Publications by authors named "Iris A Seitz"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Wide local excision of perianal Paget's disease with gluteal flap reconstruction: an interdisciplinary approach.

J Vis Surg 2016 19;2:159. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Illinois, USA.

Perianal Paget's disease (PPD) is an extremely rare condition characterized as intraepithelial adenocarcinoma of unclear etiology. It can be either primary or secondary. The disease typically presents as an eczema-like, erythematous, and painful skin lesion that is associated with pruritus. It is usually misdiagnosed as a common anorectal problem. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment of PPD, with the specific technique being dependent upon disease invasiveness. The treatment may involve reconstructive surgery. A 61-year-old female with a history of rectal pain and intermittent pruritus for the past two years presented with large painful lesions in her perianal area including the anal verge, diagnosed as primary PPD. After excluding other malignancies elsewhere, a laparoscopic ileostomy followed by a wide local excision (WLE) of the PPD was performed by a colorectal team. Reconstruction of the defect with gluteal advancement flaps was performed by the plastic surgeon. The patient recovered uneventfully. Her surgical site showed healing without flap compromise, widely open anal opening, and full sphincter control at the three-month follow-up exam. The patient returned to normal function after ileostomy closure. WLE with bilateral V-Y gluteal flap advancement is a feasible treatment for primary PPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jovs.2016.09.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5638053PMC
September 2016

Characterization of Reversibly Immortalized Calvarial Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

J Craniofac Surg 2015 Jun;26(4):1207-13

*The Laboratory of Craniofacial Development and Biology, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL †University Plastic Surgery, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, IL ‡The Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a sentinel role in osteoblastic differentiation, and their implementation into clinical practice can revolutionize cranial reconstruction. Preliminary data suggest a therapeutic role of adenoviral gene delivery of BMPs in murine calvarial defect healing. Poor transgene expression inherent in direct adenoviral therapy prompted investigation of cell-based strategies.

Objective: To isolate and immortalize calvarial cells as a potential progenitor source for osseous tissue engineering.

Materials And Methods: Cells were isolated from murine skulls, cultured, and transduced with a retroviral vector bearing the loxP-flanked SV40 large T antigen. Immortalized calvarial cells (iCALs) were evaluated via light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry to determine whether the immortalization process altered cell morphology or progenitor cell profile. Immortalized calvarial cells were then infected with adenoviral vectors encoding BMP-2 or GFP and assessed for early and late stages of osteogenic differentiation.

Results: Immortalization of calvarial cells did not alter cell morphology as demonstrated by phase contrast microscopy. Mesenchymal progenitor cell markers CD166, CD73, CD44, and CD105 were detected at varying levels in both primary cells and iCALs. Significant elevations in alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin mRNA transcription, and matrix mineralization were detected in BMP-2 treated iCALs compared with GFP-treated cells. Gross and histological analyses revealed ectopic bone production from treated cells compared with controls in an in vivo stem cell implantation assay.

Conclusion: We have established an immortalized osteoprogenitor cell line from juvenile calvarial cells that retain a progenitor cell phenotype and can successfully undergo osteogenic differentiation upon BMP-2 stimulation. These cells provide a valuable platform to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying intramembranous bone formation and to screen for factors/small molecules that can facilitate the healing of osseous defects in the craniofacial skeleton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4470299PMC
June 2015

"NACsomes": A new classification system of the blood supply to the nipple areola complex (NAC) based on diagnostic breast MRI exams.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jun 19;68(6):792-9. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

University Plastic Surgery, 9000 Waukegan Rd. Suite 210, Morton Grove, IL 60053, USA.

Background: Breast MRIs have become increasingly common in breast cancer work-up. Previously obtained breast MRIs may facilitate oncoplastic surgery by delineating the blood supply to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). The aim of this study was to identify and classify the in vivo blood supply to the NAC using breast MRI exams.

Methods: Breast MRIs obtained over a one-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with negative MRI findings (BI-RADS category 1) were included; patients with diagnoses of breast cancer or previous breast surgery were excluded. Twenty-six patients were evaluated. Dominant blood supply was determined by maximum filling at 70 s post-contrast. Blood supply to the NAC was classified into five anatomic zones: medial (type I), lateral (type II), central (type III), inferior (type IV) and superior (type V).

