Publications by authors named "Ingrid Vervuert"

34 Publications

The Safety and Efficacy in Horses of Certain Nutraceuticals that Claim to Have Health Benefits.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2021 Apr 19;37(1):207-222. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

All Creatures Veterinary Nutrition Consulting, 3407 Millbrook Court, Fairfield, CA 94534, USA.

Equine nutraceuticals are promoted as useful therapies to help optimize health and athletic performance, often without the benefit of independent research to support product efficacy and safety. This review focuses on 4 main categories of equine supplements that are frequently used as nutraceuticals: (i) supplements to support metabolic health, (ii) gastric support products, (iii) common ingredients that are included in supplements designed to support hoof health, and (iv) supplements to support joint health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2020.11.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Volumetric measurements of paranasal sinuses and examination of sinonasal communication in healthy Shetland ponies: anatomical and morphometric characteristics using computed tomography.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jan 21;17(1):41. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department for Horses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 21, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Despite clinical importance and frequent occurrence of sinus disease, little is known about the size of paranasal sinuses and their communication in ponies and small horses. To examine the shape and volume of the paranasal sinuses and evaluate the sinonasal communication, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) datasets of 12 healthy adult Shetland ponies were performed and analysed. Linear measurements of head length and width were taken. Using semi-automatic segmentation, 3D-models of all sinus compartments were created. Volumetric measurement of the seven sinus compartments were conducted and statistical analysis was performed. Sinus volumes were compared between the left and right sinuses and the relation to age and head size was evaluated.

Results: Structure and shape of the paranasal sinus system in Shetland ponies was similar to that of large horses. All seven sinus compartments on each side of the head were identified (rostral maxillary sinus, ventral conchal sinus, caudal maxillary sinus, dorsal conchal sinus, middle conchal sinus, frontal sinus, sphenopalatine sinus). The existence of a bilateral cranial and a caudal system formed by a maxillary septum was visible in all 12 individuals. The volumetric sizes of the left and right sinuses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). A positive correlation between the size of the paranasal sinuses and the head length was shown. A relation between sinus volumes and age could not be proved in adult ponies aged > six years. Communication between single sinus compartments was identified. Furthermore, communication with the nasal cavity over the nasomaxillary aperture (Apertura nasomaxillaris) and a common sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis communis) as well as its splitting up into a rostral and a caudolateral channel could be seen. Examination of the sinonasal communication was challenging and only a descriptive evaluation was possible.

Conclusions: Our findings concerning the size, shape and volumetric dimensions of Shetland pony CT images could help improve CT interpretation of abnormal clinical cases as well as aiding clinicians to develop and select appropriate instruments for medical inspection and treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02748-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818571PMC
January 2021

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of l-methadone in isoflurane-anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated ponies.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Mar 9;48(2):213-222. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Clinical Unit of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Intensive-Care Medicine, Vetmeduni Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic effects of a commercially available l-methadone/fenpipramide combination administered to isoflurane anaesthetized ponies.

Study Design: Prospective single-group interventional study.

Animals: A group of six healthy adult research ponies (four mares, two geldings).

Methods: Ponies were sedated with intravenous (IV) detomidine (0.02 mg kg) and butorphanol (0.01 mg kg) for an unrelated study. Additional IV detomidine (0.004 mg kg) was administered 85 minutes later, followed by induction of anaesthesia using IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg). Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Baseline readings were taken after 15 minutes of stable isoflurane anaesthesia. l-Methadone (0.25 mg kg) with fenpipramide (0.0125 mg kg) was then administered IV. Selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded every 10 minutes and compared to baseline using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Adverse events were recorded. Arterial plasma samples for analysis of plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of l-methadone were collected throughout anaesthesia at predetermined time points. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation or median and interquartile range (p < 0.05).

Results: Plasma concentrations of l-methadone showed a rapid initial distribution phase followed by a slower elimination phase which is best described with a two-compartment model. The terminal half-life was 44.3 ± 18.0 minutes, volume of distribution 0.43 ± 0.12 L kg and plasma clearance 7.77 ± 1.98 mL minute kg. Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 85 (±16) at baseline to 100 (±26) 10 minutes after l-methadone/fenpipramide administration (p = 0.031). Heart rate remained constant. In two ponies fasciculations occurred at different time points after l-methadone administration.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Administration of a l-methadone/fenpipramide combination to isoflurane anaesthetized ponies led to a transient increase in blood pressure without concurrent increases in heart rate. Pharmacokinetics of l-methadone were similar to those reported for conscious horses administered racemic methadone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2020.04.018DOI Listing
March 2021

An anatomical study of the dorsal and ventral nasal conchal bullae and middle nasal conchae in normal Shetland ponies: Computed tomographic anatomical and morphometric findings.

Anat Histol Embryol 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology (MPWC), Leipzig, Germany.

