Publications by authors named "Ingrid Corazzari"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antioxidant Activity of Silica-Based Bioactive Glasses.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Torino 10129, Italy.

Bioactive glasses are the materials of choice in the field of bone regeneration. Antioxidant properties of interest to limit inflammation and foreign body reactions have been conferred to bioactive glasses by the addition of appropriate ions (such as Ce or Sr). On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of bioactive glasses without specific ion/molecular doping has been occasionally cited in the literature but never investigated in depth. In the present study, three silica-based bioactive glasses have been developed and characterized for their surface properties (wettability, zeta potential, chemical composition, and reactivity) and radical scavenging activity in the presence/absence of cells. For the first time, the antioxidant activity of simple silica-based (SiO-CaO-NaO) bioactive glasses has been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00048DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of particle size on properties and thermal inertization of bottom ashes (MSW of Turin's incinerator).

Waste Manag 2019 Feb 12;84:340-354. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Earth Sciences Department, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy.

The aim of this study is twofold: (i) characterization of the bottom ashes from the Incinerator plant of the city of Turin (northern Italy), in terms of their chemical/phase compositions and capacity to release heavy metals in leachates, as a function of particle size; (ii) investigation of thermal treatments' efficacy to promote inertization of the same bottom ashes, exploring time-temperature ranges with t ≤ 6 h and T ≤ 1000 °C. Special attention is paid to macro-sampling techniques in order to have samples that are representative of the average bottom ashes production. Micro-XRF, ICP-OES, SEM-EDS, Ion Chromatography and X-ray powder diffraction were used to investigate bottom ashes and leachates. Bottom ashes are mainly constituted by an amorphous phase, ∼66-97 wt%, regardless of particle size; the remaining phases are quartz, calcite, Fe-oxides, melilite and other minor crystalline materials. The amorphous phase exhibits a relevant dependence on particle size, and undergoes dissolution in water up to 20 wt%, thus being the most important component in affecting chemical species release. The smaller the bottom ashes' particle size, the more the heavy metals (major species: Zn, Cu, Ti, Pb) and calcium contents increase, whereas silicon's decreases. Electrolytic current observations in combination with phase/chemical composition and metals release as a function of particle size, suggest that bottom ashes partition into two classes, i.e. ≥1 and <1 mm, for inertization purposes. Thermal treatments exhibit partial efficacy to curb heavy metals mobility: whilst they reduce Cu release, they lead to a inverse effect in the case of Cr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.11.050DOI Listing
February 2019

Surface reactivity of amphibole asbestos: a comparison between crocidolite and tremolite.

Sci Rep 2017 10 31;7(1):14696. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 7, I-10125, Torino, Italy.

Among asbestos minerals, fibrous riebeckite (crocidolite) and tremolite share the amphibole structure but largely differ in terms of their iron content and oxidation state. In asbestos toxicology, iron-generated free radicals are largely held as one of the causes of asbestos malignant effect. With the aim of clarifying i) the relationship between Fe occurrence and asbestos surface reactivity, and ii) how free-radical generation is modulated by surface modifications of the minerals, UICC crocidolite and fibrous tremolite from Maryland were leached from 1 day to 1 month in an oxidative medium buffered at pH 7.4 to induce redox alterations and surface rearrangements that may occur in body fluids. Structural and chemical modifications and free radical generation were monitored by HR-TEM/EDS and spin trapping/EPR spectroscopy, respectively. Free radical yield resulted to be dependent on few specific Fe and Fe surface sites rather than total Fe content. The evolution of reactivity with time highlighted that low-coordinated Fe ions primarily contribute to the overall reactivity of the fibre. Current findings contribute to explain the causes of the severe asbestos-induced oxidative stress at molecular level also for iron-poor amphiboles, and demonstrate that asbestos have a sustained surface radical activity even when highly altered by oxidative leaching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14480-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665974PMC
October 2017

