Publications by authors named "Irini Xilouri"

7 Publications

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Case Report: Diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in a 72-Year-Old Female With Interstitial Lung Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:673573. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.

Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is an entity that can be secondary to various conditions leading to lung injury, such as infections, malignancies, and various autoimmune conditions or idiopathic interstitial lung disease, when no obvious underlying cause is identified. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), on the other hand, are a spectrum of clonal myeloid disorders, with a higher risk of acute leukemia, characterized by ineffective bone marrow (BM) hematopoiesis and, thus, peripheral blood (PB) cytopenias. Immune deregulation is thought to take part in the pathophysiology of the disease, including abnormal T and/or B cell responses, innate immunity, and cytokine expression. In the literature, there are a few case reports of patients with MDS that have presented pulmonary infiltrates and were diagnosed as having AFOP or organizing pneumonia (OP). It is rare, though, to have isolated pulmonary infiltrates without Sweet's syndrome or even the pulmonary infiltrates to precede the diagnosis and treatment of MDS, which was our case. We present a 72-year-old female developing new lung infiltrates refractory to antibiotic treatment that responded well to corticosteroids and was histologically described as having OP. The treatment was gradually successfully switched to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The patient was later diagnosed with MDS. This interesting case report suggests firstly that a diagnosis of AFOP or OP should alert the clinician to search for an underlying cause including MDS and , the use of systemic steroids should not be postponed, and, finally, that MMF can successfully be used in these patients.
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August 2021

Treatment of light chain (AL) amyloidosis with the combination of bortezomib and dexamethasone.

Haematologica 2007 Oct;92(10):1351-8

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Background And Objectives: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation is currently the treatment of choice for selected patients with AL amyloidosis; however, new treatments are needed for patients who are ineligible for or relapse after this procedure. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor with proven activity in multiple myeloma, and the addition of dexamethasone results in superior outcome. We evaluated the activity and feasibility of the combination of bortezomib and dexamethasone (BD) in patients with AL amyloidosis.

Design And Methods: Consecutive patients with histologically proven, symptomatic AL amyloidosis were treated with BD.

Results: Eighteen patients, including seven who had relapsed or progressed after previous therapies were treated with BD. Eleven (61%) patients had two or more organs involved; kidneys and heart were affected in 14 and 15 patients, respectively. The majority of patients had impaired performance status and high brain natriuretic peptide values; serum creatinine was elevated in six patients. Among evaluable patients, 94% had a hematologic response and 44% a hematologic complete response, including all five patients who had not responded to prior high dose dexamethasone-based treatment and one patient under dialysis. Five patients (28%) had a response in at least one affected organ. Hematologic responses were rapid (median 0.9 months) and median time to organ response was 4 months. Neurotoxicity, fatigue, peripheral edema, constipation and exacerbation of postural hypotension were manageable although necessitated dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation in 11 patients.

Interpretation And Conclusions: The combination of BD is feasible in patients with AL amyloidosis. Patients achieve a rapid hematologic response and toxicity can be managed with close follow-up and appropriate dose adjustment. This treatment may be a valid option for patients with severe heart or kidney impairment.
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October 2007

Transient loss of the Y-chromosome in an elderly man with anemia and lead poisoning: chance occurrence or a clonal marker of the underlying hematological abnormality?

Haematologica 2006 Aug;91(8 Suppl):ECR37

Department of Hematology, Clinic University Hospital of Heraklion P.O. Box 2208, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

One of the most important environmental and occupational pollutants is lead. Cytogenetic damage is known to occur to many individuals exposed to lead, e.g., outdoor and car painters, traffic policemen, gasoline station attendants, etc.1 Chronic lead exposure affects many organ systems leading to a gradual decline in the so-called safe blood lead levels over time.
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August 2006

Angiogenetic factors and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in POEMS syndrome treated with high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell support.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma 2006 Jul;7(1):73-6

University of Athens, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.

The cause of the polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is currently unknown, but increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appear to play a pathogenetic role. Osteosclerotic bone lesions are a characteristic finding in POEMS, but there are no data about the specific role of various molecules that control bone remodeling in patients with POEMS. Serum levels of angiogenic cytokines (VEGF, angiogenin, angiopoietin-2, and basic fibroblast growth factor) along with a series of bone remodeling indices (C-telopeptide of type I collagen, bone-alkaline phosphatase [bALP], osteocalcin [OC], soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand [RANKL], osteoprotegerin [OPG], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were measured in 2 patients with POEMS before and after high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation and in age- and sex-matched controls. Increased VEGF levels before HDT were reduced significantly after treatment, although levels of the other angiogenetic factors did not differ from that of controls and were less influenced by HDT. Serum RANKL levels were increased before HDT, whereas OPG levels were within the levels of healthy controls, resulting in an abnormal soluble RANKL to OPG ratio. Levels of bone resorption markers (C-telopeptide of type I collagen) were very low or undetectable before HDT, although bALP and OC levels were similar to that of controls. After HDT, soluble RANKL levels decreased, OPG remained rather stable, bone resorption markers increased to levels of normal individuals, bALP levels were rather unchanged, and OC levels increased. Decreasing VEGF levels parallel clinical improvement, and the restoration of normal bone metabolism follows HDT.
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July 2006

Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia with pulmonary hematopoiesis.

Hematology 2005 Dec;10(6):501-3

University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Hematology, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly and leukoerythroblastic anemia and is frequently accompanied by extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). Pulmonary interstitial EMH associated with myelofibrosis has rarely been described in the medical literature and is usually fatal. We report the case of a 77-year-old man with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) treated with hydroxyurea, who seven years after diagnosis presented with dyspnea and severe hypoxemia. Radionuclide bone marrow scanning demonstrated increased tracer activity on the bases of both lungs, consistent with non-hepatosplenic EMH. Pulmonary EMH is rare in patients with AMM, but should be considered in patients with hypoxemia and respiratory distress.
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December 2005

Pulsed cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone: an oral regimen for previously treated patients with multiple myeloma.

Hematol J 2004 ;5(2):112-7

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Thalidomide is an oral agent with significant activity in one-third of patients with refractory myeloma. However, long-term continuous administration of thalidomide can be associated with significant side effects such as deep-vein thrombosis and peripheral neuropathy. Furthermore, it is not clear whether continuous administration of thalidomide is necessary for its antimyeloma effect. We performed a phase II study with a combination that was based on the intermittent administration of thalidomide.

Materials And Methods: A total of 53 patients with previously treated myeloma received cyclophosphamide 150 mg/m(2) p.o. every 12 h before meals on days 1-5, thalidomide 400 mg p.o. in the evening on days 1-5 and 14-18 and dexamethasone 20 mg/m(2) in the morning after breakfast on days 1-5 and 14-18 (CTD). The CTD combination was repeated every 28 days for three courses. Subsequently, responding patients were scheduled to receive maintenance treatment with monthly courses of CTD administered only for the first five days of each month.

Results: On an intention-to-treat basis, 32 patients (60%) achieved a partial response with a median time to response of 1.5 months. Among the 43 thalidomide-naïve patients, 67% responded. Toxicities were mild or moderate and the cumulative incidence of deep-vein thrombosis and peripheral neuropathy was 4 and 2%, respectively. The median time to progression for responding patients was 12 months and the median overall survival for all patients was 17.5 months.

Conclusion: The oral, outpatient pulsed CTD regimen is associated with significant activity in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma. The incidence of deep-vein thrombosis and peripheral neuropathy appears to be lower than expected when thalidomide is being administered on a continuous basis.
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November 2004