Publications by authors named "Ingrid Michon"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pilocarpine-Induced Effects on Salivary Secretion as a Pharmacological Biomarker for Cholinergic Parasympathetic Activation.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Development, Astellas Pharma Europe B.V. Leiden, The Netherlands.

Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion could serve as a nontherapeutic target engagement biomarker in a clinical setting to test the activity of an M3 positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The potentiating effect on the reactivity of the M3 receptor to the agonistic effect of pilocarpine would support the mechanism of action of an M3 PAM in a variety of therapeutic areas. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal pilocarpine dose needed for evaluation of this potentiating effect. Therefore, the effects of pilocarpine on salivary secretion rate and its pharmacokinetics were explored at single doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg of pilocarpine or placebo. The study also explored the test-retest variability of the pilocarpine-induced effects on salivary secretion. Pilocarpine caused a reproducible, dose-related increase in overall and maximum salivary secretion rate, in line with pilocarpine exposure. Oral doses of pilocarpine from 2.5 to 10 mg were safe and well tolerated, consistent with the published safety profile. These results support the use of pilocarpine in single-dose pharmacological challenge studies. The recommended dose for evaluating M3 PAM activity would be between 2.5 and 5 mg, showing a small increase in salivary secretion rate with room for further increase due to PAM activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.1048DOI Listing
November 2021

A Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model Network for the Prediction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 Drug-Drug-Gene Interactions with Fluvoxamine, Omeprazole, S-mephenytoin, Moclobemide, Tizanidine, Mexiletine, Ethinylestradiol, and Caffeine.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Dec 8;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Birkendorfer Str. 65, 88397 Biberach an der Riß, Germany.

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a well-recognized method for quantitatively predicting the effect of intrinsic/extrinsic factors on drug exposure. However, there are only few verified, freely accessible, modifiable, and comprehensive drug-drug interaction (DDI) PBPK models. We developed a qualified whole-body PBPK DDI network for cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 interactions. Template PBPK models were developed for interactions between fluvoxamine, S-mephenytoin, moclobemide, omeprazole, mexiletine, tizanidine, and ethinylestradiol as the perpetrators or victims. Predicted concentration-time profiles accurately described a validation dataset, including data from patients with genetic polymorphisms, demonstrating that the models characterized the CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 network over the whole range of DDI studies investigated. The models are provided on GitHub (GitHub Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA), expanding the library of publicly available qualified whole-body PBPK models for DDI predictions, and they are thereby available to support potential recommendations for dose adaptations, support labeling, inform the design of clinical DDI trials, and potentially waive those.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12121191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764797PMC
December 2020

Investigation of Safety and Tolerability of ASP3652 Based on Clinical Studies of Cerebrospinal Fluid Transfer After Multiple Doses and Exposure After Single Doses at High Dose Levels.

Adv Ther 2020 09 26;37(9):3967-3984. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Astellas Pharma Inc, Ibaraki, Japan.

Introduction: The studies described here were conducted to investigate the central nervous system (CNS) transfer of ASP3652, a peripherally acting inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, after multiple doses at around the anticipated therapeutic dose and the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single doses at corresponding supratherapeutic doses in healthy subjects.

Methods: Study 1 was an open-label multiple dose study in which ASP3652 (300 mg bid) or matching placebo was administered in multiple doses to healthy subjects. Study 2 was a placebo-controlled, randomized 4 × 4 crossover study in which ASP3652 was given as three single ascending doses of ASP3652 (600-1800 mg) or matching placebo to healthy subjects. Levels of ASP3652 and endocannabinoids (eCBs) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (study 1 only), and safety were evaluated.

Results: In study 1, ASP3652 was readily absorbed to reach C at 1 h after dosing. AUC and C of ASP3652 in CSF were approximately 0.2% and 0.06% of the AUC and C in plasma after multiple doses of ASP3652 300 mg bid. At steady state the area under the response-time curve (AURC) from 0 to 12 h and the maximum response for anandamide in plasma were approximately 550-fold and 230-fold higher than those in CSF. In study 2, the C and AUC of ASP3652 increased higher than dose proportionally in subjects receiving 600-1800 mg ASP3652. For eCBs, although the AURC increased less than dose proportionally, maximum plasma levels were comparable across all treatment groups. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar across all treatment groups including the placebo group. There was no evidence of CNS-related side effects.

