Publications by authors named "Ingrid Titzler"

11 Publications

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Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY: Study Protocol of a Multicenter Blended Outpatient Psychotherapy Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial for Patients With Depressive and Anxiety Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:660534. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) and their integration into routine psychotherapy (i.e., blended therapy) can offer a means of complementing psychotherapy in a flexible and resource optimized way. The present study will evaluate the non-inferiority, cost-effectiveness, and safety of two versions of integrated blended psychotherapy for depression and anxiety compared to standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A three-armed multicenter cluster-randomized controlled non-inferiority trial will be conducted comparing two implementations of blended psychotherapy (PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY) compared to CBT. Seventy-five outpatient psychotherapists with a CBT-license will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio. Each of them is asked to include 12 patients on average with depressive or anxiety disorders resulting in a total sample size of = 900. All patients receive up to a maximum of 16 psychotherapy sessions, either as routine CBT or alternating with Online self-help sessions (fix: 8/8; flex: 0-16). Assessments will be conducted at patient study inclusion (pre-treatment) and 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks and 12 months post-inclusion. The primary outcome is depression and anxiety severity at 18 weeks post-inclusion (post-treatment) using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are depression and anxiety remission, treatment response, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction, working alliance, psychotherapy adherence, and patient safety. Additionally, several potential moderators and mediators including patient characteristics and attitudes toward the interventions will be examined, complemented by ecological day-to-day digital behavior variables via passive smartphone sensing as part of an integrated smart-sensing sub-study. Data-analysis will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis with additional per-protocol analyses. In addition, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be conducted from a societal and a public health care perspective. Additionally, qualitative interviews on acceptance, feasibility, and optimization potential will be conducted and analyzed. PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY will provide evidence on blended psychotherapy in one of the largest ever conducted psychotherapy trials. If shown to be non-inferior and cost-effective, PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY has the potential to innovate psychotherapy in the near future by extending the ways of conducting psychotherapy. The rigorous health care services approach will facilitate a timely implementation of blended psychotherapy into standard care. The trial is registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00023973; date of registration: December 28th 2020).
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May 2021

Tailored implementation of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy in the multinational context of the ImpleMentAll project: a study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial.

Trials 2020 Oct 28;21(1):893. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

University Medical Center Groningen, Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT) is found effective in treating common mental disorders. However, the use of these interventions in routine care is limited. The international ImpleMentAll study is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 programme. It is concerned with studying and improving methods for implementing evidence-based iCBT services for common mental disorders in routine mental health care. A digitally accessible implementation toolkit (ItFits-toolkit) will be introduced to mental health care organizations with the aim to facilitate the ongoing implementation of iCBT services within local contexts. This study investigates the effectiveness of the ItFits-toolkit by comparing it to implementation-as-usual activities.

Methods: A stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (SWT) design will be applied. Over a trial period of 30 months, the ItFits-toolkit will be introduced sequentially in twelve routine mental health care organizations in primary and specialist care across nine countries in Europe and Australia. Repeated measures are applied to assess change over time in the outcome variables. The effectiveness of the ItFits-toolkit will be assessed in terms of the degree of normalization of the use of the iCBT services. Several exploratory outcomes including uptake of the iCBT services will be measured to feed the interpretation of the primary outcome. Data will be collected via a centralized data collection system and analysed using generalized linear mixed modelling. A qualitative process evaluation of routine implementation activities and the use of the ItFits-toolkit will be conducted within this study.

Discussion: The ImpleMentAll study is a large-scale international research project designed to study the effectiveness of tailored implementation. Using a SWT design that allows to examine change over time, this study will investigate the effect of tailored implementation on the normalization of the use of iCBT services and their uptake. It will provide a better understanding of the process and methods of tailoring implementation strategies. If found effective, the ItFits-toolkit will be made accessible for mental health care service providers, to help them overcome their context-specific implementation challenges.

Trial Registration: NCT03652883 . Retrospectively registered on 29 August 2018.
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October 2020

Effectiveness of guided internet-based interventions in the indicated prevention of depression in green professions (PROD-A): Results of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 15;278:658-671. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has a major impact on public health. Reduction of depression burden in general population is of greatest importance and might be achieved by implementation of depression prevention measures into routine care. We evaluate an online prevention measure as part of a national project aiming to reduce depression in the occupational group of green professions.

