Publications by authors named "Irfan Ahmad"

174 Publications

First Successful Three-Way Kidney Exchange Transplantation in North India.

Indian J Nephrol 2021 Mar-Apr;31(2):169-172. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Urology & Kidney Transplant, PSRI Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Kidney paired donation is the most cost-effective approach in incompatible donor-recipient pairs. Incompatibility may be due to blood group, human leucocyte antigen crossmatch or both. In many cases of a living donor kidney transplant, there is only one potential donor who becomes unsuitable due to any of the above mentioned factors. In kidney paired donation, donor-recipient pairs are exchanged to sort out the incompatibility. We report our first successful three-way kidney exchange transplantation from North India. As deceased donor program is still in evolving stage in most parts of our country and transplant with desensitization protocol is associated with financial constraints, infections, and lack of availability in many centers, kidney paired donation is a valuable approach to expand the donor pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_116_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240920PMC
January 2021

COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 Variants: Current Challenges and Health Concern.

Front Genet 2021 15;12:693916. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, was triggered and unfolded quickly throughout the globe by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The new virus, transmitted primarily through inhalation or contact with infected droplets, seems very contagious and pathogenic, with an incubation period varying from 2 to 14 days. The epidemic is an ongoing public health problem that challenges the present global health system. A worldwide social and economic stress has been observed. The transitional source of origin and its transport to humans is unknown, but speedy human transportation has been accepted extensively. The typical clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are almost like colds. With case fatality rates varying from 2 to 3 percent, a small number of patients may experience serious health problems or even die. To date, there is a limited number of antiviral agents or vaccines for the treatment of COVID-19. The occurrence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection are outlined and comparatively analyzed, given the outbreak's urgency. The recent developments in diagnostics, treatment, and marketed vaccine are discussed to deal with this viral outbreak. Now the scientist is concerned about the appearance of several variants over the globe and the efficacy of the vaccine against these variants. There is a need for consistent monitoring of the virus epidemiology and surveillance of the ongoing variant and related disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.693916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239414PMC
June 2021

Leaves; UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Based Metabolite Profiling and Molecular Docking Insights to Explore Bioactives Role Towards Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Food Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The present work was aimed at investigating hydroethanolic leaf extracts of for their antioxidant and pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme inhibitory properties. The most active extract was selected to profile the phytoconstituents by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique. Among the tested extracts, the 80% hydroethanolic extract exhibited the maximum levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) with a contribution of 201.3 ± 2.6 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract (GAE/g extract), and 116.3 ± 2.4 mg of rutin equivalent per gram of extract (RE/g extract), respectively. The same extract also showed promising 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PL inhibitory activity with an IC (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 30.5 ± 2.8 µg/mL and 17.31 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The phytochemical profiling of 80% hydroethanolic extract confirmed the presence of 23 metabolites of immense medicinal significance. Docking studies were conducted to investigate the potential interactions of compounds identified in the study. The docking study-based binding energy data and the interaction scheme both revealed the possible role of the identified compounds towards PL inhibitor. Moreover, energies of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) were also explored. The findings of the current work suggest that is a promising natural source of antioxidant and antiobesity agents, which may be exploited to add pharmacological functionalities to food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10071334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309037PMC
June 2021

An Efficient Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Optical Nonlinearity Response of Novel Salicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 11;6(24):16058-16065. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

In this study, seven derivatives of salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazones (-) were synthesized by refluxing substituted thiosemicarbazide and salicylaldehyde in an ethanol solvent. Different spectral techniques (UV-vis, IR, and NMR) were used to analyze the prepared compounds (-). Accompanied by the experimental study, quantum chemical studies were also carried out at the M06/6-311G(d,p) level. A comparative analysis of the UV-visible spectra and vibrational frequencies between computational and experimental findings was also performed. These comparative data disclosed that both studies were observed to be in excellent agreement. Furthermore, natural bond orbital investigations revealed that nonbonding transitions were significant for the stability of prepared molecules. In addition, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) findings described that a promising charge transfer phenomenon was found in -. The energies of FMOs were further used to determine global reactivity parameters (GRPs). These GRP factors revealed that all synthesized compounds (-) contain a greater hardness value (η = 2.1 eV) and a lower softness value (σ = 0.24 eV), which indicated that these compounds were less reactive and more stable. Nonlinear optical (NLO) evaluation displayed that compound consisted of greater values of linear polarizability ⟨α⟩ and third-order polarizability ⟨γ⟩ of 324.93 and 1.69 × 10 a.u., respectively, while compound exhibited a larger value of second-order polarizability (β) of 508.41 a.u. The NLO behavior of these prepared compounds may be significant for the hi-tech NLO applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223424PMC
June 2021

Synthesis, antioxidant, and computational investigation of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone derived chloro-substituted hydroxychalcones, hydroxyflavanones and hydroxyflavindogenides.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jun 28:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

An imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants damages the cell and infect whole organism. The biological defence system against oxidative stress injury is Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response elements (ARE) pathways. Antioxidants activate the Nrf2-ARE-Keap1 pathway and suppress the oxidative stress. Flavonoids are well known medicinal compounds inheriting antioxidant efficacy and wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. The study is aimed to synthesise, characterize and evaluate pharmacological activities of synthesized chloro-derivatives of flavonoids. Chloro-derivatives of flavonoids were synthesized and characterized by IR, H NMR and C NMR. Antioxidant potential of each synthesized compound was evaluated and then subjected to molecular docking with Keap1 (PDB ID: 2FLU) for the activation of Nrf2 and computational studies were performed by using DFT approach. Among the synthesized compounds compound 1a exhibited lower IC value. While docking and computational studies infer that compound 3c is a good Nrf2 activator and radical scavenger with highest docking score and lower energy gaps and IP values compared to references. Hence, it might be considered for further molecular studies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases through Nrf2-ARE-Keap1 pathway.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.HighlightsChloro-substituted hydroxychalcones, hydroxyflavanones and hydroxyflavindogenides were synthesized.Antioxidant potential was accessed, compound 1a exhibited good antioxidant potential. study was performed with Keap1, compound 3c have shown highest docking score with Keap1.DFT approach was used to explore the structure activity relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1943527DOI Listing
June 2021

The Impact of Body Resistance Training Exercise on Biomedical Profile at High Altitude: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:6684167. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Pin: 781032, Guwahati, India.

Background: Obesity causes different diseases, eventually. In our study, the results of resistance exercises were examined on selected biochemical markers in Abha City, Saudi Arabia, which is at the height of 2,270 meters above sea level.

Methods: A randomized controlled research was conducted with 60 participants equally divided into three groups, 20 subjects in each group: group 1 was composed of obese people who received resistance training exercise, group 2 was composed of the obese control group who did not receive resistance training exercise, and group 3 was composed of normal individuals who received resistance exercise training. The resistance exercises were done in the 6th and 12th weeks. Biochemical blood tests were done.

Results: Comparing to the control group, glucose decreased very little with insulin also showing little difference. It has been seen that TC, TG, and LDL reduced to a reasonable extent after resistance exercise, while HDL was increased ( ≤ 0.01). Plasma urea and creatinine showed no differences. Interleukin-6 and leptin decreased significantly ( ≤ 0.01), while there was a significant elevation in adiponectin and testosterone ( ≤ 0.01) once comparing group 1 with group 2 and group 3.

Conclusion: We have seen that resistance exercise helps in reducing lipid profile which will result in a decrease of the cardiac and related risk factors when conducted in obese patients in high-altitude regions. Also, alterations of the levels of interleukin-6, leptin, adiponectin, and testosterone showed that resistance exercise is of benefit and favourable in obese persons in high-altitude regions, which can also pave the way for added development of drugs related to the above parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6684167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187057PMC
June 2021

Association of Infection and Host Cytokine Gene Polymorphism with Gastric Cancer.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 28;2021:8810620. Epub 2021 May 28.

Genomic Science Academy, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India.

The global cancer burden of new cases of various types rose with millions of death in 2018. Based on the data extracted by GLOBOCAN 2018, gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of mortality related to cancer across the globe. Carcinogenic or oncogenic infections associated with (Hp) are regarded as one of the essential risk factors for GC development. It contributes to the increased production of cytokines that cause inflammation prior to their growth in the host cells. Hp infections and specific types of polymorphisms within the host cells encoding cytokines are significant contributors to the host's increased susceptibility in terms of the development of GC. Against the backdrop of such an observation is that only a small portion of the cells infected can become malignant. The diversities are a consequence of the differences in the pathogenic pathway of the Hp, susceptibility of the host, environmental conditions, and interplay between these factors. It is evident that hosts carrying cytokine genes with high inflammatory levels and polymorphism tend to exhibit an increased risk of development of GC, with special emphasis being placed on the host cytokines gene polymorphisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8810620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177986PMC
May 2021

Robust Output Feedback Control of Single-Link Flexible-Joint Robot Manipulator with Matched Disturbances Using High Gain Observer.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 8;21(9). Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, CEME, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

This article focuses on the output feedback control of single-link flexible-joint robot manipulators (SFJRMs) with matched disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Formally, four sensing elements are required to design the controller for single-link manipulators. We have designed a robust control technique for the semiglobal stabilization problem of the angular position of the link in the SFJRM system, with the availability of only a position sensing device. The sliding mode control (SMC) based output feedback controller is devised for SFJRM dynamics. The nonlinear model of SFJRM is considered to estimate the unknown states utilizing the high-gain observer (HGO). It is shown that the output under SMC using HGO-based estimated states coincides with that using original states when the gains of HGO are sufficiently high. Finally, the results are presented showing that the designed control technique works well when the SFJRM model is uncertain and matched perturbations are expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125959PMC
May 2021

Synergistic Effect of Plant Extracts on Endodontic Pathogens Isolated from Teeth with Root Canal Treatment Failure: An In Vitro Study.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 9;10(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha 61321, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the synergistic antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from (Miswak), (myrrh) and (neem) in combination with commercially available antimicrobial agents: penicillin, tetracycline, ofloxacin and fluconazole on endodontic pathogens such as and .

Materials And Methods: Microbiological samples from the root canals of the teeth undergoing retreatment were taken using sterile paper points kept at full length in the canal for 30 s. The disc diffusion method was used to check the susceptibility of microbes to the plant extracts and antimicrobials by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones. Against the microbes, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the plant extracts were assessed. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was used to estimate the synergistic effect of plant extracts combined with antimicrobials against the resistant endodontic microbes.

