Publications by authors named "Ingrid Bader"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Molecular and functional testing in case of hereditary hearing loss associated with the SLC26A4 gene].

Laryngorhinootologie 2020 12 11;99(12):853-862. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Universitätsinstitut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversität Salzburg, Austria.

Due to development of molecular techniques at hand, the number of genomic sequence variants detected in patient investigations is rising constantly. The number of potentially involved genes in hereditary hearing loss is rising simultaneously.In this overview, current methods for diagnostic workup on a molecular and functional level for variants of the gene are described. Based on the description of the physiological function of the resulting protein Pendrin, molecular investigations for interpretation of the function are explained. Based on these investigations, the potential clinical consequences of a variant may be predicted more precisely and simplify routine reporting of a proven genotype and a phenotype, at hand. Finally, subsequent clinical investigations necessary, such as perchlorate discharge test, as well as therapeutic options are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1190-4173DOI Listing
December 2020

Defining the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked MSL3-related disorder.

Genet Med 2021 Feb 11;23(2):384-395. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Institute of Human Genetics, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: We sought to delineate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of female and male individuals with X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome).

Methods: Twenty-five individuals (15 males, 10 females) with causative variants in MSL3 were ascertained through exome or genome sequencing at ten different sequencing centers.

Results: We identified multiple variant types in MSL3 (ten nonsense, six frameshift, four splice site, three missense, one in-frame-deletion, one multi-exon deletion), most proven to be de novo, and clustering in the terminal eight exons suggesting that truncating variants in the first five exons might be compensated by an alternative MSL3 transcript. Three-dimensional modeling of missense and splice variants indicated that these have a deleterious effect. The main clinical findings comprised developmental delay and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Autism spectrum disorder, muscle tone abnormalities, and macrocephaly were common as well as hearing impairment and gastrointestinal problems. Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis emerged as a consistent magnetic resonance image (MRI) finding. Females and males were equally affected. Using facial analysis technology, a recognizable facial gestalt was determined.

Conclusion: Our aggregated data illustrate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). Our cohort improves the understanding of disease related morbidity and allows us to propose detailed surveillance guidelines for affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-00993-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862064PMC
February 2021

Heterozygous truncating variants in SUFU cause congenital ocular motor apraxia.

Genet Med 2021 Feb 7;23(2):341-351. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Interdisciplinary Pediatric Center for Children with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Chronic Disorders, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Purpose: This study aimed to delineate the genetic basis of congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) in patients not otherwise classifiable.

Methods: We compiled clinical and neuroimaging data of individuals from six unrelated families with distinct clinical features of COMA who do not share common diagnostic characteristics of Joubert syndrome or other known genetic conditions associated with COMA. We used exome sequencing to identify pathogenic variants and functional studies in patient-derived fibroblasts.

Results: In 15 individuals, we detected familial as well as de novo heterozygous truncating causative variants in the Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) gene, a negative regulator of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Functional studies showed no differences in cilia occurrence, morphology, or localization of ciliary proteins, such as smoothened. However, analysis of expression of HH signaling target genes detected a significant increase in the general signaling activity in COMA patient-derived fibroblasts compared with control cells. We observed higher basal HH signaling activity resulting in increased basal expression levels of GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, and Patched1. Neuroimaging revealed subtle cerebellar changes, but no full-blown molar tooth sign.

Conclusion: Taken together, our data imply that the clinical phenotype associated with heterozygous truncating germline variants in SUFU is a forme fruste of Joubert syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-00979-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862056PMC
February 2021

Severe syndromic ID and skewed X-inactivation in a girl with NAA10 dysfunction and a novel heterozygous de novo NAA10 p.(His16Pro) variant - a case report.

BMC Med Genet 2020 07 22;21(1):153. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: NAA10 is the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetyltransferase complex NatA which acetylates almost half the human proteome. Over the past decade, many NAA10 missense variants have been reported as causative of genetic disease in humans. Individuals harboring NAA10 variants often display variable degrees of intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay, and cardiac anomalies. Initially, carrier females appeared to be oligo- or asymptomatic with X-inactivation pattern skewed towards the wild type allele. However, recently it has been shown that NAA10 variants can cause syndromic or non-syndromic intellectual disability in females as well. The impact of specific NAA10 variants and the X-inactivation pattern on the individual phenotype in females remains to be elucidated.