Equine paranasal sinuses are susceptible to inflammation. Insufficient drainage through the nasal passages and meatus may lead to the accumulation of inspissated purulent discharge. Particularly in ponies, these anatomical structures are suspected to be relatively small. To date, there are no reports considering the morphology of nasal conchal bullae in small horse breeds such as Shetland ponies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the size of the conchal bullae and the medial nasal conchae of Shetland ponies and their relation to the skull dimension using computed tomography. Reconstructed images of healthy adult heads of Shetland ponies were used. Linear skull measurements as well as two cranial indices of the head dimensions were taken. Length, width and height of the dorsal and ventral conchal bullae and the medial nasal conchae were measured in relation to the skull and compared with the data of skulls of large breed horses. The anatomical proportions of pony heads were characterized by a smaller cranial index and a greater nasal index than those of large breed horses. Shetland ponies showed a longer cranial length compared with the nasal length. Heads are consistently smaller, and the relationship of the bullae to the head length was also smaller than those measured in large breed horses. A negative correlation between the head and bullae size was found. In conclusion, this study suggests that Shetland ponies have distinguishing proportions of the head. These findings are relevant for clinical examination and surgical treatment of equine sinus disease in those breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12646DOI Listing
December 2020

[Assessment of selenium status in relation to the supplementation of selenium enriched mineral licks and mineral feeds in equines in Thuringia].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Dec 4;48(6):398-405. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik, Universität Leipzig.

Objective: Screening of commercial mineral feeds and mineral licks on the German market containing selenium (Se) in relation to the Se status in equines in Thuringia with different forms of Se supplementation.

Material And Methods: Commercially available Se-containing minerals for horses identified by an online research were evaluated for their Se concentration, Se source, flavour carrier and recommended dosage according to the manufacturer's labelling. Furthermore, serum Se status in 8 equine farms was regularly monitored over the period of one year. The sampled horses either received no Se supplement or Se was supplemented by a mineral lick, a mineral feed or supplementary feed.

Results: In 29.7 % of the mineral licks, the manufacturers provided a label with information on the maximal daily Se dosage, all of which exceeded the current recommendations of daily Se intake for a 600 kg horse under maintenance conditions. According to the manufacturers' labelled dosage, 67.5 % of the mineral feeds also exceeded the recommended daily Se intake taking the daily Se requirement of a 600 kg horse under maintenance conditions into consideration. The declarations of the feeds, especially in the case of mineral licks, were frequently not in conformity with the Regulation (EC) Nr. 767/2009 on commercial market introduction and use of feed. Concerning the horses' Se status, only horses receiving Se supplementation either via mineral lick with a Se concentration ≥ 20-50 mg/kg or a mineral or supplementary feed exhibited median serum Se concentrations within the reference range. In 2 of 10 horses with access to mineral licks with molasses containing Se concentrations ≥ 45 mg/kg, serum Se concentration exceeded the reference range at at least at one sampling time point.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Due to difficulties in their dosaging, the use of mineral licks should be only considered in extensively managed farms with limited access to the individual horse. The recommended Se concentration in mineral licks is recommended to lie in the range of 40-50 mg/kg. In order to attain improved control over Se intake, this trace element ought to be provided by individual feeding using either a mineral supplement or a supplementary feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1274-9045DOI Listing
December 2020

Stocking Density Affects Welfare Indicators in Horses Reared for Meat Production.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy.

Horses kept for meat production are reared in intensive breeding farms. We employed a checklist adapted from the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) assessment protocol. Our evaluation aims to assess whether welfare indicators are influenced by stocking densities (m/horse) and feeding strategies applied. An analysis was carried out on the data obtained from 7 surveys conducted at a single horse farm designed for meat production. In each survey, the same 12 pens were assessed, but on each occasion, the horses in the pens had been changed as had the stocking densities. Briefly, 561 horses aged 16 ± 8 months (mean ± standard deviation) were evaluated. Two stocking density cut-off values (median and 75th percentile: 3.95 and 4.75 m/horse, respectively) were applied to investigate the effect of stocking density on horse welfare. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests ( < 0.05). When cut-off was set as the median percentile, lower stocking density was associated with improvements in body condition score (BCS), coat cleanliness and bedding quantity, less coughing, less resting in a standing position, and less feeding related to the greater space available at the feed bunk. When the 75th percentile cut-off was used, indicators that improved were coat cleanliness, bedding quantity and mane and tail condition, as well as less resting in standing position and less feeding related to the greater space available at the feed bunk. Accordingly, the use of two different stocking density cut-off values showed that the increase of space allowance affected specific welfare indicators. Further increment of space and/or changes in management regimes should be investigated to improve all the indicators. Moreover, results related to feeding indicated the need to intervene as starch intakes exceeded recommended safe levels, negatively affecting horse welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341190PMC
June 2020

Alterations of serum vitamin E and vitamin A concentrations of ponies and horses during experimentally induced obesity.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Sep 14;104(5):1501-1508. Epub 2020 May 14.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

Vitamin A, vitamin E and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) are a focus of current obesity research in humans. The impact of body weight (BW) gain on fat-soluble vitamins and its associated parameters in equines has not been previously reported. Ten Shetland ponies and 9 Warmblood horses, all adult geldings, non-obese and healthy, were fed an excessive energy diet for 20 months to induce BW gain. Serum α-tocopherol (vitamin E), retinol (vitamin A), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and retinol/RBP4 ratio were analysed before BW gain induction and at six timepoints during the BW gaining period. The mean (±SD) % BW gain achieved during two years of excess energy intake was 29.9 ± 19.4% for ponies and 17 ± 6.74% for horses. Serum α-tocopherol increased significantly in ponies and horses during excess energy intake and circulating α-tocopherol levels correlated positively with α-tocopherol intake (r = .6; p < .001). Serum retinol concentrations showed variations during the study but without relation to intake. Serum RBP4 decreased at the end of the study. The retinol/RBP4 ratio increased with BW gain without differences between ponies and horses. In comparison with human research, the increase in the retinol/RBP4 ratio was unexpected and needs further elucidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13385DOI Listing
September 2020

The influence of equine body weight gain on inflammatory cytokine expressions of adipose tissue in response to endotoxin challenge.