Methods: This two-armed pragmatic RCT (n = 360) evaluates the effectiveness of a tailored internet-based intervention (IMI) program compared to enhanced treatment as usual. The IMI program entailed access to one of six guided IMIs each focusing on different symptom areas (depressive mood with optional comorbid diabetes, perceived stress, insomnia, panic and agoraphobia and harmful alcohol consumption). Eligible were entrepreneurs, spouses, family members and pensioners in green professions with adequate insurance status and at least subthreshold depression (PHQ≥5). Primary outcome was depressive symptom severity (QIDS-SR16) at 9-weeks post-treatment (T1). Various secondary outcomes were assessed at T1.

Results: A small effect of depression reduction (d=-0.28, 95%-CI: -0.50 to -0.07) was found at T1 favouring the IMI program (β=-0.22, 95%-CI: -0.41 to -0.02, p=.033). Categorical analysis indicated a reduced risk of potential MDD with NNTB=28.11. Adherence to the IMI program at T1 was exceptionally low.

Limitations: Results are limited to green professions and representativeness might be restricted by self-selection of participants.

Conclusion: Depression burden in green professions can be reduced by this online prevention measure. Yet, short-term effectiveness is restricted by low adherence rates.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014000. Registered: 09 April 2018.
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January 2021

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of a guided internet-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to improve chronic pain-related disability in green professions (PACT-A): study protocol of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 09 3;10(9):e034271. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Introduction: Chronic pain is highly prevalent, associated with substantial personal and economic burdens, and increased risk for mental disorders. Individuals in green professions (agriculturists, horticulturists, foresters) show increased prevalence of chronic pain and other risk factors for mental disorders. Available healthcare services in rural areas are limited. Acceptance towards face-to-face therapy is low. Internet and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) might be a promising alternative for this population and may enable effective treatment of chronic pain. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an ACT-based IMI for chronic pain in green professions in comparison with enhanced treatment as usual (TAU+).

Methods And Analysis: A two-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Two hundred eighty-six participants will be randomised and allocated to either an intervention or TAU+ group. Entrepreneurs in green professions, collaborating spouses, family members and pensioners with chronic pain are eligible for inclusion. The intervention group receives an internet-based intervention based on ACT (7 modules, over 7 weeks) guided by a trained e-coach to support adherence (eg, by positive reinforcement). Primary outcome is pain interference (Multidimensional Pain Interference scale; MPI) at 9 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are depression severity (Quick Inventory Depressive Symptomology; QIDS-SR16), incidence of major depressive disorder, quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life; AQoL-8D) and possible side effects associated with the treatment (Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy; INEP). Psychological flexibility (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Committed Action Questionnaire, Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire) will be evaluated as a potential mediator of the treatment effect. Furthermore, mediation, moderation and health-economic analyses from a societal perspective will be performed. Outcomes will be measured using online self-report questionnaires at baseline, 9-week, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month and 36-month follow-ups.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Ulm, Germany (file no. 453/17-FSt/Sta; 22 February 2018). Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences.

Trial Registration Number: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014619. Registered on 16 April 2018.
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September 2020

Implementing internet- and tele-based interventions to prevent mental health disorders in farmers, foresters and gardeners (ImplementIT): study protocol for the multi-level evaluation of a nationwide project.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 08 27;20(1):424. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Farmers are a vulnerable population for developing depression or other mental health disorders due to a variety of risk factors in their work context. Beyond face-to-face resources, preventive internet- and tele-based interventions could extend available treatment options to overcome barriers to care. The German Social Insurance Company for Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture (SVLFG) implements several guided internet- and mobile-based interventions and personalised tele-based coaching for this specific target group provided by external companies within a nation-wide prevention project for their insured members. The current study aims to evaluate the implementation process and to identify determinants of successful implementation on various individual and organisational levels.