Results: The findings clearly indicate the effectiveness of all the three plant extracts, against all the experimental pathogenic microorganisms except for the ineffectiveness of against Maximum antimicrobial activity was displayed by against (MIC = 0.09 ± 1.2 mg/mL, MBC = 0.78 ± 1.25 mg/mL) and the minimum antimicrobial activity was displayed by against (MIC = 12.5 ± 3.25 mg/mL, MBC = 100 ± 3.75 mg/mL). The best synergy was displayed by with fluconazole against (FICI = 0.45).

Conclusions: The current study delineates the variable antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the experimental endodontic pathogenic microorganisms. Plant extracts in conjunction with various antimicrobials can be valuable aids in combating relatively resistant endodontic microorganisms that have been the cause of worry in recent years, leading to failure even in treatment procedures following all required protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151008PMC
May 2021

Knowledge distillation in deep learning and its applications.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 14;7:e474. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Information and Computer Science, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Deep learning based models are relatively large, and it is hard to deploy such models on resource-limited devices such as mobile phones and embedded devices. One possible solution is knowledge distillation whereby a smaller model (student model) is trained by utilizing the information from a larger model (teacher model). In this paper, we present an outlook of knowledge distillation techniques applied to deep learning models. To compare the performances of different techniques, we propose a new metric called distillation metric which compares different knowledge distillation solutions based on models' sizes and accuracy scores. Based on the survey, some interesting conclusions are drawn and presented in this paper including the current challenges and possible research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053015PMC
April 2021

Identification of New Proteasome Inhibitors Using a Knowledge-Based Computational Screening Approach.

Molecules 2021 Apr 16;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

(Mtb) is a deadly tuberculosis (TB)-causing pathogen. The proteasome is vital to the survival of Mtb and is therefore validated as a potential target for anti-TB therapy. Mtb resistance to existing antibacterial agents has enhanced drastically, becoming a worldwide health issue. Therefore, new potential therapeutic agents need to be developed that can overcome the complications of TB. With this purpose, in the present study, 224,205 natural compounds from the ZINC database have been screened against the catalytic site of Mtb proteasome by the computational approach. The best scoring hits, ZINC3875469, ZINC4076131, and ZINC1883067, demonstrated robust interaction with Mtb proteasome with binding energy values of -7.19, -7.95, and -7.21 kcal/mol for the monomer (K-chain) and -8.05, -9.10, and -7.07 kcal/mol for the dimer (both K and L chains) of the beta subunit, which is relatively higher than that of reference compound HT1171 (-5.83 kcal/mol (monomer) and -5.97 kcal/mol (dimer)). In-depth molecular docking of top-scoring compounds with Mtb proteasome reveals that amino acid residues Thr1, Arg19, Ser20, Thr21, Gln22, Gly23, Asn24, Lys33, Gly47, Asp124, Ala126, Trp129, and Ala180 are crucial in binding. Furthermore, a molecular dynamics study showed steady-state interaction of hit compounds with Mtb proteasome. Computational prediction of physicochemical property assessment showed that these hits are non-toxic and possess good drug-likeness properties. This study proposed that these compounds could be utilized as potential inhibitors of Mtb proteasome to combat TB infection. However, there is a need for further bench work experiments for their validation as inhibitors of Mtb proteasome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074214PMC
April 2021

Is PF-00835231 a Pan-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro Inhibitor? A Comparative Study.

Molecules 2021 Mar 17;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea.

The COVID-19 outbreak continues to spread worldwide at a rapid rate. Currently, the absence of any effective antiviral treatment is the major concern for the global population. The reports of the occurrence of various point mutations within the important therapeutic target protein of SARS-CoV-2 has elevated the problem. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a major therapeutic target for new antiviral designs. In this study, the efficacy of PF-00835231 was investigated (a Mpro inhibitor under clinical trials) against the Mpro and their reported mutants. Various in silico approaches were used to investigate and compare the efficacy of PF-00835231 and five drugs previously documented to inhibit the Mpro. Our study shows that PF-00835231 is not only effective against the wild type but demonstrates a high affinity against the studied mutants as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002701PMC
March 2021

RF-Based UAV Detection and Identification Using Hierarchical Learning Approach.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

The Faculty of Computer and Information Systems, Islamic University of Madinah, Madinah 42351, Saudi Arabia.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely available in the current market to be used either for recreation as a hobby or to serve specific industrial requirements, such as agriculture and construction. However, illegitimate and criminal usage of UAVs is also on the rise which introduces their effective identification and detection as a research challenge. This paper proposes a novel machine learning-based for efficient identification and detection of UAVs. Specifically, an improved UAV identification and detection approach is presented using an ensemble learning based on the hierarchical concept, along with pre-processing and feature extraction stages for the Radio Frequency (RF) data. Filtering is applied on the RF signals in the detection approach to improve the output. This approach consists of four classifiers and they are working in a hierarchical way. The sample will pass the first classifier to check the availability of the UAV, and then it will specify the type of the detected UAV using the second classifier. The last two classifiers will handle the sample that is related to Bebop and AR to specify their mode. Evaluation of the proposed approach with publicly available dataset demonstrates better efficiency compared to existing detection systems in the literature. It has the ability to investigate whether a UAV is flying within the area or not, and it can directly identify the type of UAV and then the flight mode of the detected UAV with accuracy around 99%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21061947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000890PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of single versus multiple exposure by electromagnetic modalities on gram-negative and positive bacterial strains in an in-vitro model.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 8;28(3):1678-1686. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Senior Consultant Radiologist, Sahara India Medical Institute, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: The primary purpose of the recent experiment was to scrutinize the dissimilarity between single and multiple exposures by electrotherapeutic modalities to determine the development of Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria spectrum.