Acta Vet Scand 2020 Apr 22;62(1):17. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 9, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Human obesity is linked with systemic inflammation. However, it is still controversial if equines produce more inflammatory cytokines with increasing body weight and if the production of those show breed type specific patterns. The main objective of this study was to determine if diet induced obesity is associated with increased inflammatory signatures in adipose tissue of equines and if a breed predisposition exists between ponies and horses. Additionally, we aimed to identify adipose tissue depot differences in inflammatory cytokine expression. Nineteen healthy, non-overweight and metabolically healthy equines received a hypercaloric diet for 2 years. Body weight, body condition score and cresty neck score were assessed weekly throughout the study. At three time points, insulin sensitivity was determined by a combined glucose-insulin test. Adipose tissue samples were collected from two intra-abdominal and two subcutaneous depots under general anesthesia at each time point after an endotoxin trigger. In the adipose tissue samples levels of CD68 mRNA (a marker of macrophage infiltration) and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) were analyzed with RT-qPCR. As markers of lipid metabolism mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were determined with RT-qPCR.

Results: CD68 mRNA levels increased with body weight gain in several adipose tissue (AT) depots (Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction; retroperitoneal AT horses: P = 0.023, mesocolonial AT horses: P = 0.023, subcutaneous tail head AT ponies: P = 0.015). In both abdominal depots CD68 mRNA levels were higher than in subcutaneous adipose tissue depots (Kruskal-Wallis-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction: P < 0.05). No breed related differences were found. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα levels were higher in subcutaneous depots compared to abdominal depots after body weight gain. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα mRNA levels of mesocolon adipose tissue were higher in obese horses compared to obese ponies (Mann-Whitney-U test; IL-1β: P = 0.006; IL-6: P = 0.003; TNFα: P = 0.049). In general, horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels compared to ponies in neck AT and tail AT at all time points.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest an increased invasion of macrophages in intra-abdominal adipose tissue with increasing body weight gain in equines in combination with a low dose endotoxin stimulus. This might predispose equines to obesity related comorbidities. In obese horses mesocolon adipose tissue showed higher inflammatory cytokine expression compared to obese ponies. Additionally, subcutaneous adipose tissue expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels in selected AT depots which may indicate a higher fat storage capacity than in ponies. The differences in lipid storage might be associated with a higher susceptibility to obesity-related comorbidities in ponies in comparison to horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-020-00515-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178607PMC
April 2020

Changes in the faecal microbiota of horses and ponies during a two-year body weight gain programme.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(3):e0230015. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

Obesity is a major health concern in many domesticated equids animals since it is related to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin dysregulation, hyperlipidaemia or laminitis. Ponies especially are known as "easy keepers" and are often affected by obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Research in the last decade indicated that the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in the development of obesity, at least in humans. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize changes in the faecal microbiota during a two-year weight gain programme which compared ponies and warmblood horses. For this purpose, 10 Shetland ponies and ten warmblood horses were fed a ration which provided 200% of their maintenance energy requirement over two years. Feed intake, body weight, body condition and cresty neck score were recorded weekly. At three standardized time points faecal samples were collected to characterize the faecal microbiota and its fermentation products such as short chain fatty acids and lactate. Next generation sequencing was used for the analysis of the faecal microbiota. During body weight gain the richness of the faecal microbiota decreased in ponies. Besides changes in the phylum Firmicutes in ponies that were already described in human studies, we found a decrease of the phylum Fibrobacteres in horses and an increase of the phylum Actinobacteria. We were also able to show that the phylum Fibrobacteres is more common in the microbiota of horses than in the microbiota of ponies. Therefore, the fibrolytic phylum Fibrobacteres seems to be an interesting phylum in the equine microbiota that should receive more attention in future studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230015PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082044PMC
June 2020

Abomasal emptying rate of diarrhoeic and healthy suckling calves fed with oral rehydration solutions.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Mar 13;104(2):462-469. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

The aim of the study was to determine the abomasal emptying rate (AER) of calves suffering from naturally occurring diarrhoea compared with that of healthy calves. Furthermore, the effects of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) mixed into milk replacer on the AER were determined. Acetaminophen absorption test (APAT) was performed to estimate the AER. Sixty Holstein-Frisian calves (age < 14 days) were included in the study and divided into groups as follows: healthy calves (H; n = 16), healthy calves fed with ORS (HORS; n = 14), diarrhoeic calves (D; n = 15) and diarrhoeic calves fed with ORS (DORS; n = 15). For the APAT, the calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing 50 mg acetaminophen (AP)/kg body weight. Venous blood samples were collected before and after milk replacer and AP intake in 30-60 min intervals for 12 hr. During the APAT, no significant differences in median maximum acetaminophen concentration (C ) were observed among all groups. Time to reach maximum acetaminophen concentration (T ) in DORS (median 390 min, 25/75 quartiles: 300/480 min) was significantly higher compared with that in H (median: 270 min 25/75 quartiles: 210/315 min) and HORS (median: 300 min (25/75 quartiles: 240/360 min). Non-linear regression revealed that the calculated abomasal half-life (AP t ) tended to be delayed in DORS (median: 652 min, 25/75 quartiles: 445/795 min, p = .10). The area under the AP curve values (AUC) from 0 to 120 min and 0 to 240 min of the observation period were significantly higher in H than D and DORS. In conclusion, significant differences in the AER indices reflected delayed abomasal emptying in diarrhoeic calves. Furthermore, the hypertonic ORS tended to have an additive delaying impact on the AER, which needs attention for the feeding management of diarrhoeic calves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13306DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract supplementation on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in horses and ponies.