Methods: The current study includes two groups of participants: 1) insured persons with an observable need for prevention services, and 2) staff-participants who are involved in the implementation process. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) will be used to track and evaluate the implementation process. A mixed-method approach will provide insights on individual and organizational level (e.g. degree of normalization, readiness for change) and helps to identify determinants of successful implementation. In-depth insights on experiences of the participants (e.g. acceptance, satisfaction, barriers and facilitating factors of intervention use) will be yielded through qualitative interviews. Focus groups with field workers provide insights into barriers and facilitators perceived during their consultations. Furthermore, intervention as well as implementation costs will be evaluated. According to the stepwise, national rollout, data collection will occur at baseline and continuously across 24 months.

Discussion: The results will show to what extent the implementation of the internet- and tele-based services as a preventive offer will be accepted by the participants and involved employees and which critical implementation aspects will occur within the process. If the implementation of the internet- and tele-based services succeeds, these services may be feasible in the long-term.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00017078 . Registered on 18.04.2019.
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August 2020

Barriers and Facilitators for Referrals of Primary Care Patients to Blended Internet-Based Psychotherapy for Depression: Mixed Methods Study of General Practitioners' Views.

JMIR Ment Health 2020 Aug 18;7(8):e18642. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and often managed by general practitioners (GPs). GPs mostly prescribe medication and show low referral rates to psychotherapy. Many patients remain untreated. Blended psychotherapy (bPT) combines internet-based interventions with face-to-face psychotherapy and could increase treatment access and availability. Effectively implementing bPT in routine care requires an understanding of professional users' perspectives and behavior.

Objective: This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators perceived by GPs in referring patients to bPT. Explanations for variations in referral rates were examined.

Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 of 110 GPs participating in a German randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate barriers to and facilitators for referrals to bPT for MDD (10 web-based modules, app-based assessments, and 6 face-to-face sessions). The interview guide was based on the theoretical domains framework. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the qualitative content was analyzed by 2 independent coders (intercoder agreement, k=0.71). A follow-up survey with 12 interviewed GPs enabled the validation of emergent themes. The differences in the barriers and facilitators identified between groups with different characteristics (eg, GPs with high or low referral rates) were described. Correlations between referrals and characteristics, self-rated competences, and experiences managing depression of the RCT-GPs (n=76) were conducted.

Results: GPs referred few patients to bPT, although varied in their referral rates, and interviewees referred more than twice as many patients as RCT-GPs (interview-GPs: mean 6.34, SD 9.42; RCT-GPs: mean 2.65, SD 3.92). A negative correlation was found between GPs' referrals and their self-rated pharmacotherapeutic competence, r(73)=-0.31, P<.001. The qualitative findings revealed a total of 19 barriers (B) and 29 facilitators (F), at the levels of GP (B=4 and F=11), patient (B=11 and F=9), GP practice (B=1 and F=3), and sociopolitical circumstances (B=3 and F=6). Key barriers stated by all interviewed GPs included "little knowledge about internet-based interventions" and "patients' lack of familiarity with technology/internet/media" (number of statements, each k=22). Key facilitators were "perceived patient suitability, e.g. well-educated, young" (k=22) and "no conflict with GP's role" (k=16). The follow-up survey showed a very high agreement rate of at least 75% for 71% (34/48) of the identified themes. Descriptive findings indicated differences between GPs with low and high referral rates in terms of which and how many barriers (low: mean 9.75, SD 1.83; high: mean 10.50, SD 2.38) and facilitators (low: mean 18.25, SD 4.13; high: mean 21.00; SD 3.92) they mentioned.

Conclusions: This study provides insights into factors influencing GPs' referrals to bPT as gatekeepers to depression care. Barriers and facilitators should be considered when designing implementation strategies to enhance referral rates. The findings should be interpreted with care because of the small and self-selected sample and low response rates.
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August 2020

Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of Personalized Tele-Based Coaching for Farmers, Foresters and Gardeners to Prevent Depression: Study Protocol of an 18-Month Follow-Up Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial (TEC-A).