Conclusions: ASP3652 showed low CNS penetration at the anticipated therapeutic dose and was well tolerable without any CNS-related AEs at supratherapeutic doses, supporting that the drug can be safely tested at the anticipated therapeutic dose.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02034734 for study 1, NCT01815684 for study 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01451-6DOI Listing
September 2020

The Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of ASP3652 in First-in-Human and Ascending Multiple Oral Dose Studies in Healthy Subjects.

Adv Ther 2020 09 17;37(9):3878-3900. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Astellas Pharma Inc., Ibaraki, Japan.

Introduction: Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase the levels of endocannabinoids and have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. ASP3652 is a peripherally acting FAAH inhibitor in development for the treatment of chronic bladder and pelvic pain disorders. Here we describe the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple oral doses of ASP3652 administered in healthy non-elderly and elderly male and female volunteers.

Methods: Study 1 was a combined single-ascending dose and food-effect study in which ASP3652 was given as single doses (1-600 mg) or matching placebo in healthy subjects. Study 2 was a multiple ascending dose study in which ASP3652 or matching placebo was administered in multiple oral doses (10-300 mg bid and 600 mg qd for 14 days) to healthy subjects. In both studies, the levels of ASP3652, FAAH, endocannabinoids (eCBs) and safety were evaluated.

Results: ASP3652 was readily absorbed to reach C at 1 h after a single dose. Steady state was reached within 3 days after the start of multiple dosing. The C and AUC of ASP3652 increased in a slightly more than dose-proportional manner after a single dose of ASP3652 at 30-600 mg. There was some accumulation (15-38%) based on C and AUC upon multiple doses. C was 47% lower in combination with food. There was no significant effect of gender or age on the pharmacokinetics of ASP3652. FAAH activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in all dose groups after single and multiple doses of ASP3652, paralleled by an increase in plasma levels of anandamide (AEA). The incidence of adverse events following multiple doses was similar across all treatment groups including the placebo group.

Conclusions: Single and multiple doses of ASP3652 were safe and well tolerated and increased endogenous cannabinoid plasma levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01402-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Pharmacokinetic analysis of an extended-pulsed fidaxomicin regimen for the treatment of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in patients aged 60 years and older in the EXTEND randomized controlled trial.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 04;75(4):1014-1018

Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne and German Centre for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Fidaxomicin is a recommended treatment for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and reduces CDI recurrence incidence versus vancomycin. An extended-pulsed fidaxomicin (EPFX) regimen further reduces recurrence frequency. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of fidaxomicin in an EPFX regimen is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate plasma and stool concentrations of fidaxomicin and its metabolite, OP-1118, after EPFX administration for CDI.

Methods: In the Phase 3b/4 EXTEND trial, patients aged ≥60 years with toxin-confirmed CDI were randomized to receive EPFX (oral fidaxomicin twice daily, Days 1-5; once daily on alternate days, Days 7-25). Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 concentrations were determined using post-dose plasma samples obtained on Days 5 ± 1, 12 ± 1 and 25/26, and post-dose stool samples obtained on Days 5 ± 1, 12 ± 1 and 26 ± 1.

Results: Plasma samples from 14 patients were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; 12 of these patients provided stool samples. Median (range) plasma concentrations of fidaxomicin on Day 5 ± 1 and Day 25/26 were 0.0252 (0.0038-0.1220) mg/L and 0.0069 (0-0.0887) mg/L, respectively, and those of OP-1118 were 0.0648 (0.0142-0.3250) mg/L and 0.0206 (0-0.3720) mg/L, respectively. Median (range) stool concentrations of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 on Day 26 ± 1 were 272.5 (0-524) mg/kg and 280.5 (0-1120) mg/kg, respectively.

Conclusions: EPFX treatment maintained fidaxomicin stool concentrations above the C. difficile MIC90 until Day 26 ± 1. Systemic exposure to fidaxomicin and OP-1118 was low throughout and there was no evidence of accumulation in plasma or stool during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz549DOI Listing
April 2020

Pharmacokinetics and safety of fidaxomicin in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and Clostridium difficile infection: an open-label Phase IIIb/IV study (PROFILE).

