Publications by authors named "Inge Tinhofer"

35 Publications

A phase II study of monalizumab in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: The I1 cohort of the EORTC-HNCG-1559 UPSTREAM trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Oct 9;158:17-26. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Institut Roi Albert II, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc and Institut de Recherche Clinique et Expérimentale, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: Monalizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the inhibitory natural killer group 2A (NKG2A) receptor localised on natural killer (NK) and T cells. Its ligand, the human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E), is overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). By targeting the HLA-E-NKG2A pathway, monalizumab may enhance NK and T cell activity.

Experimental Design: The UPSTREAM trial is a biomarker-driven umbrella trial studying targeted therapies and immunotherapies in patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) SCCHN progressing after platinum therapy. The immunotherapy 1 (I1) cohort was a phase II, single-arm substudy evaluating monalizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 of a 14-day cycle). The primary end-point was the objective response (OR) rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours 1.1) over the first 16 weeks. A two-stage Simon design was used (H1 15%, H0 3%, α 8%, power 90%) with pre-planned interruption of accrual if no OR was observed after the first 25 patients.

Results: Twenty-six eligible patients were enrolled. Seventeen (65%) patients had received ≥2 previous lines of systemic treatment, and 15 (58%) patients were PD(-L)1 inhibitor pretreated. No OR was observed. Stable disease was observed in 6 patients (23%) with a median duration of 3.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-NE). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 1.7 months (95% CI: 1.5-1.8) and 6.7 months (95% CI: 3.0-9.6), respectively. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was grade I/II fatigue (19%).

Conclusions: Monalizumab monotherapy has limited activity in R/M SCCHN. The I1 cohort did not meet its primary objective. Monalizumab combined with durvalumab is under investigation within UPSTREAM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.09.003DOI Listing
October 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of Tumour Sub-Volumes for Radiomic Risk Modelling in Locally Advanced HNSCC.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 19;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Imaging features for radiomic analyses are commonly calculated from the entire gross tumour volume (GTV ). However, tumours are biologically complex and the consideration of different tumour regions in radiomic models may lead to an improved outcome prediction. Therefore, we investigated the prognostic value of radiomic analyses based on different tumour sub-volumes using computed tomography imaging of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The GTV  was cropped by different margins to define the rim and the corresponding core sub-volumes of the tumour. Subsequently, the best performing tumour rim sub-volume was extended into surrounding tissue with different margins. Radiomic risk models were developed and validated using a retrospective cohort consisting of 291 patients in one of the six Partner Sites of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group treated between 2005 and 2013. The validation concordance index (C-index) averaged over all applied learning algorithms and feature selection methods using the GTVentire achieved a moderate prognostic performance for loco-regional tumour control (C-index: 0.61 ± 0.04 (mean ± std)). The models based on the 5 mm tumour rim and on the 3 mm extended rim sub-volume showed higher median performances (C-index: 0.65 ± 0.02 and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively), while models based on the corresponding tumour core volumes performed less (C-index: 0.59 ± 0.01). The difference in C-index between the 5 mm tumour rim and the corresponding core volume showed a statistical trend ( = 0.10). After additional prospective validation, the consideration of tumour sub-volumes may be a promising way to improve prognostic radiomic risk models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12103047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589463PMC
October 2020

2D and 3D convolutional neural networks for outcome modelling of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2020 09 24;10(1):15625. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany.

For treatment individualisation of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary radiochemotherapy, we explored the capabilities of different deep learning approaches for predicting loco-regional tumour control (LRC) from treatment-planning computed tomography images. Based on multicentre cohorts for exploration (206 patients) and independent validation (85 patients), multiple deep learning strategies including training of 3D- and 2D-convolutional neural networks (CNN) from scratch, transfer learning and extraction of deep autoencoder features were assessed and compared to a clinical model. Analyses were based on Cox proportional hazards regression and model performances were assessed by the concordance index (C-index) and the model's ability to stratify patients based on predicted hazards of LRC. Among all models, an ensemble of 3D-CNNs achieved the best performance (C-index 0.31) with a significant association to LRC on the independent validation cohort. It performed better than the clinical model including the tumour volume (C-index 0.39). Significant differences in LRC were observed between patient groups at low or high risk of tumour recurrence as predicted by the model ([Formula: see text]). This 3D-CNN ensemble will be further evaluated in a currently ongoing prospective validation study once follow-up is complete.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70542-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518264PMC
September 2020

SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in head and neck cancer and outcome after postoperative radiochemotherapy.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2017 Aug 14;5:28-36. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Introduction: Outcome after postoperative radiochemotherapy (RT-CT) for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) remains unsatisfactory, especially among those with HPV negative tumours. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to further define subgroups for individualised therapeutic approaches. Preclinical and first clinical observations showed that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12) play an important role in tumour cell proliferation, survival, cancer progression, metastasis and treatment resistance. However, the data on the prognostic value of SDF-1/CXCR4 expression for HNSCC are conflicting. The aim of our hypothesis-generating study was to retrospectively explore the prognostic potential of SDF-1/CXCR4 in a well-defined cohort of HNSCC patients collected within the multicenter biomarker study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Material And Methods: Patients with stage III and IVA HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx were treated with resection and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) with ≥60 Gy and concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT). Tissue micro-arrays (TMAs) from a total of 221 patients were generated from surgical specimens, 201 evaluated for the SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression by immunofluorescence and correlated with clinico-pathological and outcome data.

Results: In univariate and multivariate analyses intracellular SDF-1 expression was associated with lower loco-regional control (LRC) in the entire patient group as well as in the HPV16 DNA negative subgroup. CXCR4 expression showed a trend for lower LRC in the univariate analysis which was not confirmed in the multivariate analysis. Neither for SDF-1 nor CXCR4 expression associations with distant metastasis free or overall survival were found.

Conclusions: Our exploratory data support the hypothesis that overexpression of intracellular SDF-1 is an independent negative prognostic biomarker for LRC after postoperative RT-CT in high-risk HNSCC. Prospective validation is warranted and further exploration of SDF-1/CXCR4 as a potential therapeutic target to overcome treatment resistance in HNSCC appears promising.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2017.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833920PMC
August 2017

Development and Validation of a Gene Signature for Patients with Head and Neck Carcinomas Treated by Postoperative Radio(chemo)therapy.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 03 3;24(6):1364-1374. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Dresden, and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

The aim of this study was to identify and independently validate a novel gene signature predicting locoregional tumor control (LRC) for treatment individualization of patients with locally advanced HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) who are treated with postoperative radio(chemo)therapy (PORT-C). Gene expression analyses were performed using NanoString technology on a multicenter training cohort of 130 patients and an independent validation cohort of 121 patients. The analyzed gene set was composed of genes with a previously reported association with radio(chemo)sensitivity or resistance to radio(chemo)therapy. Gene selection and model building were performed comparing several machine-learning algorithms. We identified a 7-gene signature consisting of the three individual genes , and one metagene combining the highly correlated genes , and The 7-gene signature was used, in combination with clinical parameters, to fit a multivariable Cox model to the training data (concordance index, ci = 0.82), which was successfully validated (ci = 0.71). The signature showed improved performance compared with clinical parameters alone (ci = 0.66) and with a previously published model including hypoxia-associated genes and cancer stem cell markers (ci = 0.65). It was used to stratify patients into groups with low and high risk of recurrence, leading to significant differences in LRC in training and validation ( < 0.001). We have identified and validated the first hypothesis-based gene signature for HPV-negative HNSCC treated by PORT-C including genes related to several radiobiological aspects. A prospective validation is planned in an ongoing prospective clinical trial before potential application in clinical trials for patient stratification. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2345DOI Listing
March 2018

Comparison of detection methods for HPV status as a prognostic marker for loco-regional control after radiochemotherapy in patients with HNSCC.

Radiother Oncol 2018 04 30;127(1):27-35. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, Germany; OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, , Germany.