Material And Methods: Bacterial strains employed in this study were Gram-negative bacteria such as and and Gram-positive bacteria such as and Fluence for Low level laser therapy (LLLT) (810 nm) was 40 J/cm for 80 s, for microwave (MWD) a dosage of 100-Watt with duration of 5 min and for magnetic field therapy (MT) duration of 30 min with 100% intensity was used.

Results: Repeated Measures of analysis of variances (RANOVA) for within-subject effects was used to detect a global significant change within the means at dissimilar time points. The experiments of within-subjects revealed a significant difference within groups, df of (3, 40), F value of 39.38 and a p value less than 0.001, representing a significant variation between the three groups between pre and post exposures. There was a significant variation between single exposure and multiple exposures in the experimental sample's pre-post between the four groups with df (1, 40) f value of 2943.69 and p value less than 0.001. Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy images were also taken into account to determine the extent of damage caused to the bacterial cells surface topography in Gram negative and Gram positive spectrums.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that single high exposure with the LLLT appears to have the most emphatic effect followed by exposure by MWD and MT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938153PMC
March 2021

BCL-2 (-938C>A), BAX (-248G>A), and HER2 Ile655Val Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk in Indian Population.

J Oncol 2021 25;2021:8865624. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma in women worldwide. The present case-control study was aimed to examine the association of BCL-2 (-938C> A), BAX (-248G > A), and HER2 (I655V i.e. A > G) polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in Indian population. This study enrolled 117 breast cancer cases and 104 controls. BCL-2 (-938C > A), BAX (-248G > A), and HER2 Ile655Val polymorphisms were screened by PCR-RFLP method. There was no significance difference in the allelic and genotype frequency of the BCL-2 (-938C > A) and BAX (-248G > A) polymorphisms between cases and controls. In relation to HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism, the statistical analysis of observed genotypic frequencies showed significant association (-0.0059). Compared to Ile/Ile (A/A) genotype, frequency of Ile/Val (A/G) genotype was significantly higher among cases than in control group and observed to increase the breast cancer risk (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.32-4.46; -0.004). The frequency of Val (G) allele was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls (6.83% vs 2.88%, resp.). Compared to Ile (A) allele, significant increase in the risk of breast cancer was observed with Val (G) allele (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.35-3.63; -0.0016). We observed significant association between HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and breast cancer risk under the dominant (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.41-4.51; -0.001) and codominant (OR, 2.24; 95% CI: 1.23-4.09; p-0.008) model. In our study, BCL-2 (-938C > A) and BAX (-248G > A) polymorphism were not found to be associated with breast cancer risk. This present study for the first time shows significant association of HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism with risk of breast cancer in Indian population. Therefore, we suggest that each population need to evaluate its own genetic profile for breast cancer risk that may be helpful for better understanding the racial and geographic differences reported for breast cancer incidence and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8865624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932784PMC
February 2021

Glycyrrhizin Mediates Downregulation of Notch Pathway Resulting in Initiation of Apoptosis and Disruption in the Cell Cycle Progression in Cervical Cancer Cells.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Mar 10:1-18. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Growing emphasis on exploring the antiproliferative potential of natural compounds has gathered momentum for the formulation of anticancer drugs. In the present study, the anticancer and apoptotic potential of glycyrrhizin (GLY) was studied on HPV C33A cervical cancer (CCa) cells. Our results indicated that GLY exerted antiproliferative effects in the C33A cells by inducing significant cytotoxicity. Treatment with GLY substantially increases the apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner via disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential. GLY induced apoptosis in C33A cells via activation of capsase-9 (intrinsic pathway) and caspase-8 (extrinsic pathway) along with the modulation of pro- and antiapoptotic protein expression. Moreover, GLY also exerted cell cycle arrest in C33A cells at G/G phase which was associated with the decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) along with the increased expression of CDK inhibitor p21. Furthermore, GLY treated CCa cells exhibited significant downregulation of Notch signaling pathway which may be associated with increased apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in C33A CCa cells. Thus, GLY could be an appendage in the prevention and management of CCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1895234DOI Listing
March 2021