Results: Patient age ranged from 33 to 70 years. Fifty-two breasts were evaluated and 80 source vessels were identified (37 right, 43 left). Twenty-eight breasts had type I only blood supply, 22 breasts had multi-zone blood supply (type I + II, n = 20; type I + III n = 2), one breast had type II only blood supply, and a single breast had type III only blood supply. Anatomic symmetry was observed in 96% of patients.

Conclusion: This study utilized MRI to evaluate in vivo vascular anatomy of the NAC, classify NAC perfusion ("NACsomes"), and assess vascular symmetry between breasts. Superomedial source vessels supplying the NAC were predominant. Preoperatively defining NAC blood supply may aid planning for oncoplastic procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2015.02.027DOI Listing
June 2015

Unusual sequela from a pencil stab wound reveals a retained graphite foreign body.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2014 Aug;30(8):568-70

From the *University Plastic Surgery, Affiliated With †Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL.

Penetrating pencil-tip injuries are common among children and usually resolve without long-term sequelae. However, failure to detect and remove embedded pencil fragments can result in increased morbidity or misdiagnoses of other, more serious, conditions. We report on the case of a 10-year-old boy stabbed with a pencil on his right chin. Initial treatment in the emergency department included irrigation and closure of the laceration. Following suture removal, the patient returned to the emergency department (with bright-purple drainage from the wound site). Radiographic evaluation led to the discovery of an embedded foreign body requiring surgical removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000192DOI Listing
August 2014

A ten-year review of myelodysplastic defect management and use of a novel closure technique with V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flaps.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2014 Apr 4;67(4):533-9. Epub 2014 Jan 4.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

The reconstructive goals for myelodysplastic defects are to provide a multilayered, tension-free and well-vascularized closure to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage, wound infection or breakdown and to optimize neurologic outcomes. We reviewed our ten-year experience with myelodysplastic defects and our preferred technique for large defects utilizing paraspinous flaps followed by V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flaps. A retrospective chart review was performed on all myelodysplastic defects closed at the University of Chicago Medicine from 2002 to 2012. Twenty-three patients were treated: eight were closed using V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flaps, eight primarily, two with transposition flaps and five with bilateral latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps. Patient defect characteristics, reconstructive details, follow up time, and wound complications were analyzed. The primary closure group included eight patients. There was one minor complication and two major complications that required debridement and plastic surgery consultation in this group. The transposition group included two patients and had no wound healing issues. The latissimus and gluteus myocutaneous group included five patients and had one minor wound healing issues. The V-Y crescentic group included eight patients. There were four minor wound breakdowns in the lateral donor sites and one major wound complication involving a CSF leak, meningitis and wound breakdown that required debridement. The groups were stratified by size, <5 cm and >5 cm, and further analyzed. Bilateral V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flap is a useful option when confronted with large myelodysplastic defects. It provides a multilayer, tension-free wound closure and spares the gluteus maximus and latissimus dorsi muscle groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2013.12.050DOI Listing
April 2014

Pre-mastectomy sentinel lymph node biopsy: a strategy to enhance outcomes in immediate breast reconstruction.

Breast J 2013 Sep-Oct;19(5):496-503. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

The pre-mastectomy sentinel lymph node biopsy (PM-SLNB) is a technique that provides knowledge regarding nodal status prior to mastectomy. Because radiation exposure is associated with poor outcomes in breast reconstruction and reconstructed breasts can interfere with the planning and delivery of radiation therapy (RT), information regarding nodal status has important implications for patients who desire immediate breast reconstruction. This study explores the safety and utility of PM-SLNB as part of the treatment strategy for breast cancer patients desiring immediate reconstruction. We reviewed the charts of adult patients (≥18 years old) who underwent PM-SLNB from January 2004 to January 2011 at our institution. PM-SLNB was offered to patients with stage I or IIa, clinically and/or radiographically node-negative breast cancer who desired immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy. PM-SLNB was also offered to patients with ductal carcinoma in situ if features concerning for invasive carcinoma were present. Ninety-one patients underwent PM-SLNB of 94 axillae. PM-SLNB was positive in 25.5% of breasts (n = 24). Nineteen node-positive patients (79.2%) have undergone or planning to undergo delayed reconstruction at our institution. Seventeen of these 19 node-positive patients (89.5%) have received adjuvant RT. Two patients (10.5%) elected against RT despite our recommendation for it. No biopsy-positive patient underwent immediate reconstruction or suffered a radiation-induced complication with their breast reconstruction. There were two minor complications associated with PM-SLNB, both in node-negative patients. This study demonstrates the utility of PM-SLNB in providing information regarding nodal status, and therefore the need for adjuvant RT, prior to mastectomy. This knowledge can be used to appropriately counsel patients regarding optimal timing of breast reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.12151DOI Listing
June 2014

CASE REPORT Case Report and Review of the Literature: Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap for Breast Reconstruction After Abdominal Recontouring.