PeerJ 2019 12;7:e8053. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

Background: In horses and ponies numerous medical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation in different tissues, especially in the liver. Besides affecting other metabolic pathways such as the expression of certain interleukins (IL), inflammation is associated with stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In particular, ER stress leads to adaptive stress response and can be measured by several markers of inflammatory and stress signalling pathways, like nuclear factor κB (NF-kB).

Objectives: To investigate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reactions and their modulation in horses and ponies by feeding a polyphenol-rich supplement consisting of green tea and curcuma.

Methods: In a cross-over study, 11 animals were allocated to either a placebo or a supplement group and supplemented with 10 g of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract (GCE) or a placebo (calcium carbonate) once daily. After 21 days of supplementation, all animals underwent a LPS challenge to induce moderate systemic inflammation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken at standardized time points: 24 hours before and 12 hours after LPS challenge. Inflammatory blood parameters such as serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured in serum. Hepatic mRNA levels of selected markers of inflammation such as were quantified by RT-qPCR. In addition, liver biopsies were examined histologically for inflammatory alterations.

Results: Blood markers of acute inflammatory response increased after LPS challenge. In the liver, the proinflammatory cytokine showed significantly lower mRNA levels after LPS challenge in the supplemented group ( = 0.04) compared to the placebo group. Levels of the hepatic mRNA increased significantly in the placebo group ( = 0.04). There were no significant differences between supplemented and placebo groups concerning other markers of inflammation and markers of ER stress within the liver. The number of hepatic macrophages were not different after LPS challenge in both feeding groups.

Conclusion: LPS was able to induce inflammation but seemed less suitable to induce ER stress in the horses and ponies. The polyphenol-rich supplement showed some potential to reduce inflammatory responses. Nevertheless, the supplementation did not exert an overall anti-inflammatory effect in horses and ponies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857679PMC
November 2019

Impact of body weight gain on hepatic metabolism and hepatic inflammatory cytokines in comparison of Shetland pony geldings and Warmblood horse geldings.

PeerJ 2019 7;7:e7069. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Leipzig University, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is known as determining part of human obesity. The impact of body weight (BW) gain on liver metabolism has not been extensively investigated yet.

Objectives: To investigate hepatic alterations caused by increasing BW in ponies and horses.

Animals: A total of 19 non-obese equines (10 Shetland ponies, geldings; nine Warmblood horses, geldings).

Methods: Animals received 200% of their metabolizable maintenance energy requirements for 2 years. Serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities and bile acids were analyzed several times during 2 years of hypercaloric diet. Hepatic lipid content and hepatic levels of the interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cluster of differentiation (CD) 68, IL-1β, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid-binding protein 1, chemerin and nuclear factor-κB mRNAs were assessed at the start of the study and after 1 and 2 years of excess energy intake.

Results: The mean (±SD) BW gain recorded during 2 years of excess energy intake was 29.9 ± 19.4% for ponies and 17 ± 6.74% for horses. The hepatic lipid content was not profoundly affected by increasing BW. Levels of the IL-6, TNFα, CD68 and IL-1β mRNAs did not change during BW gain. Levels of the chemerin mRNA increased significantly in both breeds (ponies: = 0.02; horses: = 0.02) in response to BW gain. Significant differences in serum GLDH and AST activities, serum bile acid concentrations and hepatic levels of the LPL mRNA were observed between ponies and horses at the end of the study.

Conclusions: Chemerin might represent an interesting marker for future equine obesity research. Interestingly, steatosis caused by increasing BW may occur later in the development of obesity in equines than in humans. Additionally, the hepatic metabolism exhibits differences between ponies and horses, which may explain in part the greater susceptibility of ponies to obesity-associated metabolic dysregulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6557249PMC
June 2019

Response to letter to editor regarding ECEIM consensus statement on equine metabolic syndrome.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 05 16;33(3):1125-1126. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Equine Clinic, Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524088PMC
May 2019

Lipid classes in adipose tissues and liver differ between Shetland ponies and Warmblood horses.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(3):e0207568. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Fatty acids, as key components of cellular membranes and complex lipids, may play a central role in endocrine signalling and the function of adipose tissue and liver. Thus, the lipid fatty acid composition may play a role in health status in the equine. This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition of different tissues and liver lipid classes by comparing Warmblood horses and Shetland ponies under defined conditions. We hypothesized that ponies show different lipid patterns than horses in adipose tissue, liver and plasma. Six Warmblood horses and six Shetland ponies were housed and fed under identical conditions. Tissue and blood sampling were performed following a standardized protocol. A one-step lipid extraction, methylation and trans-esterification method with subsequent gas chromatography was used to analyse the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of retroperitoneal, mesocolon and subcutaneous adipose tissue, liver and plasma. Fatty acids were grouped according to their degree of saturation and their conjugated double bond into the respective lipid classes. In the adipose tissues, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (n-9 MUFAs) were most present in ponies and horses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), followed by SFAs, were most frequently found in liver tissue and plasma in all animals. Horses, in comparison to ponies, had significantly higher n-6 PUFA levels in all tissues and plasma. In liver tissue, horses had significantly lower hepatic iso-branched-chain fatty acids (iso-BCFAs) than ponies. The hepatic fatty acid composition of selected lipid classes was different between horses and ponies. In the polar PL fraction, horses had low n-9 MUFA and n-3 PUFA contents but higher n-6 PUFA contents than ponies. Furthermore, iso-BCFAs are absent in several hepatic lipid fractions of horses but not ponies. The differences in fatty acid lipid classes between horses and ponies provide key information on the species- and location-specific regulation of FA metabolism, thus affecting health status such as inflammatory responses.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207568PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428305PMC
November 2019