Objective: To compare six HPV detection methods in pre-treatment FFPE tumour samples from patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who received postoperative (N = 175) or primary (N = 90) radiochemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: HPV analyses included detection of (i) HPV16 E6/E7 RNA, (ii) HPV16 DNA (PCR-based arrays, A-PCR), (iii) HPV DNA (GP5+/GP6+ qPCR, (GP-PCR)), (iv) p16 (immunohistochemistry, p16 IHC), (v) combining p16 IHC and the A-PCR result and (vi) combining p16 IHC and the GP-PCR result. Differences between HPV positive and negative subgroups were evaluated for the primary endpoint loco-regional control (LRC) using Cox regression.

Results: Correlation between the HPV detection methods was high (chi-squared test, p < 0.001). While p16 IHC analysis resulted in several false positive classifications, A-PCR, GP-PCR and the combination of p16 IHC and A-PCR or GP-PCR led to results comparable to RNA analysis. In both cohorts, Cox regression analyses revealed significantly prolonged LRC for patients with HPV positive tumours irrespective of the detection method.

Conclusions: The most stringent classification was obtained by detection of HPV16 RNA, or combining p16 IHC with A-PCR or GP-PCR. This approach revealed the lowest rate of recurrence in patients with tumours classified as HPV positive and therefore appears most suited for patient stratification in HPV-based clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2017.12.007DOI Listing
April 2018

Heat shock protein 70 and tumor-infiltrating NK cells as prognostic indicators for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Int J Cancer 2018 05 23;142(9):1911-1925. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich, Germany.

Tumor cells frequently overexpress heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and present it on their cell surface, where it can be recognized by pre-activated NK cells. In our retrospective study the expression of Hsp70 was determined in relation to tumor-infiltrating CD56 NK cells in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens of patients with SCCHN (N = 145) as potential indicators for survival and disease recurrence. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy (RCT). In general, Hsp70 expression was stronger, but with variable intensities, in tumor compared to normal tissues. Patients with high Hsp70 expressing tumors (scores 3-4) showed significantly decreased overall survival (OS; p = 0.008), local progression-free survival (LPFS; p = 0.034) and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS; p = 0.044), compared to those with low Hsp70 expression (scores 0-2), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant prognostic variables. The adverse prognostic value of a high Hsp70 expression for OS was also observed in patient cohorts with p16- (p = 0.001), p53- (p = 0.0003) and HPV16 DNA-negative (p = 0.001) tumors. The absence or low numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD56 NK cells also correlated with significantly decreased OS (p = 0.0001), LPFS (p = 0.0009) and DMFS (p = 0.0001). A high Hsp70 expression and low numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells have the highest negative predictive value (p = 0.00004). In summary, a strong Hsp70 expression and low numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells correlate with unfavorable outcome following surgery and RCT in patients with SCCHN, and thus serve as negative prognostic markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5873418PMC
May 2018

SDF-1/CXCR4 expression is an independent negative prognostic biomarker in patients with head and neck cancer after primary radiochemotherapy.

Radiother Oncol 2018 01 20;126(1):125-131. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Tübingen, Germany.

Introduction: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that the chemokine pathway governed by SDF-1 and CXCR4 contributes to a resistant phenotype. This retrospective biomarker study aims to explore the specific prognostic value of SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) treated with primary radiochemotherapy (RT-CT).

Material And Methods: Biopsies from 141 HNSCC tumours of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx were evaluated for SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression by immunofluorescence. SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression was correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics and outcome after RT-CT.

Results: Patients with tumours exhibiting overexpression of intracellular SDF-1 and CXCR4 have a higher risk for loco-regional relapse and a worse overall survival after RT-CT (multivariate analysis, hazard ratio 2.33, CI [1.18-4.62], p = 0.02 and hazard ratio 2.02, CI [1.13-3.59], p = 0.02, respectively). Similar results were observed when only the subgroup of HPV DNA negative patients were analysed (hazard ratio 2.23 and 2.16, p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: Our data support the importance of SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression for loco-regional control and overall survival in HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy. Prospective multivariate validation and further studies into CXCR4 inhibition to overcome radiation resistance are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2017.10.008DOI Listing
January 2018

A comparative study of machine learning methods for time-to-event survival data for radiomics risk modelling.