Eplasty 2012 3;12:e52. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Objective: The report herein presents a case of a 49-year-old woman with left breast cancer who presented seeking immediate autologous reconstruction. Surgical history included an abdominal hysterectomy and an abdominal contouring procedure. This is a first description of a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap after abdominal wall manipulation of this magnitude.

Methods: Computed tomographic angiography identified patent medial row perforators. Doppler confirmed the location of the perforators. The flap was designed with the inferior incision at the previous lower abdominal scar. Laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging confirmed adequate flap perfusion on the basis of a single left deep inferior epigastric perforator.

Results: The flap was harvested on one perforator and anastomosed to the internal mammary system. The postoperative course was complicated by venous anastomosis kinking, requiring revision, but otherwise unremarkable.

Conclusion: Computed tomographic angiography confirmed presence of perforators, communication with the deep inferior epigastric system, and location acceptable for flap design. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography facilitated perforator selection and provided intraoperative assessment of flap perfusion. Utilization of these modalities allowed safe completion of an operation considered contraindicated by conventional algorithms and highlights their role in complex perforator flap reconstruction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514891PMC
January 2013

The transconjunctival deep-plane midface lift: a 9-year experience working under the muscle.

Aesthet Surg J 2012 Aug;32(6):692-9

Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Rejuvenation of the midface with a natural-looking, safe, and long-lasting result is a challenge in aesthetic surgery. The ideal approach should be easy to perform, with minimal risk and significant benefit. The combination of transconjunctival exposure and preservation of the periosteum may result in lower morbidity than traditional midface rejuvenation.

Objectives: The authors present their 9-year experience with the transconjunctival deep-plane midface lift (TDML) and discuss the benefits and limitations of this procedure relative to traditional approaches.

Methods: A retrospective review (2000-2009) was conducted of 124 consecutive patients treated by the same surgeon (JWF) with the TDML approach. The technique combines transconjunctival and preperiosteal dissection under direct vision. Collected data included patient demographics, operative technique, concomitant procedures, and postoperative results. Complications and revisions were reviewed to assess safety and long-term efficacy.

Results: Patients included 97 women and 27 men, with a minimum of 13 months of postoperative follow-up (median, 56 months). The mean operating time for upper blepharoplasty with TDML was less than 150 minutes. No significant complications occurred. One patient required reexcision of redundant lower eyelid skin, and another patient underwent secondary excision via traditional midface lift.

Conclusions: The TDML procedure is safe and effective. The technique is readily applicable and more "forgiving" than the traditional midface lift. With proper patient selection, the limited soft-tissue dissection reduces surgical morbidity. Patients with excessive skin redundancy or festoons should be treated with more traditional techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090820X12452292DOI Listing
August 2012

Measurements and aesthetics of the mons pubis in normal weight females.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2010 Jul;126(1):46e-48e

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; University of Chicago Medical Center; Chicago, Ill.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181dab487DOI Listing
July 2010

Facilitating harvest of the serratus fascial flap with ultrasonic dissection.

Eplasty 2010 Feb 23;10:e18. Epub 2010 Feb 23.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objectives: Upper extremity reconstruction presents a functional and aesthetic challenge in plastic surgery. Exposure of vital structures often requires vascularized soft tissue coverage to achieve primary wound healing and optimize functional results. Specifically, the serratus fascial flap may satisfy the functional and cosmetic requirements for small- to medium-sized soft tissue defects of the upper extremity with limited donor site morbidity. We describe our technique of serratus fascial flap harvest, using the Harmonic SYNERGY curved blade (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio).

Material And Methods: A 21-year-old, right-hand-dominant, male carpenter and martial arts expert was involved in a motorcycle collision and sustained a left-hand dorsal degloving injury and extensor tendon rupture. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed with a serratus fascial free flap, immediate split-thickness skin graft, and palmaris longus tendon grafts. The flap was harvested with the Harmonic blade, which utilizes ultrasonic energy translated into mechanical energy, thereby allowing dissection and hemostasis simultaneously.