[Impact of nutrition and probiotics on the equine microbiota: current scientific knowledge and legal regulations].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Feb 26;47(1):35-48. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik der Universität Leipzig.

The hindgut microbiota of the horse is a complex structure which can be highly influenced by the diet or nutrients such as starch. For instance, a diet rich in starch promotes the growth of bacteria that can utilize starch and produce lactate while it reduces the growth of fiber fermenting cellulolytic bacteria. Therefore, attempts are made to balance the hindgut microbiota and to minimize the impacts of feeds which are rich in starch such as the supplementation of probiotics. Up to date only different strains of the yeast (SC) are officially registered probiotics for horses in the European Union. However, studies evaluating the impact of SC supplementation in vivo showed equivocal results in the equine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0824-5210DOI Listing
February 2019

ECEIM consensus statement on equine metabolic syndrome.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 Mar 6;33(2):335-349. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Equine Clinic, Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a widely recognized collection of risk factors for endocrinopathic laminitis. The most important of these risk factors is insulin dysregulation (ID). Clinicians and horse owners must recognize the presence of these risk factors so that they can be targeted and controlled to reduce the risk of laminitis attacks. Diagnosis of EMS is based partly on the horse's history and clinical examination findings, and partly on laboratory testing. Several choices of test exist which examine different facets of ID and other related metabolic disturbances. EMS is controlled mainly by dietary strategies and exercise programs that aim to improve insulin regulation and decrease obesity where present. In some cases, pharmacologic aids might be useful. Management of an EMS case is a long-term strategy requiring diligence and discipline by the horse's carer and support and guidance from their veterinarians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430910PMC
March 2019

Comparison of incisional complications between skin closures using a simple continuous or intradermal pattern: a pilot study in horses undergoing ventral median celiotomy.

PeerJ 2018 9;6:e5772. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department for Horses, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Development of incisional complications following ventral median celiotomy might depend on suture pattern for skin closure.

Methods: In this prospective study, 21 healthy male horses underwent celiotomy. Skin closure was either performed via a continuous percutaneous pattern (CO group; 5 warmbloods/5 ponies) or an intradermal pattern (ID group; 5 warmbloods/6 ponies). Follow-up examination of the incisional site included daily monitoring for edema, dehiscence, and drainage. Transcutaneous ultrasound was performed at Days 3, 6, and 10 as well as on Week 8 and 12 to evaluate size of edema and presence or absence of sinus formation, and hernia formation. Prevalence of incisional infection on base of positive microbiological analysis at any time up to Day 10 was evaluated and compared between ID and CO group. Furthermore, edema size was analysed by a linear mixed-effect model for group and time dependency.

Results: Observed incisional complications included edema (9/10 in CO, 10/11 in ID), suture sinus formation (2/10 in CO, 1/11 in ID), surgical site infection (2/10 in CO, 0/11 in ID), and incisional hernia (1/10 in CO, 0/11 in ID). The overall prevalence of incisional infection was 9.5% without significant differences between both groups (20% in CO, 0% in ID; = 0.214). Edema size was not dependent on time or group ( = 0.545 and = 0.627, respectively).

Discussion: CO and ID suture pattern are appropriate for skin closure following ventral median celiotomy in horses. None of the animals in the continuous ID group developed surgical site infections, even without the use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231425PMC
November 2018

Diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose as a screening test for equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in weanling foals.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Apr 13;60(1):24. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is an important cause of morbidity in weanling foals. Many foals are asymptomatic, and the development of an inexpensive screening test to ensure an early diagnosis is desirable. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose for diagnosis of EGUS in weanling foals.

Results: 45 foals were studied 7 days before and 14 days after weaning. The diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose for diagnosis of gastric lesions (GL); glandular lesions (GDL); squamous lesions (SQL) and clinically significant gastric lesions (CSL) at 45 and 90 min after administration of 1 g/kg of sucrose via nasogastric intubation was assessed using ROC curves and calculating the AUC. For each lesion type, sucrose concentration in blood was compared to gastroscopy; and sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were calculated across a range of sucrose concentrations. Cut-off values were selected manually to optimize Se. Because of concerns over the validity of the gold standard, additional Se, Sp, and lesion prevalence data were subsequently estimated and compared using Bayesian latent class analysis. Using the frequentist approach, the prevalence of GL; GDL; SQL and CSL before weaning was 21; 9; 7 and 8% respectively; and increased to 98; 59; 97 and 82% respectively after weaning. At the selected cut-off, Se ranged from 84 to 95% and Sp ranged from 47 to 71%, depending upon the lesion type and time of sampling. In comparison, estimates of Se and Sp were consistently higher when using a Bayesian approach, with Se ranging from 81 to 97%; and Sp ranging from 77 to 97%, depending upon the lesion type and time of sampling.