Case Presentation: Here we present a novel de novo NAA10 (NM_003491.3) c.[47A > C];[=] (p.[His16Pro];[=]) variant identified in a young female. The 10-year-old girl has severely delayed motor and language development, disturbed behavior with hyperactivity and restlessness, moderate dilatation of the ventricular system and extracerebral CSF spaces. Her blood leukocyte X-inactivation pattern was skewed (95/5) towards the maternally inherited X-chromosome. Our functional study indicates that NAA10 p.(H16P) impairs NatA complex formation and NatA catalytic activity, while monomeric NAA10 catalytic activity appears to be intact. Furthermore, cycloheximide experiments show that the NAA10 H16P variant does not affect the cellular stability of NAA10.

Discussion And Conclusions: We demonstrate that NAA10 p.(His16Pro) causes a severe form of syndromic ID in a girl most likely through impaired NatA-mediated Nt-acetylation of cellular proteins. X-inactivation analyses showed a skewed X-inactivation pattern in DNA from blood of the patient with the maternally inherited allele being preferentially methylated/inactivated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01091-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374887PMC
July 2020

Author Correction: CHD3 helicase domain mutations cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with macrocephaly and impaired speech and language.

Nat Commun 2019 May 2;10(1):2079. Epub 2019 May 2.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada.

The HTML and PDF versions of this Article were updated after publication to remove images of one individual from Figure 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10161-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497626PMC
May 2019

Author Correction: CHD3 helicase domain mutations cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with macrocephaly and impaired speech and language.

Nat Commun 2019 02 15;10(1):883. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC, H3T 1C5, Canada.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Laurence Faivre, which was incorrectly given as Laurence Faive. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08800-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377600PMC
February 2019

CHD3 helicase domain mutations cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with macrocephaly and impaired speech and language.

Nat Commun 2018 11 5;9(1):4619. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada.

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06014-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218476PMC
November 2018

Genetics of intellectual disability in consanguineous families.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 07 4;24(7):1027-1039. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, 19857, Iran.

Autosomal recessive (AR) gene defects are the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in countries with frequent parental consanguinity, which account for about 1/7th of the world population. Yet, compared to autosomal dominant de novo mutations, which are the predominant cause of ID in Western countries, the identification of AR-ID genes has lagged behind. Here, we report on whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 404 consanguineous predominantly Iranian families with two or more affected offspring. In 219 of these, we found likely causative variants, involving 77 known and 77 novel AR-ID (candidate) genes, 21 X-linked genes, as well as 9 genes previously implicated in diseases other than ID. This study, the largest of its kind published to date, illustrates that high-throughput DNA sequencing in consanguineous families is a superior strategy for elucidating the thousands of hitherto unknown gene defects underlying AR-ID, and it sheds light on their prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-017-0012-2DOI Listing
July 2019

Phenotypes and genotypes in individuals with SMC1A variants.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Aug 26;173(8):2108-2125. Epub 2017 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

SMC1A encodes one of the proteins of the cohesin complex. SMC1A variants are known to cause a phenotype resembling Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Exome sequencing has allowed recognizing SMC1A variants in individuals with encephalopathy with epilepsy who do not resemble CdLS. We performed an international, interdisciplinary study on 51 individuals with SMC1A variants for physical and behavioral characteristics, and compare results to those in 67 individuals with NIPBL variants. For the Netherlands all known individuals with SMC1A variants were studied, both with and without CdLS phenotype. Individuals with SMC1A variants can resemble CdLS, but manifestations are less marked compared to individuals with NIPBL variants: growth is less disturbed, facial signs are less marked (except for periocular signs and thin upper vermillion), there are no major limb anomalies, and they have a higher level of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Self-injurious behavior is more frequent and more severe in the NIPBL group. In the Dutch group 5 of 13 individuals (all females) had a phenotype that shows a remarkable resemblance to Rett syndrome: epileptic encephalopathy, severe or profound intellectual disability, stereotypic movements, and (in some) regression. Their missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations are evenly spread over the gene. We conclude that SMC1A variants can result in a phenotype resembling CdLS and a phenotype resembling Rett syndrome. Resemblances between the SMC1A group and the NIPBL group suggest that a disturbed cohesin function contributes to the phenotype, but differences between these groups may also be explained by other underlying mechanisms such as moonlighting of the cohesin genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38279DOI Listing
August 2017

Mutations in chromatin regulators functionally link Cornelia de Lange syndrome and clinically overlapping phenotypes.

Hum Genet 2017 03 24;136(3):307-320. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Sektion für Funktionelle Genetik am Institut für Humangenetik Lübeck, Universität zu Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Lübeck, Germany.