Screening of drug databank against WT and mutant main protease of SARS-CoV-2: Towards finding potential compound for repurposing against COVID-19.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 23;28(5):3152-3159. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Although several pharmacological agents are under investigation to be repurposed as therapeutic against COVID-19, not much success has been achieved yet. So, the search for an effective and active option for the treatment of COVID-19 is still a big challenge. The Spike protein (S), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and Main protease (Mpro) are considered to be the primary therapeutic drug target for COVID-19. In this study we have screened the drugbank compound library against the Main Protease. But our search was not limited to just Mpro. Like other viruses, SARS-CoV-2, have also acquired unique mutations. These mutations within the active site of these target proteins may be an important factor hindering effective drug candidate development. In the present study we identified important active site mutations within the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (Y54C, N142S, T190I and A191V). Further the drugbank database was computationally screened against Mpro and the selected mutants. Finally, we came up with the common molecules effective against the wild type (WT) and all the selected Mpro. The study found Imiglitazar, was found to be the most active compound against the wild type of Mpro. While PF-03715455 (Y54C), Salvianolic acid A (N142S and T190I), and Montelukast (A191V) were found to be most active against the other selected mutants. It was also found that some other compounds such as Acteoside, 4-Amino-N- {4-[2-(2,6-Dimethyl-Phenoxy)-Acetylamino]-3-Hydroxy-1-Isobutyl-5-Phenyl-Pentyl}-Benzamide, PF-00610355, 4-Amino-N-4-[2-(2,6-Dimethyl-Phenoxy)-Acetylamino]-3-Hydroxy-1-Isobutyl-5-Phenyl-Pentyl}-Benzamide and Atorvastatin were showing high efficacy against the WT as well as other selected mutants. We believe that these molecules will provide a better and effective option for the treatment of COVID-19 clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901282PMC
May 2021

Multivariate Investigation of Toxic and Essential Metals in the Serum from Various Types and Stages of Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms, ranking 3rd in incidence and 2nd in mortality both in the USA and across the world. The pathogenesis of CRC is a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors such as exposure to metals. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the imbalances in the concentrations of selected essential/toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Cd, Cu, Se, Ni, and Hg) in the serum of newly diagnosed colorectal carcinoma patients (n = 165) in comparison with counterpart controls (n = 151) by atomic absorption spectrometry after wet-acid digestion method. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) of the CRC patients was determined using immunoradiometric method. Body mass index (BMI) which is an established risk factor for CRC was also calculated for patients and healthy controls. Conversely, average Ni (2.721 μg/g), Cd (0.563 μg/g), As (0.539 μg/g), and Pb (1.273 μg/g) levels were significantly elevated in the serum of CRC patients compared to the healthy donors, while the average Se (7.052 μg/g), Fe (15.67 μg/g), Cu (2.033 μg/g), and Zn (8.059 μg/g) concentrations were elevated in controls. The correlation coefficients between the elements in the cancerous patients demonstrated significantly dissimilar communal relationships compared with the healthy subjects. Significant differences in the elemental levels were also showed for CRC types (primary colorectal lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and adenocarcinoma) and CRC stages (stage-I, stage-II, stage-III, and stage-IV) among the patients. Majority of the elements demonstrated perceptible disparities in their levels based on dietary, habitat, gender, and smoking habits of the malignant patients and healthy subjects. Multivariate methods revealed noticeably divergent apportionment among the toxic/essential elements in the cancerous patients than the healthy counterparts. Overall, the study showed significantly divergent distribution and associations of the essential and toxic elemental levels in the serum of the CRC patients in comparison with the healthy donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02632-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and Other Coronaviruses: A Genome-wide Comparative Annotation and Analysis.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 10;476(5):2203-2217. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 22490, Saudi Arabia.

Novel strain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) causes mild to severe respiratory illness. The early symptoms may be fever, dry cough, sour throat, and difficulty in breathing which may lead to death in severe cases. Compared to previous outbreaks like SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), SARS-CoV2 disease (COVID-19) outbreak has been much distressing due to its high rate of infection but low infection fatality rate (IFR) with 1.4% around the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In the month of January 2020, the whole genome of SARS-CoV2 was sequenced which made work easy for researchers to develop diagnostic kits and to carry out drug repurposing to effectively alleviate the pandemic situation in the world. Now, it is important to understand why this virus has high rate of infectivity or is there any factor involved at the genome level which actually facilitates this virus infection globally? In this study, we have extensively analyzed the whole genomes of different coronaviruses infecting humans and animals in different geographical locations around the world. The main aim of the study is to identify the similarity and the mutational adaptation of the coronaviruses from different host and geographical locations to the SARS-CoV2 and provide a better strategy to understand the mutational rate for specific target-based drug designing. This study is focused to every annotation in a comparative manner which includes SNPs, repeat analysis with the different categorization of the short-sequence repeats and long-sequence repeats, different UTR's, transcriptional factors, and the predicted matured peptides with the specific length and positions on the genomes. The extensive analysis on SNPs revealed that Wuhan SARS-CoV2 and Indian SARS-CoV2 are having only eight SNPs. Collectively, phylogenetic analysis, repeat analysis, and the polymorphism revealed the genomic conserveness within the SARS-CoV2 and few other coronaviruses with very less mutational chances and the huge distance and mutations from the few other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-04027-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872828PMC
May 2021

Synergistic efficacies of thymoquinone and standard antibiotics against multi-drug resistant isolates.

Saudi Med J 2021 Feb;42(2):196-204

From the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Central Research Laboratory (Dera, Ahmad, Rajagopalan, Al Shahrani, Alshahrani, Alraey, Alamri, Alasmari, Makkawi, Alkhathami, Zaman, Hakami, Alhefzi), College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, and From the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Central Research Laboratory (AlAmri), College of Applied Medical Sciences, and Cancer Research Unit, King Khalid University, Abha; from the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (Saif), College of Applied Medical Sciences, Najran University, Najran; and the Chair of Medical and Molecular Genetics Research, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (Alfhili), College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To explore the antibacterial activity of thymoquinone (TQ), a quinone extracted from .