Sci Rep 2017 10 16;7(1):13206. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany.

Radiomics applies machine learning algorithms to quantitative imaging data to characterise the tumour phenotype and predict clinical outcome. For the development of radiomics risk models, a variety of different algorithms is available and it is not clear which one gives optimal results. Therefore, we assessed the performance of 11 machine learning algorithms combined with 12 feature selection methods by the concordance index (C-Index), to predict loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The considered algorithms are able to deal with continuous time-to-event survival data. Feature selection and model building were performed on a multicentre cohort (213 patients) and validated using an independent cohort (80 patients). We found several combinations of machine learning algorithms and feature selection methods which achieve similar results, e.g.

, Msr-rf: C-Index = 0.71 and BT-COX: C-Index = 0.70 in combination with Spearman feature selection. Using the best performing models, patients were stratified into groups of low and high risk of recurrence. Significant differences in LRC were obtained between both groups on the validation cohort. Based on the presented analysis, we identified a subset of algorithms which should be considered in future radiomics studies to develop stable and clinically relevant predictive models for time-to-event endpoints.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13448-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643429PMC
October 2017

The PD-1/PD-L1 axis and human papilloma virus in patients with head and neck cancer after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy: A multicentre study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Int J Cancer 2017 08 19;141(3):594-603. Epub 2017 May 19.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner sites, Frankfurt, Germany.

We examined the prognostic role of PD-1+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and PD-L1+ cells in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) treated with surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). FFPE samples from 161 patients were immunohistochemically stained for PD-1, CD8 and PD-L1. The immune marker expression was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics, and overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS), also in the context of HPV16 DNA/p16 status. The median follow-up was 48 months (range: 4-100). The 2-year-OS was 84.1% for the entire cohort. High PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were more common in patients with positive HPV16 DNA (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively) and high infiltration by CD8+ TILs (p < 0.001 for both markers). High PD-L1 expression correlated with superior OS (p = 0.025), LPFS (p = 0.047) and DMFS (p = 0.048) in multivariable analysis, whereas no significance could be demonstrated for PD-1. Patients with CD8 /PD-L1 expression had favorable outcome (p < 0.001 for all endpoints) compared to other groups. We validated the superior OS data on CD8 /PD-L1 using the Cancer Genome Atlas TCGA dataset (n = 518; p = 0.032). High PD-L1 expression was a favorable prognostic marker in HPV16-negative but not HPV16-positive patients. In conclusion, HPV-positive tumors showed higher expression of immune markers. PD-L1 expression constitutes an independent prognostic marker in SCCHN patients post-adjuvant CRT. In conjunction with CD8 status, these data provide an important insight on the immune contexture of SCCHN and are directly relevant for future treatment stratification with PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors to complement CRT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30770DOI Listing
August 2017

HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Radiother Oncol 2016 12 29;121(3):364-373. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Objective: To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx).

Materials And Methods: For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint of this study was loco-regional control (LRC).

Results: Univariate Cox regression revealed a significant impact of tumour volume, p16 overexpression, and SLC3A2 and CD44 protein expression on LRC. The tumour hypoxia classification showed a significant impact only for small tumours. In multivariate analyses an independent correlation of tumour volume, SLC3A2 expression, and the 15-gene hypoxia signature with LRC was identified (CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group). Logistic modelling showed that inclusion of CD44 protein expression and p16 overexpression significantly improved the performance to predict LRC at 2years compared to the model with tumour volume alone.

Conclusions: Tumour volume, HPV status, CSC marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures are potential prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced HNSCC, who were treated by primary RCTx. The study also supports that the individual tumour volumes should generally be included in biomarker studies and that panels of biomarkers are superior to individual parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2016.11.008DOI Listing
December 2016

Methylation of RAD51B, XRCC3 and other homologous recombination genes is associated with expression of immune checkpoints and an inflammatory signature in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, lung and cervix.