The coordinated tissue-specific regulation of gene expression is essential for the proper development of all organisms. Mutations in multiple transcriptional regulators cause a group of neurodevelopmental disorders termed "transcriptomopathies" that share core phenotypical features including growth retardation, developmental delay, intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) belongs to this class of disorders and is caused by mutations in different subunits or regulators of the cohesin complex. Herein, we report on the clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with features overlapping with CdLS who were found to carry mutations in chromatin regulators previously associated to other neurodevelopmental disorders that are frequently considered in the differential diagnosis of CdLS. The identified mutations affect the methyltransferase-encoding genes KMT2A and SETD5 and different subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Complementary to this, a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome was found to carry a missense substitution in NIPBL. Our findings indicate that mutations in a variety of chromatin-associated factors result in overlapping clinical phenotypes, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity that should be considered when assessing the clinical and molecular diagnosis of neurodevelopmental syndromes. It is clear that emerging molecular mechanisms of chromatin dysregulation are central to understanding the pathogenesis of these clinically overlapping genetic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-017-1758-yDOI Listing
March 2017

CAD mutations and uridine-responsive epileptic encephalopathy.

Brain 2017 02 21;140(2):279-286. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany

Unexplained global developmental delay and epilepsy in childhood pose a major socioeconomic burden. Progress in defining the molecular bases does not often translate into effective treatment. Notable exceptions include certain inborn errors of metabolism amenable to dietary intervention. CAD encodes a multifunctional enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Alternatively, pyrimidines can be recycled from uridine. Exome sequencing in three families identified biallelic CAD mutations in four children with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and anaemia with anisopoikilocytosis. Two died aged 4 and 5 years after a neurodegenerative disease course. Supplementation of the two surviving children with oral uridine led to immediate cessation of seizures in both. A 4-year-old female, previously in a minimally conscious state, began to communicate and walk with assistance after 9 weeks of treatment. A 3-year-old female likewise showed developmental progress. Blood smears normalized and anaemia resolved. We establish CAD as a gene confidently implicated in this neurometabolic disorder, characterized by co-occurrence of global developmental delay, dyserythropoietic anaemia and seizures. While the natural disease course can be lethal in early childhood, our findings support the efficacy of uridine supplementation, rendering CAD deficiency a treatable neurometabolic disorder and therefore a potential condition for future (genetic) newborn screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww300DOI Listing
February 2017

Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome caused by loss-of-function variants in ASXL3: a recognizable condition.

Eur J Hum Genet 2017 02 30;25(2):183-191. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Truncating ASXL3 mutations were first identified in 2013 by Bainbridge et al. as a cause of syndromic intellectual disability in four children with similar phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing. The clinical features - postulated by Bainbridge et al. to be overlapping with Bohring-Opitz syndrome - were developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, failure to thrive and neurological abnormalities. This condition was included in OMIM as 'Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome' (BRPS, #615485). To date, a total of nine individuals with BRPS have been published in the literature in four reports (Bainbridge et al., Dinwiddie et al, Srivastava et al. and Hori et al.). In this report, we describe six unrelated patients with newly diagnosed heterozygous de novo loss-of-function variants in ASXL3 and concordant clinical features: severe muscular hypotonia with feeding difficulties in infancy, significant motor delay, profound speech impairment, intellectual disability and a characteristic craniofacial phenotype (long face, arched eyebrows with mild synophrys, downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent columella, small alae nasi, high, narrow palate and relatively little facial expression). The majority of key features characteristic for Bohring-Opitz syndrome were absent in our patients (eg, the typical posture of arms, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, typical facial gestalt with nevus flammeus of the forehead and exophthalmos). Therefore we emphasize that BRPS syndrome, caused by ASXL3 loss-of-function variants, is a clinically distinct intellectual disability syndrome with a recognizable phenotype distinguishable from that of Bohring-Opitz syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2016.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5255962PMC
February 2017

MKS1 mutations cause Joubert syndrome with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

Eur J Med Genet 2016 Aug 1;59(8):386-91. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Clinical Genetics Unit, Children's Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by episodic hyperpnea and apnea, hypotonia, ataxia, cognitive impairment and ocular motor apraxia. The "molar tooth sign" is pathognomonic of this condition. Mutations in the MKS1 gene are a major cause of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), the most common form of syndromic neural tube defects, frequently resulting in perinatal lethality. We present the phenotype and genotype of a child with severe JS and agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). In our patient, a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach revealed the following two variants of the MKS1 gene: first, a novel missense variant [ c.240G > T (p.Trp80Cys)], which affects a residue that is evolutionarily highly conserved in mammals and ciliates; second, a 29 bp deletion in intron 15 [c.1408-35_1408-7del29], a founder mutation, which in a homozygous state constitutes the major cause of MKS in Finland. We review the MKS1-variants in all of the eleven JS patients reported to date and compare these patients to our case. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with Joubert syndrome and agenesis of the corpus callosum where a potentially causal genotype is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.06.007DOI Listing
August 2016