Methods: This study was conducted from May 2019 to March 2020 at the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of TQ were determined using an agar well diffusion method and broth microdilution assays, and the synergistic effect was evaluated using antibiotics in parallel. The disruptive effect of TQ on bacterial cell membranes was determined using scanning electron microscopy. The antivirulence properties of TQ, which include adherence and biofilm formation, were also investigated using adherence and biofilm formation assays, respectively.

Results: Thymoquinone demonstrated bactericidal efficacy against 4/14 bacterial strains, with MIC range of 1.04-8.3 µg/mL and and MBC range of 10.41-66.66 µg/mL. Thymoquinone showed synergism against , (American Type Culture Collection 12228), , and in combination with the tested antibiotics. Thymoquinone inhibited bacterial adhesion by 39%-54%, 48%-68%, and 61%-81% at 0.5 × MIC, 1 × MIC, and 2 × MIC, respectively. The tested bacterial strains significantly inhibited biofilm formation after treatment with various concentrations of TQ for 24 and 48 hours.

Conclusion: The combinatory effect of TQ with antimicrobials should be considered when developing new antimicrobial therapy regimens to overcome multidrug-resistant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2021.2.25706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989283PMC
February 2021

Palliative stereotactic radiotherapy for metastases during COVID-19: relief when cure is implausible.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002758DOI Listing
January 2021

Lessons Learned from a Collaborative to Develop a Sustainable Simulation-Based Training Program in Neonatal Resuscitation: Simulating Success.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jan 12;8(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Newborn resuscitation requires a multidisciplinary team effort to deliver safe, effective and efficient care. California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative's Simulating Success program was designed to help hospitals implement on-site simulation-based neonatal resuscitation training programs. Partnering with the Center for Advanced Pediatric and Perinatal Education at Stanford, Simulating Success engaged hospitals over a 15 month period, including three months of preparatory training and 12 months of implementation. The experience of the first cohort (Children's Hospital of Orange County (CHOC), Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (SMB) and Valley Children's Hospital (VCH)), with their site-specific needs and aims, showed that a multidisciplinary approach with a sound understanding of simulation methodology can lead to a dynamic simulation program. All sites increased staff participation. CHOC reduced latent safety threats measured during team exercises from 4.5 to two per simulation while improving debriefing skills. SMB achieved 100% staff participation by identifying unit-specific hurdles within in situ simulation. VCH improved staff confidence level in responding to neonatal codes and proved feasibility of expanding simulation across their hospital system. A multidisciplinary approach to quality improvement in neonatal resuscitation fosters engagement, enables focus on patient safety rather than individual performance, and leads to identification of system issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8010039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826853PMC
January 2021

Synthesis of urease inhibitory 2, 4-bis (4-cyanobenzyl)glycoluril using sandmeyer reaction and density functional theory investigation.

Curr Org Synth 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain Campus. United Arab Emirates.

Aims: The aim of present research was to synthesize glycoluril derivative 2,4-Bis(4-cyanobenzyl)glycoluril through convergent scheme.

Background: For this purpose Sandmeyer reaction procedure was employed for the synthesis of said compound. The structure of the pure compound was confirmed by using different spectroscopic techniques such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and (HR-MS) Mass spectrometry.

Objective: Convergent synthesis of 2,4-BIS (4-CYANOBENZYL)GLYCOLURIL USING SANDMEYER REACTION and urease inhibition study.

Methods: The structure of the pure compound was confirmed by using different spectroscopic techniques such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and (HR-MS) Mass spectrometry. The electronic properties of newly synthesized compound and thiourea were determined by using density functional theory.

Results: Furthermore compound was evaluated against urease enzyme and was found to be potent inhibitors with IC50 value of 11.5 ± 1.50 µM when compared with standard inhibitor thiourea (IC50 = 21.0 ± 1.90 µM). Compound may serve as lead compound for the synthesis of new cyano based bambusuril in future with enhanced biological properties.

Conclusion: We have synthesized a new glycoluril derivative 2,4-Bis(4-cyanobenzyl)glycoluril by the sandmeyer reaction. It has obtained in the form of light yellowish powder in good yield (96%). Glycoluril based macrocycles have been used in various fields. Starting from the 2,4-Bis(4-nitrobenzyl)glycoluril (already reported compound) which has undergone reduction (CH3OH,Pt/C) , diazotization (NaNO2/HCl), cyanation (CuCl/KCN) respectively in order to synthesize the desired new glycoluril derivative. The obtained product will be used as a building block for the synthesis of the cyano based bambusuril marcocycle in future. The yield of the obtained product has been monitored by using different amount of cyanating reagent but the best results shown by the use of 4 mmol of CuCl/KCN. KCN with CuCl assisted the conversion of diazo group into cyano group with enhanced yield when used in excess amount. It act as a catalyst. Solubility characteristic of 2,4-Bis(4-cyanobenzyl)glycoluril has determined also in different organic solvents. 1H NMR technique proved to be very helpful for the structure determination of our desired product. Benzylic protons give signals at 7.5 ppm and 7.8 ppm respectively. The downfield peaks confirm about the presence of CN group near the benzylic protons. Methine protons show signal at 5.2 ppm which ensures about the basic skeleton of glycoluril. Ureidyl protons also confirm the synthesis of the heterocyclic 2,4-Bis(4-cyanobenzyl)glycoluril compound. The negative and positive electrostatic potential sites, molecular descriptors, and charge density distribution of frontier molecular orbitals are revealing that 4a with promising sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks would result to enhance the urease inhbition which is in good agreement with the experimental data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570179418666210113162909DOI Listing
January 2021

Circulating long non-coding RNAs NKILA, NEAT1, MALAT1, and MIAT expression and their association in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 01;9(1)

Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disorder that leads to alterations in gene regulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have become a major research topic as they are involved in metabolic disorders.

