBCA ratings were higher for descriptions of familiar than unfamiliar events. This study tested this effect using an experimental design and assessed the joint effect of familiarity and veracity on CBCA ratings. Children described a true or a fabricated event. Half described a familiar event; half described an unfamiliar event. Two CBCA-trained judges rated transcripts of the descriptions. CBCA scores were more strongly influenced by the familiarity than the actual veracity of the event, and CBCA scores were significantly correlated with age. CBCA results were compared with results from other measures. Together with the results of K. Pezdek et al. (2004) these findings suggest that in its current form, CBCA is of limited utility as a credibility assessment tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10979-005-2417-8DOI Listing
April 2005

Detecting deception in children: event familiarity affects criterion-based content analysis ratings.

J Appl Psychol 2004 Feb;89(1):119-26

Department of Psychology, School of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711-3955, USA.

Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) is a comprehensive credibility assessment system, with the Criterion-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) as a core component. Worldwide, the CBCA is reported to be the most widely used veracity assessment instrument. We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that CBCA scores are affected by event familiarity; descriptions of familiar events are more likely to be judged true than are descriptions of unfamiliar events. CBCA scores were applied to transcripts of 114 children who recalled a routine medical procedure (control) or a traumatic medical procedure that they had experienced one time (relatively unfamiliar) or multiple times (relatively familiar). CBCA scores were higher for children in the relatively familiar than the relatively unfamiliar condition, and CBCA scores were significantly correlated with age. Results raise serious questions regarding the forensic suitability of the CBCA for assessing the veracity of children's accounts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.119DOI Listing
February 2004

Children's face recognition memory: more evidence for the cross-race effect.

J Appl Psychol 2003 Aug;88(4):760-3

Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, California 91711, USA.

It is well established that own-race faces are recognized more accurately than cross-race faces. However, there are mixed results regarding the developmental consistency of the cross-race effect White and Black kindergarten children, 3rd graders, and young adults viewed a Black and a White target individual. One day later, recognition memory for each target was tested with a 6-person lineup. The interaction of race of participant by race of target face on Ag scores was significant, demonstrating an overall cross-race effect. The 2nd-order interaction with age did not approach significance; for each age group, own-race identification was more accurate than cross-race identification. The age consistency of the cross-race effect in light of the significant main effect of age suggests quantitative but not qualitative differences in face memory processing at various ages. For children, as well as adults, own-race faces are recognized more accurately than cross-race faces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.760DOI Listing
August 2003