Publications by authors named "Irene Schilcher"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bispecific Tau Antibodies with Additional Binding to C1q or Alpha-Synuclein.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;80(2):813-829

Maptimmune BV, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cellular accumulation of aggregated tau protein. Tau pathology within these disorders is accompanied by chronic neuroinflammation, such as activation of the classical complement pathway by complement initiation factor C1q. Additionally, about half of the AD cases present with inclusions composed of aggregated alpha-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Lewy bodies in disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia also frequently occur together with tau pathology.

Objective: Immunotherapy is currently the most promising treatment strategy for tauopathies. However, the presence of multiple pathological processes within tauopathies makes it desirable to simultaneously target more than one disease pathway.

Methods: Herein, we have developed three bispecific antibodies based on published antibody binding region sequences. One bispecific antibody binds to tau plus alpha-synuclein and two bispecific antibodies bind to tau plus C1q.

Results: Affinity of the bispecific antibodies to their targets compared to their monospecific counterparts ranged from nearly identical to one order of magnitude lower. All bispecific antibodies retained binding to aggregated protein in patient-derived brain sections. The bispecific antibodies also retained their ability to inhibit aggregation of recombinant tau, regardless of whether the tau binding sites were in IgG or scFv format. Mono- and bispecific antibodies inhibited cellular seeding induced by AD-derived pathological tau with similar efficacy. Finally, both Tau-C1q bispecific antibodies completely inhibited the classical complement pathway.

Conclusion: Bispecific antibodies that bind to multiple pathological targets may therefore present a promising approach to treat tauopathies and other neurodegenerative disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201334DOI Listing
January 2021

Endothelial Lipase Modulates Paraoxonase 1 Content and Arylesterase Activity of HDL.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 13;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Gottfried Schatz Research Center for Cell Signaling, Metabolism and Aging, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Endothelial lipase (EL) is a strong modulator of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure, composition, and function. Here, we examined the impact of EL on HDL paraoxonase 1 (PON1) content and arylesterase (AE) activity in vitro and in vivo. The incubation of HDL with EL-overexpressing HepG2 cells decreased HDL size, PON1 content, and AE activity. The EL modification of HDL did not diminish the capacity of HDL to associate with PON1 when EL-modified HDL was incubated with PON1-overexpressing cells. The overexpression of EL in mice significantly decreased HDL serum levels but unexpectedly increased HDL PON1 content and HDL AE activity. Enzymatically inactive EL had no effect on the PON1 content of HDL in mice. In healthy subjects, EL serum levels were not significantly correlated with HDL levels. However, HDL PON1 content was positively associated with EL serum levels. The EL-induced changes in the HDL-lipid composition were not linked to the HDL PON1 content. We conclude that primarily, the interaction of enzymatically active EL with HDL, rather than EL-induced alterations in HDL size and composition, causes PON1 displacement from HDL in vitro. In vivo, the EL-mediated reduction of HDL serum levels and the consequently increased PON1-to-HDL ratio in serum increase HDL PON1 content and AE activity in mice. In humans, additional mechanisms appear to underlie the association of EL serum levels and HDL PON1 content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828365PMC
January 2021

Neurofilament-Light Chain as Biomarker of Neurodegenerative and Rare Diseases With High Translational Value.

Front Neurosci 2020 11;14:579. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Neuropharmacology, QPS Austria GmbH, Grambach, Austria.