Oncotarget 2016 Nov;7(46):75379-75393

Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Immune checkpoints are emerging treatment targets, but mechanisms underlying checkpoint expression are poorly understood. Since alterations in DNA repair genes have been connected to the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, we investigated associations between methylation of DNA repair genes and CTLA4 and CD274 (PD-L1) expression.A list of DNA repair genes (179 genes) was selected from the literature, methylation status and expression of inflammation-associated genes (The Cancer Genome Atlas data) was correlated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), cervical and lung squamous cell carcinoma.A significant positive correlation of the methylation status of 15, 3 and 2 genes with checkpoint expression was identified, respectively. RAD51B methylation was identified in all cancer subtypes. In HNSCC and cervical cancer, there was significant enrichment for homologous recombination genes. Methylation of the candidate genes was also associated with expression of other checkpoints, ligands, MHC- and T-cell associated genes as well as an interferon-inflammatory immune gene signature, predictive for the efficacy of PD-1 inhibition in HNSCC.Homologous recombination deficiency might therefore be mediated by DNA repair gene hypermethylation and linked to an immune-evasive phenotype in SCC. The methylation status of these genes could represent a new predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342748PMC
November 2016

Low Cancer Stem Cell Marker Expression and Low Hypoxia Identify Good Prognosis Subgroups in HPV(-) HNSCC after Postoperative Radiochemotherapy: A Multicenter Study of the DKTK-ROG.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 06 11;22(11):2639-49. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Purpose: To investigate the impact of hypoxia-induced gene expression and cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression on outcome of postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy (PORT-C) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Experimental Design: Expression of the CSC markers CD44, MET, and SLC3A2, and hypoxia gene signatures were analyzed in the resected primary tumors using RT-PCR and nanoString technology in a multicenter retrospective cohort of 195 patients. CD44 protein expression was further analyzed in tissue microarrays. Primary endpoint was locoregional tumor control.

Results: Univariate analysis showed that hypoxia-induced gene expression was significantly associated with a high risk of locoregional recurrence using the 15-gene signature (P = 0.010) or the 26-gene signature (P = 0.002). In multivariate analyses, in patients with HPV16 DNA-negative but not with HPV16 DNA-positive tumors the effect of hypoxia-induced genes on locoregional control was apparent (15-gene signature: HR 4.54, P = 0.006; 26-gene signature: HR 10.27, P = 0.024). Furthermore, MET, SLC3A2, CD44, and CD44 protein showed an association with locoregional tumor control in multivariate analyses (MET: HR 3.71, P = 0.016; SLC3A2: HR 8.54, P = 0.037; CD44: HR 3.36, P = 0.054; CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group) in the HPV16 DNA-negative subgroup.

Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that high hypoxia-induced gene expression and high CSC marker expression levels correlate with tumor recurrence after PORT-C in patients with HPV16 DNA-negative HNSCC. After validation in a currently ongoing prospective trial, these parameters may help to further stratify patients for individualized treatment de-escalation or intensification strategies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2639-49. ©2016 AACR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1990DOI Listing
June 2016

CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in relation to HPV status and clinical outcome in patients with head and neck cancer after postoperative chemoradiotherapy: A multicentre study of the German cancer consortium radiation oncology group (DKTK-ROG).

Int J Cancer 2016 Jan 30;138(1):171-81. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg Germany and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Frankfurt, Germany.