Conclusions: Blood sucrose is a sensitive test for detecting EGUS in weanling foals. Due to its poor specificity, it is not expected that the sucrose blood test will replace gastroscopy, however it may represent a clinically useful screening test to identify foals that may benefit from gastroscopy. Bayesian latent class analysis represents an alternative method to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the blood sucrose test in an attempt to avoid bias associated with the assumption that gastroscopy is a perfect test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-018-0377-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5899374PMC
April 2018

Determination of lipid profiles in serum of obese ponies before and after weight reduction by using multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Apr 21;117:111-117. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, University of Leipzig, An den Tierklinken 9, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Obesity is a key component of equine metabolic syndrome, which is highly associated with laminitis. Feed restriction and/or exercise are known to alleviate the detrimental effects of insulin resistance in obese ponies. However, little is known about changes in the serum lipid patterns due to weight reduction and its association with disease outcomes. Therefore, the lipid patterns in the serum of 14 mature ponies before and after a 14-week body weight reduction program (BWRP) were investigated by multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (MOD-TLC). Additionally, sensitivity to insulin (SI), body condition scores (BCS) and cresty neck scores (CNS) were measured. A BWRP resulted in a significant loss of body weight (P<0.001), which was associated with beneficial decreases in BCS and CNS (both, P<0.001). Serum lipid compositions revealed significantly increased free fatty acid (FFA), sphingomyelin (SM; both P<0.001), total cholesterol (C) and cholesterol ester (CE) (both P<0.01) and triacylglycerol (TG; P<0.05) densities. Improvement of SI after the BWRP was associated with increases in neutral lipids (C, CE and TG, all P<0.01), FFA and the phospholipid SM (both, P<0.001). The results show that a BWRP in obese ponies was effective and associated with changes in the concentrations of neutral lipids and the phospholipid SM, indicating that SM may play a role in insulin signaling pathways and thus in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the progression of metabolic syndrome in obese ponies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.11.013DOI Listing
April 2018

Measurement of abomasal conditions (pH, pressure and temperature) in healthy and diarrheic dairy calves using a wireless ambulatory capsule.

Livest Sci 2017 Sep 23;203:41-47. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, An den Tierkliniken 9, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

This study investigated abomasal luminal parameters in healthy and diarrheic calves by using a wireless ambulatory capsule (WAC). The acetaminophen absorption test (APAT) was used to determine abomasal emptying rate. Four healthy and five diarrheic female Holstein-Friesian calves (age < 14 days) were included in the study. For APAT, calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing 50 mg acetaminophen/kg body weight, and blood samples were taken during a 12-h period afterward. Concomitantly, a WAC in the abomasum continuously measured luminal pH, pressure, and temperature. Five hours post suckling, intraluminal temperature was significantly higher in diarrheic calves than in healthy calves. Abomasal pH and pressure were not significantly different, but intraluminal pressure was always numerically lower in diarrheic calves. During APAT no significant differences in maximum acetaminophen concentrations (C) and time to reach maximum acetaminophen concentration (T) were observed. Nonlinear regression findings revealed a longer acetaminophen half-time (AAP t) in diarrheic calves compared to healthy calves [564 ± 96 min vs. 393 ± 84 min, respectively; = 0.04] and lower area under the concentration curve values (e.g., 60 min postprandial AUC 681 ± 244 (µg∙min)/mL vs. 1064 ± 23 (µg∙min)/mL, respectively; = 0.04). In conclusion, abomasal luminal conditions were different between diarrheic and healthy calves. Significant differences in APAT reflected a delay in abomasal emptying in diarrheic calves. Impaired abomasal movement may induce enhanced bacterial fermentation processes as indicated by a higher abomasal temperature in diarrheic calves, which should be considered in management of their feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102753PMC
September 2017

[Evaluation of nutritional characteristics of commercial canned cat diets].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Aug 2;45(4):219-225. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

PD Dr. med. vet. Ingrid Vervuert, Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik, der Universität Leipzig, An den Tierklinken 9, 04103 Leipzig, E-Mail:

Objective: To evaluate commercial complete canned cat foods according to their composition, labeling and nutritional characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A total of 21 commercial complete canned compound feeds for adult cats were analyzed for crude nutrients, minerals, vitamins, selected amino acids and taurine. The analyzed parameters were compared to the internal set of standards of the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF). The energy content was calculated and compared with the labeled recommendations regarding the amounts of diet that should be fed. Analyzed nutrients were compared with the labeled nutrients according to the regulations of the EU food and feed law (directive EU regulation 767/2009).

Results: In many cases, the labeled feeding protocols did not match the calculated daily energy requirements. In eight complete foods, the recommended daily feed amounts were underestimated and four recommendations exceeded energy requirements of adult cats. In 12 complete foods, the calcium and phosphorus contents were threefold higher than the respective requirement. In 16 of 21 complete foods, substantial discrepancies were observed between the recommendations and the analyzed trace elements. In particular, selenium contents exceeded the selenium requirement more than threefold. The vitamin, arginine and taurine contents showed no significant discrepancies to the recommendations. With respect to the labeled nutrients, there were only minor deviations from the regulations of the European law.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: In general, healthy adult cats are adequately supplied with energy and nutrients when feeding commercial canned complete diets for cats. In cases of body weight loss or gain, the labelled feed amounts should be questioned. The high phosphorus contents are an issue of concern, because a high phosphorus intake can potentially increase the risk for urinary stones and particularly for older cats the risk for renal insufficiency. Furthermore, it is recommended to decrease the high selenium levels by the reduction of selenium-rich feed materials such as offal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15654/TPK-170029DOI Listing
August 2017

Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Jun 14;12(1):110. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses. We hypothesized that feeding a high proportion of fine alfalfa particles would negatively impact gastric mucosa and that feeding long alfalfa chaff would improve gastric mucosal health in weanlings.