Neurofilament-light chain (NF-L) is a well-known clinical biomarker of many neurodegenerative diseases. By analyzing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma, progression of NF-L levels can forecast conversion from the presymptomatic to symptomatic stage and time of survival. The use of plasma for NF-L measurement makes this biomarker exceptionally valuable for clinical studies since sample collection can be performed repeatedly without causing much harm. Detailed analyses of NF-L expression in neurodegenerative disease patient's samples were already performed, while NF-L levels of preclinical models of ALS, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as lysosomal storage diseases are still widely unknown. We therefore evaluated NF-L levels in the plasma of the ALS models SOD1-G93A low expressor and TAR6/6 mice, the Alzheimer's disease (AD) model 5xFAD, the Parkinson's disease model Line 61 and the Gaucher disease (GD) model 4L/PS-NA and the CSF of selected models. Our results show that NF-L levels are highly increased in the plasma of ALS, Alzheimer's and GD models, while in the analyzed Parkinson's disease model NF-L plasma levels barely changed. Most analyzed models show a progressive increase of NF-L levels. NF-L measurements in the plasma of the neurodegenerative disease mouse models of ALS and AD are thus a good tool to evaluate disease progression. Compared to analyses in human tissues, our results suggest a high translation value of murine NF-L levels and their progression. Furthermore, our data indicate that NF-L might also be a good biomarker for disorders with a neuronal component like some lysosomal storage diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300175PMC
June 2020

Characterization of the visceral and neuronal phenotype of 4L/PS-NA mice modeling Gaucher disease.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(1):e0227077. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

QPS Austria GmbH, Neuropharmacology, Grambach, Austria.

Gaucher disease is caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase that can result in non-neuronal as well as neuronal symptoms. Common visceral symptoms are an increased organ size, specifically of the spleen, and glucosylceramide as well as glucosylsphingosine substrate accumulations as a direct result of the glucocerebrosidase deficiency. Neuronal symptoms include motor deficits and strong alterations in the cerebellum. To evaluate the effect of new compounds for the treatment of this devastating disease, animal models are needed that closely mimic the human phenotype. The 4L/PS-NA mouse as model of Gaucher disease is shown to present reduced glucocerebrosidase activity similar to human cases but an in-depth characterization of the model was still not performed. We therefore analyzed 4L/PS-NA mice for visceral alterations, motor deficits and also neuronal changes like glucocerebrosidase activity, substrate levels and neuroinflammation. A special focus was set at pathological changes of the cerebellum. Our results show that 4L/PS-NA mice have strongly enlarged visceral organs that are infiltrated by enlarged leukocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, animals present strong motor deficits that are accompanied by increased glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine levels in the brain, astrocytosis and activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus as well as reduced calbindin levels in the cerebellum. The latter was directly related to a strong Purkinje cell loss. Our results thus provide a detailed characterization of the 4L/PS-NA mouse model over age showing the translational value of the model and validating its usefulness for preclinical efficiency studies to evaluate new compounds against Gaucher disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227077PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957154PMC
April 2020

Endothelial lipase increases eNOS activating capacity of high-density lipoprotein.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 04 7;1865(4):158612. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/6, 8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Endothelial lipase (EL) changes structural and functional properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL is a relevant modulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, but the effect of EL on HDL induced eNOS-activation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined the impact of EL-modified HDL (EL-HDL) on eNOS activity, subcellular trafficking, and eNOS- dependent vasorelaxation. EL-HDL and empty virus (EV)-HDL as control were isolated from human serum incubated with EL-overexpressing or EV infected HepG2 cells. EL-HDL exhibited higher capacity to induce eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and eNOS activity in EA.hy 926 cells, as well as eNOS-dependent vasorelaxation of mouse aortic rings compared to control HDL. As revealed by confocal and structured illumination-microscopy EL-HDL-driven induction of eNOS was accompanied by an increased eNOS-GFP targeting to the plasma membrane and a lower eNOS-GFP colocalization with Golgi and mitochondria. Widefield microscopy of filipin stained cells revealed that EL-HDL lowered cellular free cholesterol (FC) and as found by thin-layer chromatography increased cellular cholesterol ester (CE) content. Additionally, cholesterol efflux capacity, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase activity, and HDL particle uptake were comparable between EL-HDL and control HDL. In conclusion, EL increases eNOS activating capacity of HDL, a phenomenon accompanied by an enrichment of the plasma membrane eNOS pool, a decreased cell membrane FC and increased cellular CE content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116681PMC
April 2020