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 12;73(12):3430-3441

Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses an increased risk for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Fidaxomicin has demonstrated non-inferiority to vancomycin for initial clinical cure of CDI in patients without IBD; however, lack of data has caused concerns regarding potential systemic absorption of fidaxomicin in patients with IBD.

Methods: The plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite OP-1118 were evaluated in a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study enrolling patients with active IBD and CDI. Patients received fidaxomicin, 200 mg twice daily for 10 days. The primary and secondary endpoints were, respectively, plasma and stool PK of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 on Days 1, 5 and 10 of treatment. Other secondary endpoints included safety of fidaxomicin treatment (assessed until Day 180). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02437591.

Results: Median Tmax of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 for the PK analysis set (PKAS; 24 patients) was 1-2 h across Days 1, 5 and 10. Cmax ranges were 1.2-154 ng/mL for fidaxomicin and 4.7-555 ng/mL for OP-1118 across Days 1, 5 and 10 (PKAS). The ranges of concentrations in stool were 17.8-2170 μg/g for fidaxomicin and 0-1940 μg/g for OP-1118. Sixty percent (15/25) of patients experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), none of which led to treatment discontinuation or death.

Conclusions: Maximum fidaxomicin and OP-1118 plasma concentrations observed in this study population suggest no increase in absorption, compared with patients without IBD. Incidence of TEAEs was similar to previous Phase III trials, suggesting that fidaxomicin is comparatively well tolerated in patients with IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky368DOI Listing
December 2018

Comparison of the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of fidaxomicin in healthy Japanese and caucasian subjects.

Clin Drug Investig 2015 Jun;35(6):375-84

Astellas Pharma Inc., 2-5-1 Nihonbashi-Honcho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 103-8411, Japan,

Background And Objectives: Fidaxomicin treatment of Clostridium difficile infection is known to produce minimal systemic exposure, as the antibacterial (antibiotic) remains primarily in the gut. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending doses of fidaxomicin were evaluated in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive either fidaxomicin or placebo. Cohort 1 (100 mg) and Cohort 2 (200 mg) comprised 12 Japanese subjects each and Cohort 3 (200 mg) comprised 12 Caucasian subjects. Subjects received a single dose of the study drug on Day 1 and received multiple doses for 10 days after a wash-out period.

Results: After multiple 200 mg dosing of fidaxomicin, both mean maximum plasma concentrations (C max) in Japanese (8.7 ± 5.3 ng/mL) and Caucasian (7.0 ± 3.7 ng/mL) subjects and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were higher in Japanese subjects (58.5 ± 36.7 ng·h/mL) than in Caucasian subjects (37.6 ± 15.7 ng·h/mL), although variation in both groups was large. The mean fecal concentrations of fidaxomicin in Japanese and Caucasian subjects were 2669 and 2181 μg/g, respectively. The possibly study drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (n = 1), feeling hot (n = 1), and hypersomnia (n = 2), which were mild in severity.

Conclusions: In both Japanese and Caucasian subjects, fidaxomicin demonstrated similarly minimal systemic absorption, and was mainly excreted in feces. Fidaxomicin was safe and well-tolerated in all subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-015-0291-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449367PMC
June 2015

IL-15 aggravates atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor deficient mice.

Vaccine 2011 Jan 27;29(5):976-83. Epub 2010 Nov 27.

Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases and IL-15 is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques.

Methods: To establish the role of IL-15 in atherosclerosis we studied the effect of IL-15 on atherosclerosis associated cells in vitro and in vivo by neutralizing IL-15 using a DNA vaccination strategy.

Results: Upon feeding a Western type diet LDLr(-/-) mice do express higher levels of IL-15 within the spleen and the number of IL-15 expressing cells among blood leukocytes and spleen cells is increased. Addition of IL-15 to macrophages induces the expression TNF-α and CCL-2. After the mice were vaccinated against IL-15, we observe a reduction in plaque size of 75% plaque. Unexpectedly, the relative number of macrophages within the plaque was 2-fold higher in IL-15 vaccinated mice than in control mice. Vaccination against IL-15 leads to an increased cytotoxicity against IL-15 overexpressing target cells, resulting in a reduction in IL-15 expressing cells and macrophages in blood and spleen and a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio.

Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia leads to upregulation of IL-15 within spleen and blood. DNA vaccination against IL-15 does markedly reduces atherosclerotic lesion size, but does not promote lesion stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.037DOI Listing
January 2011

Microarray analysis indicates an important role for FABP5 and putative novel FABPs on a Western-type diet.

J Lipid Res 2006 Oct 2;47(10):2198-207. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Liver parenchymal cells play a dominant role in hepatic metabolism and thereby total body cholesterol homeostasis. To gain insight into the specific pathways and genes involved in the response of liver parenchymal cells to increased dietary lipid levels under atherogenic conditions, changes in parenchymal cell gene expression upon feeding a Western-type diet for 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks were determined using microarray analysis in LDL receptor-deficient mice, an established atherosclerotic animal model. Using ABI Mouse Genome Survey Arrays, we were able to detect 7,507 genes (28% of the total number on an array) that were expressed in parenchymal cells isolated from livers of LDL receptor-deficient mice at every time point investigated. Time-dependent gene expression profiling identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) and four novel FABP5-like transcripts located on chromosomes 2, 8, and 18 as important proteins in the primary response of liver parenchymal cells to Western-type diet feeding, because their expression was 16- to 22-fold increased within the first 2 weeks on the Western-type diet. The rapid substantial increase in gene expression suggests that these FABPs may play an important role in the primary protection against the cellular toxicity of cholesterol, free fatty acids, and/or lipid oxidants. Furthermore, as a secondary response to the Western-type diet, liver parenchymal cells of LDL receptor-deficient mice stimulated glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways, resulting in a steady, more atherogenic serum lipoprotein profile (increased VLDL/LDL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M600095-JLR200DOI Listing
October 2006

P-selectin as a candidate target in atherosclerosis.

Biochem Pharmacol 2003 Sep;66(5):859-66

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

P-selectin is of critical importance in early atherogenesis by initiating leukocyte rolling at the site of endothelial injury. In order to validate P-selectin as a candidate target for the development of anti-atherogenic strategies, we wanted to obtain quantitative information on P-selectin expression, and identify novel peptide-based lead structures that interact with P-selectin. P-selectin mRNA expression in the aortic arch and in other tissues of apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice was determined by real-time PCR technology. P-selectin mRNA expression of apoE-/- mice increased steadily with age to levels 14-fold higher than that of control animals. The onset and level of P-selectin expression correlated well with the extent of lesion development, and was more specific for atherosclerotic tissue as compared with other adhesion molecules. Phage display technology was used to obtain novel P-selectin antagonists. Phage display selections resulted in the isolation of a highly P-selectin-specific phage clone. Synthetic peptide-equivalents of this clone displaced the binding of the parent phage and antagonized the binding of a sialyl Lewis(x) analogue to P-selectin. In conclusion, P-selectin expression correlates with early and advanced atherosclerotic lesion development. P-selectin ligands, like the lead structure we have developed here, can therefore be considered as promising tools to identify, target or antagonize P-selectin function within the chronically inflamed arterial wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(03)00387-3DOI Listing
September 2003

Specific inhibition of P-selectin-mediated cell adhesion by phage display-derived peptide antagonists.

Blood 2002 Nov 5;100(10):3570-7. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

P-selectin is a leukocyte adhesion receptor expressed on activated vascular endothelium and platelets that mediates leukocyte rolling and attachment. Because P-selectin is critically involved in inflammation, we used phage display libraries to identify P-selectin-specific peptides that might interfere with its proinflammatory function. Isolated phage contained a highly conserved amino acid motif. Synthetic peptides showed calcium-dependent binding to P-selectin, with high selectivity over E-selectin and L-selectin. The peptides completely antagonized adhesion of monocyte-derived HL60 cells to P-selectin and increased their rolling velocities in flow chamber experiments. Peptide truncation and alanine-scanning studies indicated that an EWVDV (single-letter amino acid codes) consensus motif sufficed for effective inhibition. Intriguingly, the apparent avidity of the peptides was increased 200-fold when presented in a tetrameric form (2 microM versus 10 nM), which is consistent with the proposed divalent interaction of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) with P-selectin. As the EWVDV peptides inhibit the binding of an established glycoside ligand for P-selectin (sulfated Lewis A), it is conceivable that EWVDV interacts with or in close proximity to the actual carbohydrate recognition domain of P-selectin, without being a direct structural mimic of sialyl Lewis(x). These ligands are among the most potent antagonists of P-selectin yet designed. Their high affinity, selectivity, and accessible synthesis provide a promising entry to the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics and might be a powerful tool to provide important information on the binding site of P-selectin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-02-0641DOI Listing
November 2002