In vitro biocompatibility of a ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic for hyperthermia application.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Apr 23;73:778-787. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Applied Science and Technology Department, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics containing magnetite crystals were developed for hyperthermia applications of solid neoplastic tissue. The present work is focused on in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of these materials, before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and pH measurements were employed in glass-ceramic characterisation. The free-radical mediated reactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin trapping. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests were carried out by using 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was performed by qualitative evaluation of human bone osteosarcoma cells U2OS cell line. The results show that almost two times more 3T3 cells proliferated on the samples pre-treated in SBF, compared with the untreated specimens. Moreover a decrease of confluence was observed at 48 and 72h for U2OS cells exposed to the untreated glass-ceramic, while the powder suspensions of glass-ceramic pre-treated in SBF did not influence the cell morphology up to 72h of exposition. The untreated glass-ceramic exhibited Fenton-like reactivity, as well as reactivity towards formate molecule. After pre-treatment with SBF the reactivity towards formate was completely suppressed. The concentration of iron released into the SBF solution was below 0.1ppm at 37°C, during one month of soaking. The different in vitro behaviour of the samples before and after SBF treatment has been correlated to the bioactive glass-ceramic surface modifications as detected by morphological, structural and compositional analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.12.105DOI Listing
April 2017

Markers of lipid oxidative damage in the exhaled breath condensate of nano TiO production workers.

Nanotoxicology 2017 02 9;11(1):52-63. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

h UMass Lowell, Department of Public Health , College of Health Sciences , Lowell, MA , USA.

Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO) is a commercially important nanomaterial. Animal studies have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Yet, human health data are scarce and quantitative risk assessments and biomonitoring of exposure are lacking. NanoTiO is classified by IARC as a group 2B, possible human carcinogen. In our earlier studies we documented an increase in markers of inflammation, as well as DNA and protein oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed nanoTiO. This study focuses on biomarkers of lipid oxidation. Several established lipid oxidative markers (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal, 8-isoProstaglandin F2α and aldehydes C-C) were studied in EBC and urine of 34 workers and 45 comparable controls. The median particle number concentration in the production line ranged from 1.98 × 10 to 2.32 × 10 particles/cm with ∼80% of the particles <100 nm in diameter. Mass concentration varied between 0.40 and 0.65 mg/m. All 11 markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in production workers relative to the controls (p < 0.001). A significant dose-dependent association was found between exposure to TiO and markers of lipid oxidation in the EBC. These markers were not elevated in the urine samples. Lipid oxidation in the EBC of workers exposed to (nano)TiO complements our earlier findings on DNA and protein damage. These results are consistent with the oxidative stress hypothesis and suggest lung injury at the molecular level. Further studies should focus on clinical markers of potential disease progression. EBC has reemerged as a sensitive technique for noninvasive monitoring of workers exposed to engineered nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2016.1262921DOI Listing
February 2017

Gallic acid grafting modulates the oxidative potential of ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic SC-45.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016 Dec 23;148:592-599. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Magnetite-containing glass-ceramics are promising bio-materials for replacing bone tissue after tumour resection. Thanks to their ferrimagnetic properties, they generate heat when subjected to an alternated magnetic field. In virtue of this they can be employed for the hyperthermic treatment of cancer. Moreover, grafting anti-cancer drugs onto their surface produces specific anti-neoplastic activity in these biomaterials. Gallic acid (GA) exhibits antiproliferative activity which renders it a promising candidate for anticancer applications. In the present paper, the reactivity of ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic SC-45 grafted with GA (SC-45+GA) was studied in terms of ROS release, rupture of the C-H bond of the formate molecule and Fenton reactivity by EPR/spin trapping in acellular systems. The ability of these materials to cause lipid peroxidation was assessed by UV-vis/TBA assay employing linoleic acid as a model of membrane lipid. The results, compared to those obtained with SC-45, showed that GA grafting (i) significantly enhanced the Fenton reactivity and (ii) restored the former reactivity of SC-45 towards both the C-H bond and linoleic acid which had been completely suppressed by prolonged contact with water. Fe centres at the surface are probably implicated. GA, acting as a pro-oxidant, reduces Fe to Fe by maintaining a supply of Fe at the surface of SC-45+GA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.09.034DOI Listing
December 2016

Editor's Highlight: Abrasion of Artificial Stones as a New Cause of an Ancient Disease. Physicochemical Features and Cellular Responses.