Endothelial lipase increases antioxidative capacity of high-density lipoprotein.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 10 17;1864(10):1363-1374. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Otto Loewi Research Center, Division of Physiological Chemistry, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/3, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Endothelial lipase (EL) is a strong determinant of structural and functional properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined whether the antioxidative capacity of HDL is affected by EL. EL-modified HDL (EL-HDL) and control EV-HDL were generated by incubation of HDL with EL- overexpressing or control HepG2 cells. As determined by native gradient gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering EL-HDL is smaller than EV-HDL. Mass spectrometry revealed an enrichment of EL-HDL with lipolytic products and depletion of phospholipids and triacylglycerol. Kinetics of conjugated diene formation and HPLC-based malondialdehyde quantification revealed that EL-HDL exhibited a significantly higher resistance to copper ion-induced oxidation and a significantly higher capacity to protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from copper ion-induced oxidation when compared to EV-HDL. Depletion of the lipolytic products from EL-HDL abolished the capacity of EL-HDL to protect LDL from copper ion-induced oxidation, which could be partially restored by lysophosphatidylcholine enrichment. Proteomics of HDL incubated with oxidized LDL revealed significantly higher levels of methionine 136 sulfoxide in EL-HDL compared to EV-HDL. Chloramine T (oxidizes methionines and modifies free thiols), diminished the difference between EL-HDL and EV-HDL regarding the capacity to protect LDL from oxidation. In absence of LDL small EV-HDL and EL-HDL exhibited higher resistance to copper ion-induced oxidation when compared to respective large particles. In conclusion, the augmented antioxidative capacity of EL-HDL is primarily determined by the enrichment of HDL with EL-generated lipolytic products and to a lesser extent by the decreased HDL particle size and the increased activity of chloramine T-sensitive mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699986PMC
October 2019

MicroRNA-142-3p improves vascular relaxation in uremia.

Atherosclerosis 2019 01 10;280:28-36. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Division of Nephrology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Background And Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the putative role of microRNAs (miR)s in uremic vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: We investigated the expression pattern of miRs in two independent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohorts and in the animal model of uremic DBA/2 mice via quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, DBA/2 mice were treated with intravenous injections of synthetic miR-142-3p mimic and were analysed for functional and morphological vascular changes by mass spectrometry and wire myography.

Results: The expression pattern of miRs was regulated in ESRD patients and was reversible after kidney transplantation. Out of tested miRs, only blood miR-142-3p was negatively associated with carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity in CKD 5D patients. We validated these findings in a murine uremic model and found similar suppression of miR-142-3p as well as decreased acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of the aorta. Therefore, we designed experiments to restore bioavailability of aortic miR-142-3p in vivo via intravenous injection of synthetic miR-142-3p mimic. This intervention restored acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation.

Conclusions: Taken together, we provide compelling evidence, both in humans and in mice, that miR-142-3p constitutes a potential pharmacological agent to prevent endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness in ESRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.11.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591123PMC
January 2019

Impact of Endothelial Lipase on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of Serum and High-density Lipoprotein.

Sci Rep 2017 10 2;7(1):12485. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, Medical University Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/6, 8010, Graz, Austria.

Endothelial lipase (EL) is a potent modulator of the structural and functional properties of HDL. Impact of EL on cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of serum and isolated HDL is not well understood and apparently contradictory data were published. Here, we systematically examined the impact of EL on composition and CEC of serum and isolated HDL, in vitro and in vivo, using EL-overexpressing cells and EL-overexpressing mice. CEC was examined in a validated assay using H-cholesterol labelled J774 macrophages. In vitro EL-modification of serum resulted in complex alterations, including enrichment of serum with lipid-free/-poor apoA-I, decreased size of human (but not mouse) HDL and altered HDL lipid composition. EL-modification of serum increased CEC, in line with increased lipid-free/-poor apoA-I formation. In contrast, CEC of isolated HDL was decreased likely through altered lipid composition. In contrast to in vitro results, EL-overexpression in mice markedly decreased HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I serum levels associated with a decreased CEC of serum. HDL lipid composition was altered, but HDL particle size and CEC were not affected. Our study highlights the multiple and complex effects of EL on HDL composition and function and may help to clarify the seemingly contradictory data found in published articles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12882-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624901PMC
October 2017