Front Psychiatry 2020 4;11:125. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Farmers show high levels of depressive symptoms and mental health problems in various studies. This study is part of a nationwide prevention project carried out by a German social insurance company for farmers, foresters, and gardeners (SVLFG) to implement internet- and tele-based services among others to improve mental health in this population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness of personalized tele-based coaching for reducing depressive symptom severity and preventing the onset of clinical depression, compared to enhanced treatment as usual. In a two-armed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial ( = 312) with follow-ups at post-treatment (6 months), 12 and 18 months, insured farmers, foresters, and gardeners, collaborating family members and pensioners with elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) will be randomly allocated to personalized tele-based coaching or enhanced treatment as usual. The coaching is provided by psychologists and consists of up to 34 tele-based sessions for 25-50 min delivered over 6 months. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity at post-treatment. Secondary outcomes include depression onset, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. A health-economic evaluation will be conducted from a societal perspective. This study is the first pragmatic randomized controlled trial evaluating the (cost-)effectiveness of a nationwide tele-based preventive service for farmers. If proven effective, the implementation of personalized tele-based coaching has the potential to reduce disease burden and health care costs both at an individual and societal level. German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00015655.
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March 2020

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of guided internet-based interventions in the indicated prevention of depression in green professions (PROD-A): study protocol of a 36-month follow-up pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 09 9;19(1):278. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: People in green professions are exposed to a variety of risk factors, which could possibly enhance the development of depression. Amongst possible prevention approaches, internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) have been shown to be effective and scalable. However, little is known about the effectiveness in green professions. The aim of the present study is to examine the (cost-)effectiveness of a tailored IMI program for reducing depressive symptoms and preventing the onset of clinical depression compared to enhanced treatment as usual (TAU+).

Methods: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate a tailored and therapeutically guided preventive IMI program in comparison to TAU+ with follow-ups at post-treatment (9 weeks), 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months. Entrepreneurs in green professions, collaborating spouses, family members and pensioners (N = 360) with sufficient insurance status and at least subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) are eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity (QIDS-SR16). Secondary outcomes include incidence of depression (QIDS-SR16), quality of life (AQoL-8D) and negative treatment effects (INEP). A health-economic evaluation will be conducted from a societal perspective. The IMI program is provided by psychologists of an external service company and consists of six guided IMIs (6-8 modules, duration: 6-8 weeks) targeting different symptoms (depressive mood, depressive mood with comorbid diabetes, perceived stress, insomnia, panic and agoraphobic symptoms or harmful alcohol use). Intervention choice depends on a screening of participants' symptoms and individual preferences. The intervention phase is followed by a 12-months consolidating phase with monthly contact to the e-coach.

Discussion: This is the first pragmatic RCT investigating long-term effectiveness of a tailored guided IMI program for depression prevention in green professions. The present trial builds on a large-scale strategy for depression prevention in green professions. The intended implementation of the IMI program with a nationwide rollout has the potential to reduce overall depression burden and associated health care costs in case of given effectiveness.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014000 . Registered on 09 April 2018.
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September 2019

Unraveling the Black Box: Exploring Usage Patterns of a Blended Treatment for Depression in a Multicenter Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2019 Jul 25;6(7):e12707. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Research and Innovation, GGZ inGeest Specialized Mental Health Care, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Blended treatments, combining digital components with face-to-face (FTF) therapy, are starting to find their way into mental health care. Knowledge on how blended treatments should be set up is, however, still limited. To further explore and optimize blended treatment protocols, it is important to obtain a full picture of what actually happens during treatments when applied in routine mental health care.

Objective: The aims of this study were to gain insight into the usage of the different components of a blended cognitive behavioral therapy (bCBT) for depression and reflect on actual engagement as compared with intended application, compare bCBT usage between primary and specialized care, and explore different usage patterns.

Methods: Data used were collected from participants of the European Comparative Effectiveness Research on Internet-Based Depression Treatment project, a European multisite randomized controlled trial comparing bCBT with regular care for depression. Patients were recruited in primary and specialized routine mental health care settings between February 2015 and December 2017. Analyses were performed on the group of participants allocated to the bCBT condition who made use of the Moodbuster platform and for whom data from all blended components were available (n=200). Included patients were from Germany, Poland, the Netherlands, and France; 64.5% (129/200) were female and the average age was 42 years (range 18-74 years).

Results: Overall, there was a large variability in the usage of the blended treatment. A clear distinction between care settings was observed, with longer treatment duration and more FTF sessions in specialized care and a more active and intensive usage of the Web-based component by the patients in primary care. Of the patients who started the bCBT, 89.5% (179/200) also continued with this treatment format. Treatment preference, educational level, and the number of comorbid disorders were associated with bCBT engagement.