Methods: This study included a total of 400 study subjects; 200 were subjects with T2DM and 200 were healthy subjects. Extracted RNA was used to synthesize cDNA by quantitative real time. Serum analysis was carried out to determine differences in biochemical parameters. Recorded data were used to evaluate associations with expression of lncRNAs NF-kappaB interacting lncRNA (NKILA), nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), and myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) in T2DM cases.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with T2DM showed an overall increase in expression of lncRNAs NKILA, NEAT, MALAT1, and MIAT by 3.94-fold, 5.28-fold, 4.46-fold, and 6.35-fold, respectively. Among patients with T2DM, higher expression of lncRNA NKILA was associated with hypertension (p=0.001), smoking (p<0.0001), and alcoholism (p<0.0001). Altered NEAT1 expression was significantly associated with weight loss (p=0.04), fatigue (p=0.01), slow wound healing (p=0.002), blurred vision (p=0.008), loss of appetite (p=0.007), smoking (p<0.0001), and alcoholism (p<0.0001). Higher expression of lncRNA MALAT1 was significantly linked with weight loss (p=0.003), blurred vision (p=0.01), smoking (p<0.0001), and alcoholism (p<0.0001). Expression of lncRNA MIAT was associated with only blurred vision (p<0.0001), smoking (p<0.0001), and alcoholism (p<0.0001). Positive correlations of lncRNA NKILA with lncRNAs NEAT1 (r=0.42, p<0.0001), MALAT (r=0.36, p<0.0001) and MIAT (r=0.42, p<0.0001) were observed among patients with T2DM. Significant positive correlations of lncRNA NEAT with lncRNAs MALAT and MIAT were observed among patients with T2DM. A positive correlation between lncRNAs MALAT and MIAT was also observed among patients with T2DM.

Conclusion: Increased circulating NKILA, NEAT1, MALAT, and MIAT expression in patients with T2DM, which is linked with poor patient outcomes and significantly linked with alcoholism and smoking, may influence the degree and severity of disease among patients with T2DM. These lncRNAs may contribute to the progression of T2DM disease or other related diabetes-related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805373PMC
January 2021

Increased mRNA expression of key cytokines among suspected cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 7;21(1):28. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Parasitology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fatal infectious disease caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP). The major factor relevant to morbidity and mortality seems to be the host inflammatory reaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 cytokine mRNA expression among suspected P. jirovecii infection.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study undertaken in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. One hundred suspected PCP cases and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. Basic clinical manifestations, radiological findings, microbiological and immunological findings were extracted from the hospital records from January 2019 to August 2019, Pneumocystis detection was done by immune-fluorescent staining (IFAT, Gomorimethanamine silver staining (GMSS), Giemsa staining, Toluidine blue O (TBO), and Pneumocystis RT-PCR.

Results: Increased more than 5 fold, 3 fold, 4 fold, and 7 fold of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 mRNA expression were observed in PCP cases compared to controls. Higher expression of IL-2 mRNA was connected with crept, wheezing and chest X-ray findings like central perihilar infiltrate, patchy infiltrate, consolidation, hilar lymphadenopathy, pneumothorax, pleural effusion which showed higher expression compared to counterpart (p< 0.0001). Higher expression of IL-4 mRNA was found to be significantly associated with weight loss (p=0.002), dyspnea (p=0.003), crept (p=0.01), and chest X-ray findings (p< 0.0001). Significantly increased expression of IL-10 mRNA was observed to be associated with weight loss, dyspnea, night sweats, wheezing, and different findings of chest X-ray compared to their counterparts, whereas, IL-13 mRNA was observed in cases with fever. Suspected cases of PCP confirmed positive by IFTA with higher IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA expression compared to negative cases. RT-PCR confirmed PCP cases had significantly higher expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 as well as IL-13 mRNA compared to negative cases. Positive detected cases by GMSS showed higher IL-2, IL-10 mRNA expression, while Giemsa showed only higher IL-4 mRNA expression compared to negative cases.

Conclusion: Confirmed cases of P. jirovecii showed higher IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 mRNA expression comparatively to negative cases. Increased expression of cytokines may be indicative of infection severity and could help in patients' management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05729-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792013PMC
January 2021

Inhibitory Effect of on Climax Bacterial Community Isolated from the Oral Plaque of Patients with Periodontal Disease.

Molecules 2021 Jan 3;26(1). Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The red-complex bacteria are one of the most significant complexes found simultaneously in subgingival plaque next to the periodontal pocket. The current antibacterial treatment is not adequate, and multidrug resistance to it is developing. Henceforth, the antibacterial effect of the ethanolic extract of was put to test against red-complex bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis.