Females with de novo aberrations in PHF6: clinical overlap of Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep 5;166C(3):290-301. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Recently, de novo aberrations in PHF6 were identified in females with intellectual disability and with a distinct phenotype including a characteristic facial gestalt with bitemporal narrowing, prominent supraorbital ridges, synophrys, a short nose and dental anomalies, tapering fingers with brachytelephalangy, clinodactyly and hypoplastic nails, short toes with hypoplastic nails, and linear skin hyperpigmentation. In adolescent or older patients, this phenotype overlaps but is not identical with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in males, caused by X-linked recessive mutations in PHF6. In younger girls there seems to be a striking phenotypic overlap with Coffin-Siris syndrome, which is characterized by intellectual disability, sparse hair and hypoplastic nails. This review will summarize and characterize the female phenotype caused by de novo aberrations in PHF6 and will discuss the overlapping and distinguishing features with Coffin-Siris syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31408DOI Listing
September 2014

Expanding the clinical spectrum associated with defects in CNTNAP2 and NRXN1.

BMC Med Genet 2011 Aug 9;12:106. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Heterozygous copy-number and missense variants in CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 have repeatedly been associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders such as developmental language and autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy and schizophrenia. Recently, homozygous or compound heterozygous defects in either gene were reported as causative for severe intellectual disability.

Methods: 99 patients with severe intellectual disability and resemblance to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and/or suspected recessive inheritance were screened for mutations in CNTNAP2 and NRXN1. Molecular karyotyping was performed in 45 patients. In 8 further patients with variable intellectual disability and heterozygous deletions in either CNTNAP2 or NRXN1, the remaining allele was sequenced.

Results: By molecular karyotyping and mutational screening of CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 in a group of severely intellectually disabled patients we identified a heterozygous deletion in NRXN1 in one patient and heterozygous splice-site, frameshift and stop mutations in CNTNAP2 in four patients, respectively. Neither in these patients nor in eight further patients with heterozygous deletions within NRXN1 or CNTNAP2 we could identify a defect on the second allele. One deletion in NRXN1 and one deletion in CNTNAP2 occurred de novo, in another family the deletion was also identified in the mother who had learning difficulties, and in all other tested families one parent was shown to be healthy carrier of the respective deletion or mutation.

Conclusions: We report on patients with heterozygous defects in CNTNAP2 or NRXN1 associated with severe intellectual disability, which has only been reported for recessive defects before. These results expand the spectrum of phenotypic severity in patients with heterozygous defects in either gene. The large variability between severely affected patients and mildly affected or asymptomatic carrier parents might suggest the presence of a second hit, not necessarily located in the same gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-12-106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3162517PMC
August 2011

X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: RPGR mutations in most families with definite X linkage and clustering of mutations in a short sequence stretch of exon ORF15.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003 Apr;44(4):1458-63

Institute of Human Genetics, National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF), Neuherberg, Germany.

Purpose: A comprehensive screening was conducted for RP2 and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene mutations including RPGR exon ORF15 in 58 index patients. The frequency of RPGR mutations was assessed in families with definite X-linked recessive disease (xlRP), and a strategy for analyzing the highly repetitive mutational hot spot in exon ORF15 is provided.

Methods: Fifty-eight apparently unrelated index-patients were screened for mutations in all coding exons of the RP2 and the RPGR genes, including splice-sites, by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, except for RPGR exon ORF15. A strategy for directly sequencing the large repetitive stretch of exon ORF15 from a 1.6-kb PCR-product was developed. According to pedigree size and evidence for X linkage, families were subdivided into three categories.

Results: Screening of 58 xlRP families revealed RP2 mutations in 8% and RPGR mutations in 71% of families with definite X-linked inheritance. Mutations clustered within a approximately 500-bp stretch in exon ORF15. In-frame sequence alterations in exon ORF15 ranged from the deletion of 36 bp to the insertion of 75 bp.

Conclusions: Mutations in the RPGR gene are estimated to cause 15% to 20% of all cases of RP, higher than any other single RP locus. This report provides a detailed strategy to analyze the mutational hot spot in RPGR exon ORF15, which cannot be screened by standard procedures. The discrepancy of the proportion of families linked to the RP3 locus and those having RPGR mutations is resolved in a subset of families with definite X linkage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.02-0605DOI Listing
April 2003