Conclusions: Blended treatments can be applied to a group of patients being treated for depression in routine mental health care. Rather than striving for an optimal blend, a more personalized blended care approach seems to be the most suitable. The next step is to gain more insight into the clinical and cost-effectiveness of blended treatments and to further facilitate uptake in routine mental health care.
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July 2019

Barriers and facilitators for the implementation of blended psychotherapy for depression: A qualitative pilot study of therapists' perspective.

Internet Interv 2018 Jun 16;12:150-164. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erlangen, Germany.

Introduction: Blended therapies (BT) combine face-to-face (f2f) sessions with internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). However, the use of blended interventions in routine care is still rare and depends on the acceptance of key health care professionals such as the therapists. Little is yet known about the therapists' perspective on and experiences with blended approaches. The aim of this pilot study was to identify barriers and facilitators, as perceived by psychotherapists, for implementing a blended therapy for depression.

Methods: Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with five therapists, who were part of the German study arm of the FP7-project E-Compared ( All patients ( = 173) were treated in the context of a registered RCT (DRKS00006866) in which the clinical and cost-effectiveness of BT for depression, consisting of ten internet- and mobile-based cognitive behavioral therapy modules and six f2f sessions, was compared to the treatment usually provided by general practitioners. To identify barriers and facilitators an interview guide based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF) was developed. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis by two independent coders.

Results: The results revealed 29 barriers and 33 facilitators, which are hindering or enabling factors on the levels of 'implementation in the health care system', 'therapy', 'therapists' and 'patients'. Key barriers stated by all therapists were 'Limited customizability and autonomy of decisions concerning blending the therapy' (number of statements,  = 44); 'Disease-related contraindications for BT' ( = 25); 'Negative affect was caused by burden through technical problems' ( = 18); 'Limited number of f2f sessions hindered the therapy process'; and 'Establishment of therapeutic alliance was burdened by technical issues' (each  = 15). Key facilitators stated by all therapists were: 'Patients' interest, willingness and motivation to participate' ( = 22); 'Patients' access to online content between f2f sessions and after therapy end' ( = 20); 'Preset structure of IMI-part guided the treatment course of BT' ( = 18); and 'Effective help with BT in a short time frame' ( = 15), as well as 'Reduction of the treatment gap' ( = 13).

Discussion: Therapists supported the implementation of BT for depression. Results indicated the consideration of a wide range of determinants: among others, the possibility of individualizing the treatment; the autonomy of decision making in respect to the ratio and number of online and f2f sessions; the necessity of providing training; the need to develop a concept of embedding BT in the health care system and funding the additional effort; and the use of sophisticated technical solutions.
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June 2018

Evaluation of a text-message-based maintenance intervention for Major Depressive Disorder after inpatient cognitive behavioral therapy.

J Affect Disord 2018 02 29;227:305-312. Epub 2017 Oct 29.

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.

Introduction: High relapse rates in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) indicate the need for interventions enhancing the sustainability of treatment outcomes. Primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a text-message-based maintenance intervention for depression (TMMI-D). Additionally, we aimed to clarify whether the use of individualized messages would lead to better outcome than the use of standardized messages which focused upon adaptive ways of regulating undesired emotions.

Methods: In this RCT, 226 individuals who had completed inpatient treatment for MDD were randomly allocated to a condition in which participants received TMMI-D with standardized messages targeting emotion regulation, or to a condition with individualized messages, or to a waitlist control condition. Primary outcome was depressive symptom severity assessed with the BDI-II.

Results: Multilevel analyses suggest that participants receiving TIMMI-D with standardized messages reported a significantly smaller increase of depressive symptoms during the post-treatment and follow-up interval than did patients in the waitlist control condition. Contrastingly, there was no such effect for patients who had used TIMMI-D with individualized messages.

Limitations: Limitations include proportions of missing data, thus, generalizing the findings of the present study might be an overestimation.

Conclusion: Text-message-based interventions may help increase the sustainability of outcome after treatment for MDD. The unexpected superiority of the standardized over the individualized version is in line with research that points to the efficacy of interventions fostering adaptive emotion regulation as a means to treat depression (and other mental disorders).
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February 2018