Results: Before weaning, the prevalence of gastric mucosa lesions (one or more lesions considering all locations in the stomach) was 84.3 %; at 14 days after weaning, it was almost 100 %. Before and after weaning, most of the lesions were found at the greater curvature of the squamous mucosa and at the lesser curvature. After weaning, gastric mucosal lesions at the pylorus were significantly more severe in the group fed alfalfa chaff (p = 0.002). In the other regions, no differences related to the feeding regimes were observed.

Conclusions: Feeding alfalfa failed to improve gastric mucosal lesion scores in weanlings. Furthermore, foals fed alfalfa chaff had higher lesion scores at the pylorus. Alfalfa leaves contain a superior protein source and high amounts of calcium and magnesium, providing extra nutritional advantages in growing horses. At this time, either traditional grass hay rations or grass hay with alfalfa pellets can be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0733-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908680PMC
June 2016

[Effects of a supplementation on sodium chloride or ammonium chloride on urolithic potential in the rabbit].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2016 Aug 14;44(4):252-9. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

PD Dr. med. vet. Ingrid Vervuert, Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik der Universität Leipzig, An den Tierklinken 9, 04103 Leipzig, E-Mail:

Aim: Reduction of urolithic potential by means of increased water intake and urine dilution through supplementation of sodium chloride (NaCl) or decrease of urine pH by supplementation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in rabbits.

Materials And Methods: Sixteen female, 6-month-old dwarf rabbits received the following three feeding regimens in a random order: complete feed without supplements = control; complete feed + 10 g NaCl/kg feed = NaCl; complete feed + 2.5 g NH4Cl/kg feed = NH4Cl. The diets were fed ad libitum over a period of 27 days without roughage. Water was provided ad libitum by a drinker. A 14-day wash-out-period (hay feeding) was performed between the different diets. Blood, faeces, and urine were collected at the beginning of each feeding period, after 21-day adaptation to the respective diet, and after the 3-day collection period. The following parameters were analysed: water and food intake as well as acid-base balance and mineral content in blood, urine, and faeces.

Results: NaCl supplementation numerically increased the daily water intake from 40.5 ± 14.4 ml/kg body weight (BW) (control) up to 49.5 ± 14.3 ml/kg BW and significantly increased the daily urine volume from 16.9 ± 7.8 ml/kg BW (control group) to 21.1 ± 7.4 ml/kg BW. The specific gravity of urine samples from NaCl supplementation decreased from 1.060 ± 0.008 to 1.044 ± 0.008. NH4Cl supplementation did not induce significant changes in urine pH, blood acid-base parameters, or calcium retention. Relative supersaturations (RSS) for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate showed no significant changes after treatment. RSS for struvite increased from 360 ± 735 (after hay feeding) to 3312 ± 6188 on control feeding, 2910 ± 4913 with NaCl supplementation, and 3022 ± 6635 with NH4Cl supplementation (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: NaCl supplementation significantly increased the urine volume and decreased its specific gravity. Therefore, NaCl supplementation might be an additional dietary treatment to increase the elimination of urine crystals in rabbits. NH4Cl supplementation did not induce acidification of the urine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15654/TPK-151071DOI Listing
August 2016

Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

Mycotoxin Res 2015 Nov 30;31(4):209-16. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierklinken 9, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-015-0234-6DOI Listing
November 2015

Development of intestinal microflora and occurrence of diarrhoea in sucking foals: effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation.

BMC Vet Res 2015 Feb 14;11:34. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Almost all foals develop transient diarrhoea within the first weeks of life. Studies indicated different viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes, such as rotavirus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium are discussed. But little is known about the development of intestinal microflora in foals. The present study investigated whether the supplementation with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi would modify the developing intestinal microflora and consequently reduce diarrhoea in foals. From birth, the foals were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: placebo (10 mL isotonic NaCl, n = 8), low dosage (LD; 5 × 10(8) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 7) and high dosage (HD; 2 × 10(9) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 10). Treatment groups were supplemented orally once a day for 58 days. Faeces scoring and sampling were performed within the first 24 h after birth and on day 9, 16, 23, 30, 44, 58 of the foal's life and also on the first day of diarrhoea. Culture-plate methods were used to analyse the bacterial microflora.

Results: Eighty-eight per cent of the foals developed diarrhoea (placebo 7/8, LD 5/7, HD 10/10) during the first 58 days of life. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation had no effect on bacterial microflora. Clostridium perfringens and enterobacteria were equally prevalent in foals with diarrhoea and those who were not afflicted.

Conclusions: We conclude that the supplementation of B. cereus var. toyoi had no effect on the occurrence of diarrhoea and health status in the foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0355-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333172PMC
February 2015

Insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to a second meal of a fibre- or starch-enriched compound feed in healthy horses.