Toxicol Sci 2016 09 2;153(1):4-17. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, Turin 10125, Italy "G. Scansetti" Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Asbestos and Other Toxic Particulates, University of Torino, Turin 10125, Italy.

New outbursts of silicosis were recently reported among workers manufacturing an engineered material known as "artificial stone," composed by high percentages of quartz (up to 98%) agglomerated with pigments and polymeric resins. Dusts released by abrasion during artificial stone polishing were characterized for particle size, morphology, and elemental composition and studied for (1) ability to catalyze free radical generation in acellular tests, (2) membranolytic potential on human erythrocytes, (3) cytotoxic activity (lactate dehydrogenase release) on murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines, (4) induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BEAS-2B cells. Min-U-Sil 5 was used as reference quartz. Artificial stone dusts exhibited morphological features close to quartz, but contained larger amount of metal transition ions (mainly, Fe, Cu, and Ti), potentially responsible for the high reactivity in free radical generation observed. Opposite to Min-U-Sil 5, they were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic on MH-S cells, a low cytotoxicity only being observed with BEAS-2B cells. The presence on the particle surface of residues of the resin accounts for this attenuated behavior, as hemolysis appeared and cytotoxicity increased after thermal degradation of the resin, when the free quartz surface was exposed. All dusts induced EMT with loss of E-cadherin expression and increased the expression of mesenchymal proteins (α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin). This may contribute to explain the development of fibrosis on workers exposed to artificial stone dusts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfw101DOI Listing
September 2016

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Tetrafuranylporphyrin-Grafted Reduced-Graphene Oxide.

Chemistry 2016 Jan 7;22(5):1608-13. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Via Giuria 9, 10125, Turin, Italy.

This work describes the design of a modified porphyrin that bears four furan rings linked by 1,2-bis-(2-aminoethoxy)ethane spacers. This unit is a well-suited scaffold for a Diels-Alder reaction with commercial reduced-graphene oxide, which is also described in this paper. A new hybrid material is obtained, thanks to efficient grafting under microwave irradiation, and fully characterized in terms of structure (UV, TGA, Raman) and morphology (HR-TEM and AFM). Potential applications in photo- and sonodynamic therapy are envisaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201503887DOI Listing
January 2016

Free-radical chemistry as a means to evaluate lunar dust health hazard in view of future missions to the moon.

Astrobiology 2015 May 6;15(5):371-80. Epub 2015 May 6.

1Dipartimento di Chimica, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Lunar dust toxicity has to be evaluated in view of future manned missions to the Moon. Previous studies on lunar specimens and simulated dusts have revealed an oxidant activity assigned to HO· release. However, the mechanisms behind the reactivity of lunar dust are still quite unclear at the molecular level. In the present study, a complementary set of tests--including terephthalate (TA) hydroxylation, free radical release as measured by means of the spin-trapping/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, and cell-free lipoperoxidation--is proposed to investigate the reactions induced by the fine fraction of a lunar dust analogue (JSC-1A-vf) in biologically relevant experimental environments. Our study proved that JSC-1A-vf is able to hydroxylate TA also in anaerobic conditions, which indicates that molecular oxygen is not involved in such a reaction. Spin-trapping/EPR measures showed that the HO· radical is not the reactive intermediate involved in the oxidative potential of JSC-1A-vf. A surface reactivity implying a redox cycle of phosphate-complexed iron via a Fe(IV) state is proposed. The role of this iron species was investigated by assessing the reactivity of JSC-1A-vf toward hydrogen peroxide (Fenton-like activity), formate ions (homolytic rupture of C-H bond), and linoleic acid (cell-free lipoperoxidation). JSC-1A-vf was active in all tests, confirming that redox centers of transition metal ions on the surface of the dust may be responsible for dust reactivity and that the TA assay may be a useful field probe to monitor the surface oxidative potential of lunar dust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1216DOI Listing
May 2015

On the redox mechanism operating along C2H2 self-assembly at the surface of TiO2.

Langmuir 2015 Jan 31;31(1):569-77. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino and NIS, Centre for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surface , Via P. Giuria 7, I - 10125 Torino, Italy.