Targeting of peptides to restenotic vascular smooth muscle cells using phage display in vitro and in vivo.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2002 Aug;1591(1-3):87-97

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Restenosis after angioplasty occurs in 30-40% of the treated patients. To develop a strategy to deliver drugs to restenotic lesions, we selected phages that bind to proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), from a random constraint 15-mer peptide phage display library. Phages were selected for binding to cultured primary aortic VSMC (in vitro biopanning) and selected for binding to denudated carotid arteries in mice (in vivo biopanning). In vitro biopanning did not result in a consensus sequence, but recurring FLGW and LASR amino acid motifs were identified. In vivo biopanning resulted in two consensus peptides 5G6 (CNIWGVVLSWIGVFPEC) and 5E5 (CESLWGGLMWTIGLSDC). Surprisingly, these two sequences were recovered after both in vitro and in vivo biopanning, but predominantly in vivo. Moreover, a strong recurring motif, IGR, was identified in the in vivo clones. The consensus phages 5G6 and 5E5 bind selectively to VSMC compared to other cell types. Furthermore, they bind preferentially to proliferating VSMC compared to VSMC that were growth arrested, and are effectively internalized by their target cells. The specific binding capacities of 5G6 and 5E5 phages suggest that these peptide sequences can be used for targeting of restenotic lesions, in which proliferating VSMC are the dominant cell type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0167-4889(02)00254-9DOI Listing
August 2002

The effect of TGF-beta receptor binding peptides on smooth muscle cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 May;293(4):1279-86

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

TGF-beta1 is a potent regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. In this study, we selected two peptides, IM-1 and IM-2, that bind to the TGF-beta type II receptor (TGF-beta RII) using phage display. IM-1 and IM-2 bind to the TGF-beta RII, with a K(d) of 1 microM. Like TGF-beta, IM-1 induced VSMC chemotaxis and PAI-1 mRNA expression, as determined using Boyden chambers and real time quantitative PCR. In contrast, IM-2 had no effect on VSMC chemotaxis or PAI-1 induction. Induction of ECM synthesis, involving proteins such as osteopontin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, was determined by ELISA. Osteopontin expression was inhibited by both peptides, but TGF-beta-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin expression could only be inhibited by IM-1. In conclusion, IM-1 activity on VSMC is agonistic with TGF-beta, except for ECM synthesis, whereas the IM-2 peptide is antagonistic for some examined TGF-beta functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00378-9DOI Listing
May 2002

Uptake and processing of modified bacteriophage M13 in mice: implications for phage display.

Virology 2002 Feb;293(1):182-91

Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Sylvius Laboratory, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Internalization and degradation of filamentous bacteriophage M13 by a specific target cell may have major consequences for the recovery of phage in in vivo biopanning of phage libraries. Therefore, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and processing of native and receptor-targeted phage in mice. (35)S-radiolabeled M13 was chemically modified by conjugation of either galactose (lacM13) or succinic acid groups (sucM13) to the coat protein of the phage to stimulate uptake by galactose recognizing hepatic receptors and scavenger receptors, respectively. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of modified phage reduced the plasma half-life of native M13 (t(1/2) = 4.5 h) to 18 min for lactosylated and 1.5 min for succinylated bacterophage. Internalization of sucM13 was complete within 30 min after injection and resulted in up to 5000-fold reduction of bioactive phage within 90 min. In conclusion, these data provide information on the in vivo behavior of wild-type and receptor-targeted M13, which has important implications for future in vivo phage display experiments and for the potential use of M13 as a viral gene delivery vehicle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.2001.1254DOI Listing
February 2002
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