Vet J 2015 May 3;204(2):220-2. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 9, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a second meal of a fibre- or starch-enriched compound feed on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy horses. In a cross-over design, horses were fed either a starch-enriched compound feed (SCF) or a fibre-enriched compound feed (FCF). On days of blood collection, test diets were fed in the morning (0800 h, first meal) and a second meal was fed 510 min after the first meal was finished (second meal). Significantly higher glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with SCF compared with FCF. Feeding FCF for the second meal yielded similar moderate glycaemic and insulinaemic responses compared with the first meal. Feeding SCF as a second meal yielded significantly reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses from the first meal. In practice, evaluating glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of a single meal may not sufficiently describe the overall impact if more than one meal is fed per day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.01.027DOI Listing
May 2015

Effects of selenium supplementation on selenium status of farmed fallow deer in outdoor pens.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2015 Jan;29:216-21

The study investigated the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation on Se status in farmed fallow deer. Fallow deer were housed on grass pasture and adapted to consume ∼200 g of pelleted grain daily. Animals were divided into two groups. One group received pelleted grain enriched with sodium selenate for 12 weeks (Se+ group, N = 10). Se intake for the first 7 weeks was 0.18 mg/kg dry matter (DM) and 0.32 mg/kg DM for the subsequent 5 weeks. The control group was fed pelleted grain without extra Se (Se− group, N = 9, 0.06-0.08 mg/kg DM). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the experiment. After the animals were slaughtered, tissue samples were collected for analysis of Se concentrations and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity. In addition, Se-independent α-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST) activity was analyzed in liver tissue. Se supplementation significantly increased Se levels in plasma and in tissues as follows: liver > spleen > skeletal muscle > myocardium > kidney. Se supplementation also significantly increased GPx1 activity in tissues in the following order: liver > skeletal muscle > spleen = myocardium > kidneys. However, hepatic α-GST activity did not differ between Se+ and Se− groups. As expected, Se supplementation increased blood and tissue Se concentrations and GPx1 activity, which suggests a better antioxidant status. However, the activity of α-GST, an important Se-independent antioxidant enzyme, was not altered, presumably because GPx provided an adequate antioxidant capacity even though Se intake was low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.10.006DOI Listing
January 2015

The influence of gluten on clinical and immunological status of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

J Med Primatol 2013 Dec 25;42(6):300-9. Epub 2013 May 25.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are susceptible to gastrointestinal diseases. Sensitivity to nutritional elements, for example gluten, has been suggested, but a serological screening has not been performed yet.

Methods: A gluten-containing diet was offered to 24 animals, followed by a gluten-free diet. During these diets, serum IgA antibodies to gliadin (AGA), tissue transglutaminase (tTG), deamidated gliadin (ADGA), and glycoprotein 2 (AGP2A) were determined. Body weight, diarrhea, and other clinical symptoms were recorded.

Results: Gluten increased AGA, tTG, and AGP2A concentrations in 13 of 24 animals. A significant decline of AGA and AGP2A was seen on gluten withdrawal. Positive (AGA, tTG) animals presented diarrhea more frequently on gluten-containing diet and showed significantly increased body weight on gluten-free diet compared to negative animals.

Conclusion: Gluten ingestion caused gastrointestinal symptoms in common marmosets, which disappeared on gluten withdrawal. Considering the immunological response to both diets, gluten sensitivity seems to be most likely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12055DOI Listing
December 2013

Long-term effects of intermittent equine parathyroid hormone fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in healthy horses.

Vet J 2011 Nov 9;190(2):e130-e134. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Gustav-Kuehn-Str. 8, 04159 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an anabolic therapy for osteoporotic conditions in humans. This study evaluated the effects of equine PTH fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in 12 healthy horses. Six horses each were treated once daily for 120days with subcutaneous injections of 0.5μg/kg ePTH-1-37 or placebo. Blood was collected to determine ionized calcium (Ca(++)), total Ca (Ca(T)), inorganic phosphorus, serum equine osteocalcin (eOC), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry of the metacarpus and calcaneus. Significantly higher blood Ca(++) and plasma Ca(T) concentrations were measured 5h after ePTH-1-37 administration compared to placebo. Higher serum eOC concentrations were found for ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 90 (P<0.05) and 120 (P=0.05). Significantly higher serum ICTP levels were observed with ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 60 and 90. For both study groups, BMD increased significantly in the calcaneus. Long-term use of ePTH-1-37 seemed to have no negative effects on bone metabolism in healthy horses. The absence of undesirable side effects is the premise to ensure safety for further clinical investigations in horses with increased bone resorption processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.12.032DOI Listing
November 2011

Short-term effects of a moderate fish oil or soybean oil supplementation on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy horses.

Vet J 2010 May 23;184(2):162-6. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04159 Leipzig, Germany.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fat supplementation on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses fed a corn meal. Four horses were fed three different diets: (1) cracked corn (CC), (2) cracked corn with soybean oil (CC+SBO), and (3) cracked corn with fish oil (CC+FO). Each diet was adjusted so there was a starch intake of 2 g/kg bodyweight (BW) and an intake of 0.2 mL/kg BW of FO and SBO. The increases in mean plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, peak values, and areas under the curve were similar for all diets (time P<0.05, diet not significant). The addition of FO or SBO at 0.2 mL/kg BW to a starchy meal did not affect acute glucose and insulin responses. To avoid high postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses feeding strategies should be designed primarily to reduce starch intake rather than the addition of fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.01.013DOI Listing
May 2010