The interaction of acetylene with the TiO2 surface at room temperature entails a complex set of self-assembly reactions with the formation of products having relatively high molecular weight. In a previous paper by some of us (Jain, S. M.; et al. J. Mater. Chem. A 2014, 2, 12247-12254), the C2H2-TiO2 reaction has been monitored, essentially by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, at the surface of P25 (a mixture of anatase and rutile, typical benchmark material in the field of photocatalysis) in order to elucidate the nature of the products of this surface reaction. In the present paper, the same process was followed, for the first time, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and monitoring by the thermogravimetric analysis the weight loss of the material upon heating in order to further investigate the complex mechanism of the surface reaction. This was done using pure anatase and comparing the EPR results with those concerning both rutile and P25. The self-assembly mechanism occurring at the interface is accompanied by the formation of EPR visible Ti(3+) centers due to electrons injection in the TiO2 substrate. This finding clarifies that at least one of the reaction channels of this complex process (namely, the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is based on the heterolytic dissociative chemisorption of acetylene, followed by a redox interaction between the adsorbate and the solid, which allows the creation of the building blocks necessary to assemble polyaromatic molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la504290dDOI Listing
January 2015

The influence of surface charge and photo-reactivity on skin-permeation enhancer property of nano-TiO₂ in ex vivo pig skin model under indoor light.

Int J Pharm 2014 Jun 29;467(1-2):90-9. Epub 2014 Mar 29.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 9, 10125, Torino, Italy.

Several topical products contain nanometric TiO2 (nano-TiO2), which is a useful and safe component that absorbs UV light and does not cross skin barrier. However, nano-TiO2 may impregnate the first layer of the skin (stratum corneum, SC) and generate free radicals, even under low UV irradiation. These properties, largely dependent on TiO2 surface chemistry, may modulate the transdermal drug permeation. To investigate how TiO2 surface properties affect drug permeation, amphotericin in two different media, in the presence of three differently coated samples, was applied on skin and the flux measured. The naked, but not the coated, nano-TiO2 showed enhancer property, with a fourfold increase of the drug flux. Only the positively-charged, naked TiO2 strongly adhered to and altered the SC structure. The oxidative potential towards formate anion and linoleic acid was assessed and a molecular mechanism to elucidate increased skin permeability proposed. To enhance the drug permeation, both a surface charge-driven adhesion and an oxidative disorganization of the SC lipids are required. By modulating TiO2 surface charge (coating) and its oxidative potential (crystalline phase), the enhancer effect of nano-TiO2 may be tuned and turned up or down when transdermal penetration of drug has to be favored or impaired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.03.052DOI Listing
June 2014

Crystalline phase modulates the potency of nanometric TiO₂ to adhere to and perturb the stratum corneum of porcine skin under indoor light.

Chem Res Toxicol 2013 Oct 27;26(10):1579-90. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Dip. Chimica, "G. Scansetti" Interdepartmental Center and NIS Excellence Center, University of Torino , via P. Giuria 7, 10125, Torino, Italy.

Nanometric TiO₂ is largely employed in cosmetics, but in vitro toxic effects have been reported when nano-TiO₂ is exposed to UV light. The photoreactivity of TiO₂ largely depends on its crystal phase, namely, anatase and rutile. Surface acidity, which is also dependent on crystal structure, may impart a positive or negative charge to the nanomaterial surface and ultimately modulate particle adhesion to tissues. Three nanometric TiO₂ powders with a different crystal lattice and surface charge (anatase, rutile, and anatase/rutile) have been employed here to investigate their interaction with the skin and to examine the molecular mechanisms of the TiO₂-induced oxidative damage. The strength of the interaction of nano-TiO₂ with skin has been revealed by chemiometric mapping (μ-XRF and SEM-EDS) after tissue washing. Positively charged anatase and anatase/rutile, but not negatively charged rutile, were strongly held on the skin surface and were able to promote a structural rearrangement of the lipid bilayer in the stratum corneum (DSC and Raman) under controlled indoor illumination (UVA < 1 mW/m²). Under the same conditions, cell-free reactivity tests (ROS-mediated free-radical release and lipoperoxidation) indicated that anatase and anatase/rutile are more reactive than rutile, suggesting a ROS-mediated oxidative mechanism that may alter the structure of the stratum corneum. Both the higher oxidative potential and the stronger adhesion to skin of anatase and anatase/rutile TiO₂ may explain the stronger disorganization induced by these two samples and suggests the use of rutile to produce safer TiO₂-based cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx400285jDOI Listing
October 2013

Singlet oxygen plays a key role in the toxicity and DNA damage caused by nanometric TiO2 in human keratinocytes.