Results: Flap elevation proceeded facilely using the Harmonic curved blade. The patient had no postoperative complications involving his flap or donor site. The closed suction drain in the donor site was removed on postoperative day 3, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. The patient is doing well at 4 months follow-up.

Conclusion: The Harmonic blade may assist in the dissection of the serratus fascial flap by aiding with hemostasis and minimizing surrounding tissue damage. This may reduce flap damage associated with harvesting techniques as well as decrease donor site seroma formation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829196PMC
February 2010

Anatomy of a medication error: inadvertent subcutaneous injection of neosynephrine during nasal surgery.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2010 Mar;125(3):113e-4e

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181cb68f9DOI Listing
March 2010

Split lateral iliac crest chimera flap: utility of the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2010 Feb;125(2):574-581

Chicago, Ill.; and Salt Lake City, Utah From the Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, and Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine.

Background: Complex head and neck reconstruction often requires multiple tissue components to restore form and function to the traumatized area. Here, the authors describe the split lateral iliac crest chimera flap and demonstrate the utility of the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex system to provide vascularized bone for complex head and neck reconstruction.

Methods: A retrospective case series analysis was performed for patients undergoing complex head and neck reconstruction utilizing the split lateral iliac crest chimera flap to provide vascularized bone and soft tissue. The blood supply to the lateral iliac crest was via the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex system, and the soft tissue was supplied by the transverse and descending branches of the circumflex system.

Results: Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer undergoing split lateral iliac crest chimera reconstruction between November of 2007 and April of 2009 were included. Three patients required reconstruction of segmental mandibulectomy defects, and one required reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect. All components of the chimeric flaps in each patient survived. Bone vascularity was confirmed with triphasic bone scans within the first week postoperatively in two patients.

Conclusions: The split lateral iliac crest chimera flap employs distinct branches of the lateral femoral circumflex system to supply the split lateral iliac crest and soft tissue of the thigh, each isolated on separate vascular leashes connected to a common source vessel. Through inclusion of a vascularized bone component, the flap extends the versatility of the lateral femoral circumflex flap for complex head and neck reconstruction requiring both hard-tissue and soft-tissue replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181c83013DOI Listing
February 2010

Latissimus dorsi/rib intercostal perforator myo-osseocutaneous free flap reconstruction in composite defects of the scalp: case series and review of literature.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2009 Nov 13;25(9):559-67. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Adequate coverage of complex, composite scalp defects in previously radiated, infected, or otherwise compromised tissue represents a challenge in reconstructive surgery. To provide wound closure with bony protection to the brain, improve cranial contour, and prevent or seal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, composite free tissue transfer is a reliable and safe option. We report our experience with the latissimus dorsi/rib intercostal perforator myo-osseocutaneous free flap in the reconstruction of bony and soft tissue defects of the cranium and overlying scalp. The surgical technique, design, and outcomes of the latissimus dorsi/rib intercostal perforator myo-osseocutaneous free flap reconstruction in five patients with cranial defects between 2003 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, defect size, underlying cause, reconstructive details, and complications were analyzed. All patients (age 43 to 81) had composite defects ranging from 36 to 750 cm2 (mean size 230 cm2) for the bony component and from 16 to 400 cm2 (mean size 170 cm2) for the soft tissue defect. All patients had a history of prior or current infection of the affected area, and two patients had a CSF leak. Defects were due to malignancy and infection (n = 2), infiltrative cutaneous mucormycosis with osteomyelitis (n = 1), and hemorrhagic stroke requiring craniectomy (n = 2), complicated by infection and failed cranioplasty in one patient and continuous CSF leak in the other. The latissimus dorsi composite free flap consisting of skin, muscle, and vascularized rib can successfully cover large complex cranial defects, provide skeletal support, improve contour, and significantly enhance functional outcome with limited donor site morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1236834DOI Listing
November 2009

Pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in breast reconstruction: clinical experience.

Eplasty 2009 Jun 16;9:e24. Epub 2009 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, The Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap has been described for reconstruction of the head and neck, trunk and extremities. Yet, its use as a pedicled flap in breast reconstruction has not gained wide popularity and has not been widely documented, especially not for complete breast reconstruction or in combination with expanders or permanent implants. The authors present their clinical experience with the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in breast reconstruction.