Methods: Well diffusion and micro broth dilution procedure by Alamar blue were applied to assess the zone of inhibition (ZOI), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Anti-virulence efficacies of the plant extract that comprise of adherence and formation of biofilms were examined by the process of adherence and biofilm production assay.

Results: The crude extract of exhibited significant inhibitory outcome against periodontopathic bacteria with noteworthy MIC (0.78-3.12 mg/mL), inhibitory zone (12-20 mm), as well as MBC (3.12-12.50 mg/mL). The extract inhibited bacterial adhesion ranging from 41% to 52%, 53% to 66%, and 60% to 79% at the given MIC × 0.5, MIC × 1, and MIC × 2 in succession. Substantial suppression was also developed in the biofilm production of the investigated periodontopathic strains following exposure to numerous concentrations of extract for a period of 24 and 48 h.

Conclusion: These outcomes divulge a new concept that extract can be utilized to manufacture valuable antibacterial compounds to treat chronic and acute periodontitis. This identifies as an essential natural source for future drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795411PMC
January 2021

Use of Natural Compounds as a Potential Therapeutic Agent Against COVID-19.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 ;27(9):1144-1152

Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Korea.

The current 2019-nCoV outbreak is becoming extremely harmful and has affected the whole world. Its control is challenging because there is no effective vaccine or drug available for coronavirus disease. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), primarily targets the human respiratory system to lung lesions and lethal pneumonia. Natural products have always shown a crucial role in the process of drug development against various diseases. They may serve as leads for further drug development to combat emergent mutants of the coronavirus. In this review, the current status of natural compounds and their derivatives acting against different species of CoV are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666210101154118DOI Listing
May 2021

Plan quality assessment of modern radiotherapy delivery techniques in left-sided breast cancer: an analysis stratified by target delineation guidelines.

BJR Open 2020 11;2(1):20200007. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Sector 5, Rohini, New Delhi, India.

Objective: This study compares planning techniques stratified by consensus delineation guidelines in patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy based on an objective plan quality assessment scale.

Methods: 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected, and target delineation for intact breast was performed using Tangent (RTOG 0413), ESTRO, and RTOG guidelines. Consensus Plan Quality Metric (PQM) scoring was defined and communicated to the physicist before commencing treatment planning. Field-in-field IMRT (FiF), inverse IMRT (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were created for each delineation. Statistical analyses utilised a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance, after applying a Bonferroni correction.

Results: Total PQM score of plans for Tangent and ESTRO were comparable for FiF and IMRT techniques (FiF IMRT for Tangent, = 0.637; FiF IMRT for ESTRO, = 0.304), and were also significantly higher compared to VMAT. Total PQM score of plans for RTOG revealed that IMRT planning achieved a significantly higher score compared to both FiF and VMAT (IMRT FiF, < 0.001; IMRT VMAT, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Total PQM scores were equivalent for FiF and IMRT for both Tangent and ESTRO delineations, whereas IMRT was best suited for RTOG delineation.

Advances In Knowledge: FiF and IMRT planning techniques are best suited for ESTRO or Tangent delineations. IMRT also yields better results with RTOG delineation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjro.20200007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736705PMC
December 2020

Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Crude Extract of .

Curr Pharm Des 2021 ;27(1):69-79

Division of Research & Development, Narmix Labs Ltd, Chennai, India.

Background: Infectious diseases constantly represent the source of sickness as well as mortality in human beings. Herbal applications in human life through using plants for antibacterial and anticancer activity have shown the potential medicinal outcome.

Objectives: To evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of the crude extract of Matricaria aurea.

Materials And Methods: The antibacterial activity of the crude flowers of M. aurea extract was examined against reference and clinical bacterial strains by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined by micro broth dilution assays using MH broth. Herbal extract was employed over human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HCT-116) to optimize cancer cells proliferation by SRB assay.

Results: The data has shown that the extract from M. aurea had significant antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The plant extract showed higher antibacterial activity against the reference strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. The MIC and MBC varied between 0.38-12.5 mg/ml and 3.1-200 mg/ml respectively. Synergy study elucidated the significant bacteriostatic effect of M. aurea extract on S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. The data of SRB assay deliver the potential anticancer activity through cell death.

Conclusion: This study delivers innovative information that M. aurea possessed excellent bio-activities against pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, which drive attention for further research to explore the active components responsible for biological efficacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666201207105620DOI Listing
April 2021

Inorganic nanoparticles for reduction of hexavalent chromium: Physicochemical aspects.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 25;402:123535. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a highly carcinogenic and toxic material. It is one of the major environmental contaminants in aquatic system. Its removal from aqueous medium is a subject of current research. Various technologies like adsorption, membrane filtration, solvent extraction, coagulation, biological treatment, ion exchange and chemical reduction for removal of Cr(VI) from waste water have been developed. But chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) has attracted a lot of interest in the past few years because, the reduction product [Cr(III)] is one of the essential nutrients for organisms. Various nanoparticles based systems have been designed for conversion of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) which have not been critically reviewed in literature. This review present recent research progress of classification, designing and characterization of various inorganic nanoparticles reported as catalysts/reductants for rapid conversion of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in aqueous medium. Kinetics and mechanism of nanoparticles enhanced/catalyzed reduction of Cr(VI) and factors affecting the reduction process have been discussed critically. Personal future insights have been also predicted for further development in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382355PMC
January 2021
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