Nanoscale 2013 Jul 12;5(14):6567-76. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Dipartimento di Chimica, G. Scansetti Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Asbestos and other Toxic Particulates, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 7, 10125-Torino, Italy.

Nanometric TiO2 has been reported to be cytotoxic and genotoxic in different in vitro models when activated by UV light. However, a clear picture of the species mediating the observed toxic effects is still missing. Here, a nanometric TiO2 powder has been modified at the surface to completely inhibit its photo-catalytic activity and to inhibit the generation of all reactive species except for singlet oxygen. The prepared powders have been tested for their ability to induce strand breaks in plasmid DNA and for their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity toward human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells (100-500 μg mL(-1), 15 min UVA/B exposure at 216-36 mJ m(-2) respectively). The data reported herein indicate that the photo-toxicity of TiO2 is mainly triggered by particle-derived singlet oxygen. The data presented herein contribute to the knowledge of structure-activity relationships which are needed for the design of safe nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3nr01191gDOI Listing
July 2013

Localization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in the lysosomal acidic compartment of cultured neurons and its impact on viability: potential role of ion release.

Toxicol In Vitro 2013 Mar 27;27(2):752-9. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy.

CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) are increasingly being employed in both industrial applications and biological imaging, thanks to their numerous advantages over conventional organic and proteic fluorescent markers. On the other hand a growing concern has emerged that toxic elements from the QDs core would render the nanoparticles harmful to cell cultures, animals and humans. The interaction between QDs and neuronal cells in particular needs to be carefully evaluated, since nanoparticles could access the nervous system by several pathways, including the olfactory epithelium, even if no data are presently available about QDs. The pH of the environment to which the nanoparticles are exposed may play a crucial role in the stability of QDs coating. For this reason we investigated the release of metal ions from CdSe/ZnS QDs in artificial media reproducing the cytosolic and lysosomal cellular compartments characterized respectively by a neutral and an acidic pH. In the latter significant amounts of both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) were released. We provide evidence that these QDs are internalized in the GT1-7 neuronal cell line and located in the lysosomal compartment. These findings can be related to a slight but significant reduction in cell survival and proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.016DOI Listing
March 2013

The surface reactivity and implied toxicity of ash produced from sugarcane burning.

Environ Toxicol 2014 May 20;29(5):503-16. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, United Kingdom; Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom.

Sugarcane combustion generates fine-grained particulate that has the potential to be a respiratory health hazard because of its grain size and composition. In particular, conversion of amorphous silica to crystalline forms during burning may provide a source of toxic particles. In this study, we investigate and evaluate the toxicity of sugarcane ash and bagasse ash formed from commercial sugarcane burning. Experiments to determine the main physicochemical properties of the particles, known to modulate biological responses, were combined with cellular toxicity assays to gain insight into the potential reactions that could occur at the particle-lung interface following inhalation. The specific surface area of the particles ranged from ∼16 to 90 m(2) g(-1) . The samples did not generate hydroxyl- or carbon-centered radicals in cell-free tests. However, all samples were able to 'scavenge' an external source of hydroxyl radicals, which may be indicative of defects on the particle surfaces that may interfere with cellular processes. The bioavailable iron on the particle surfaces was low (2-3 μmol m(-2) ), indicating a low propensity for iron-catalyzed radical generation. The sample surfaces were all hydrophilic and slightly acidic, which may be due to the presence of oxygenated (functional) groups. The ability to cause oxidative stress and membrane rupture in red blood cells (hemolysis) was found to be low, indicating that the samples are not toxic by the mechanisms tested. Cytotoxicity of sugarcane ash was observed, by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release, after incubation of relatively high concentrations of ash with murine alveolar macrophage cells. All samples induced nitrogen oxide release (although only at very high concentrations) and reactive oxygen species generation (although the bagasse samples were less potent than the sugarcane ash). However, the samples induced significantly lower cytotoxic effects and nitrogen oxide generation when compared with the positive control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.21776DOI Listing
May 2014

Decreasing the oxidative potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles through modification of the surface with carbon: a new strategy for the production of safe UV filters.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2010 Nov 11;46(44):8478-80. Epub 2010 Oct 11.

Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Fisica e dei Materiali, G. Scansetti Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Asbestos and other Toxic Particulates and Interdepartmental Center for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy.

A safe UV filter may be obtained by inhibiting the photo-generation of free radicals through modification of the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles with carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cc02537bDOI Listing
November 2010

Sintered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) particles: a new pneumotoxic entity.

Toxicol Sci 2009 Apr 28;108(2):472-81. Epub 2009 Jan 28.

Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine unit, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) is a sintered mixture of indium- (In(2)O(3)) and tin-oxide (SnO(2)) in a ratio of 90:10 (wt:wt) that is used for the manufacture of LCD screens and related high technology applications. Interstitial pulmonary diseases have recently been reported in workers from ITO producing plants. The present study was conducted to identify experimentally the exact chemical component responsible for this toxicity and to address possible mechanisms of action. The reactivity of respirable ITO particles was compared with that of its single components alone or their unsintered 90:10 mixture (MIX) both in vivo and in vitro. For all endpoints considered, ITO particles behaved as a specific toxic entity. In vivo, after a single pharyngeal administration (2-20 mg per rat), ITO particles induced a strong inflammatory reaction. At day 3, the inflammatory reaction (cell accumulation, LDH and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) appeared more marked with ITO particles than with each oxide separately or the MIX. This inflammatory reaction persisted and even worsened after 15 days. After 60 days, this inflammation was still present but no significant fibrotic response was observed. The cytotoxicity of ITO was assessed in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE) and macrophages (NR8383 cell line). While ITO particles (up to 200 microg/ml) did not affect epithelial cell integrity (LDH release), a strong cytotoxic response was found in macrophages exposed to ITO, but not to its components alone or mixed. ITO particles also induced an increased frequency of micronuclei in type II pneumocytes in vivo but not in RLE in vitro, suggesting the preponderance of a secondary genotoxic mechanism. To address the possible mechanism of ITO toxicity, reactive oxygen species production was assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry in an acellular system. Carbon centered radicals (COO-.) and Fenton-like activity were detected in the presence of ITO particles, not with In(2)O(3), SnO(2) alone, or the MIX. Because the unsintered mixture of SnO(2) and In(2)O(3) particles was unable to reproduce the reactivity/toxicity of ITO particles, the sintering process through which SnO(2) molecules are introduced within the crystal structure of In(2)O(3) appears critical to explain the unique toxicological properties of ITO. The inflammatory and genotoxic activities of ITO dust indicate that a strict control of exposure is needed in industrial settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfp014DOI Listing
April 2009

The oxidation of glutathione by cobalt/tungsten carbide contributes to hard metal-induced oxidative stress.

Free Radic Res 2008 Aug;42(8):437-745

Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Interdepartmental Center G Scansetti for Studies on Asbestos and Other Toxic Particulates, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy.

The occupational exposure to cobalt/tungsten carbide (Co/WC) dusts causes asthma and interstitial fibrosis. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified the mixture Co/WC as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A). The mechanism of action of Co/WC involves particle driven generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with consequent oxidative damage. The present study evaluates the reactivity of Co/WC dust toward glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys). Co/WC oxidized thiols through a mechanism involving the generation of sulphur-centred radicals. The results are consistent with the oxidation taking place at surface active sites, a part of which is accessible only to Cys S-H groups, but not to GSH ones. Such a reaction, with consequent irreversible depletion of antioxidant defenses of cells, will potentiate the oxidative stress caused by particle and cell generated ROS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760802350904DOI Listing
August 2008