Methods: From February 2007 to February 2009, eighteen patients had breast reconstruction utilizing a TDAP flap. Retrospective analyzes of patient characteristics, breast history, clinical indications, complications and outcomes were performed. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 17 months.

Results: Eleven patients had complete breast reconstruction using a TDAP flap with simultaneous insertion of an expander or implant. Four cases were partial reconstruction to gain additional volume after previous breast reconstruction and the 3 other cases were reconstruction after lumpectomy. All flaps survived. Two case required evacuation of hematoma. One case had late extrusion of the expander after expansion in the previously irradiated tissue, requiring expander removal. There were no donor site complications.

Conclusions: The TDAP flap has proven to be a reliable flap with minimal donor site morbidity. Patients who had radiation treatment prior to reconstruction with pronounced radiated chest skin changes might still benefit from additional tissue from the LD muscle.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699316PMC
June 2009

Reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects.

Clin Plast Surg 2009 Jul;36(3):355-77

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 6035, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects is a complex field with a broad variety of reconstructive options. The thought process and techniques used for reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects are the subject of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cps.2009.02.001DOI Listing
July 2009

Omental free-tissue transfer for coverage of complex upper extremity and hand defects--the forgotten flap.

Hand (N Y) 2009 Dec 25;4(4):397-405. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 6035, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Free omental tissue transfer is a versatile reconstructive option for trunk, head and neck, and extremity reconstruction. Its utility is due to the length and caliber of the vascular pedicle and the malleability and surface area of the flap. We report our experience with omental free flap coverage of complex upper-extremity defects. A retrospective analysis of eight omental free-tissue transfers in seven patients with complex upper-extremity defects between 1999 and 2008 was performed. Indications, operative technique, and outcome were evaluated. Patient age ranged from 12 to 59 years with five male and two female patients. Indications included tissue defects due to crush-degloving injuries, pitbull mauling, or necrotizing soft tissue infection. All patients had prior operations including: revascularization, debridement, tendon repair, skin grafts, and/or fixation of associated fractures. One patient sustained severe bilateral crush-degloving injuries requiring free omental hemiflap coverage of both hands. The mean defect size was 291 cm(2) with all patients achieving complete wound coverage. No flap loss or major complications were noted. Laparoscopic-assisted omental free flap harvest was performed in conjunction with the general surgery team in three cases. Mean follow-up was 2 years. The omental free flap is a valuable, often overlooked reconstructive option. The long vascular pedicle and large amount of pliable, well-vascularized tissue allow the flap to be aggressively contoured to meet the needs of complex three-dimensional defects. In addition, laparoscopic-assisted harvest may aid with flap dissection and may result in reduced donor-site morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11552-009-9187-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2787217PMC
December 2009

Reoperative digital sympathectomy in refractory Raynaud's phenomenon.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2009 Jan;123(1):36e-38e

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. (Dorafshar, Seitz, Zachary).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181905725DOI Listing
January 2009

Acute wound closure and reconstruction following head zygomycosis: presentation of two cases and review of literature.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2008 Oct 16;24(7):507-13. Epub 2008 Sep 16.

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Zygomycosis is a rare but very aggressive fungal infection mainly seen in immunocompromised patients. Immediate diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy, control of underlying disease, and early surgical debridement is essential. We present two cases of head zygomycosis treated with systemic liposomal amphotericin B, surgical debridement, and immediate free flap reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of two cases of zygomycosis was performed; one with rhino-sino-orbital-cerebral and the other with scalp/cranial zygomycosis. Both patients were treated with systemic liposomal amphotericin B, aggressive debridement, and immediate reconstruction following local control. The multidisciplinary team approach and the surgical technique are discussed. Patient 1 (with rhino-sino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis) died 2 weeks after diagnosis, and patient 2 (with scalp/cranial zygomycosis) was disease free at 1-year follow-up. Both patients' flaps survived, although patient 2 needed to undergo an arterial revision with an interpositional vein graft within 24 hours of surgery. We concluded that to treat zygomycosis effectively, a multidisciplinary team approach is needed, focusing on immediate diagnosis, empirical antifungal therapy, reversal of underlying predisposing factors, and early surgical debridement. When definitive debridement results in critical structures being exposed, then early wound closure with healthy vascularized tissue is indicated. In these two patients with exposed dura after definitive debridement, immediate closure was performed to minimize the risk of meningeal and cerebral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1088233DOI Listing
October 2008