We examined the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after surgery and postoperative cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy. FFPE-tissue originating from the surgery of 161 patients treated in 8 DKTK partner sites was immunohistochemically stained for CD3 and CD8. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS), also in the context of the HPV16-DNA/p16 status. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range: 4100 months), OS at 4 years was 46.5% for the entire cohort. In multivariate analysis, high CD8 expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic parameter for OS (p = 0.002), LPFS (p = 0.004) and DMFS (p = 0.006), while CD3 expression lacked significance. In multivariate analysis HPV16 DNA positivity was associated with improved OS (p = 0.025) and LPFS (p = 0.013) and p16-positive patients showed improved DMFS (p = 0.008). Interestingly, high CD8 expression was a prognostic parameter for the clinical outcome in both HPV16 DNA-positive and HPV16 DNA-negative patients. Similar findings were observed in the multivariate analysis for the combined HPV16 DNA/p16 status. Altogether, CD8+ TILs constitute an independent prognostic marker in SCCHN patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These data indicate that CD8-positive TILs have antitumour activity and could be used for treatment stratification. Further validation of the prognostic value of CD8+ TILs as a biomarker and its role in the immune response in SCCHN patients after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is warranted and will be performed in the prospective DKTK-ROG study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29683DOI Listing
January 2016

HPV16 DNA status is a strong prognosticator of loco-regional control after postoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma: results from a multicentre explorative study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Radiother Oncol 2014 Dec 2;113(3):317-23. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner sites: Dresden, Germany; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Institute of Radiooncology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the impact of HPV status in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received surgery and cisplatin-based postoperative radiochemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: For 221 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, oropharynx or oral cavity treated at the 8 partner sites of the German Cancer Consortium, the impact of HPV DNA, p16 overexpression and p53 expression on outcome were retrospectively analysed. The primary endpoint was loco-regional tumour control; secondary endpoints were distant metastases and overall survival.

Results: In the total patient population, univariate analyses revealed a significant impact of HPV16 DNA positivity, p16 overexpression, p53 positivity and tumour site on loco-regional tumour control. Multivariate analysis stratified for tumour site showed that positive HPV 16 DNA status correlated with loco-regional tumour control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (p=0.02) but not in the oral cavity carcinoma group. Multivariate evaluation of the secondary endpoints in the total population revealed a significant association of HPV16 DNA positivity with overall survival (p<0.01) but not with distant metastases.

Conclusions: HPV16 DNA status appears to be a strong prognosticator of loco-regional tumour control after postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma and is now being explored in a prospective validation trial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2014.11.011DOI Listing
December 2014

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem(-like) cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Lett 2013 Sep 4;338(1):47-56. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, China.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the 6th commonest cancer worldwide. Relapse, thought to involve cancer stem(-like) cells (CSCs), and the development of metastases are common and survival rates remain low. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in metastasis and increasing evidence suggests a link between EMT and CSCs. MicroRNAs regulate multiple cellular processes including EMT and have been implicated in a CSC phenotype. This review aims to highlight key events that are involved in EMT, discusses their relevance in HNSCC progression and metastasis and explores the possibility of targeting EMT as a novel therapy in HNSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2012.06.013DOI Listing
September 2013

Regulatory T cells predict the time to initial treatment in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Cancer 2011 May 18;117(10):2163-9. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Laboratory for Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, Third Medical Department With Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostaseology, Rheumatology, and Infectious Disease of the Private Medical University Hospital of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a highly variable course of disease. Because it is believed that regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are potent suppressors of antitumor immunity, the authors hypothesized that increased T(regs) may favor disease progression.

Methods: T(reg) levels (cluster of differentiation 3 [CD3]-positive, [CD4]-positive, CD25-positive, and CD127-negative) in peripheral blood from 102 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations with clinical data.

Results: The relative T(reg) numbers in CD4-positive T cells were significantly greater in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the numbers in a control group of 170 healthy individuals (P = .001). Patients were divided into 2 groups using a median T(reg) value of 9.7% (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells). Patients with higher T(reg) levels had a significantly shorter time to initial treatment (median, 5.9 years) compared with patients who had lower T(reg) levels (median, 11.7 years; log-rank P = .019). Furthermore, T(reg) levels (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells) had significant prognostic power to predict the time to initial treatment in univariate analysis (P = .023) and in multivariate Cox regression analysis that included the variables Rai stage, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutational status, chromosomal aberrations, and CD38 expression (P = .028).

Conclusions: Higher T(reg) levels had significant and independent prognostic power for predicting the time to initial treatment in patients with low to intermediate stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25752DOI Listing
May 2011

Fludarabine modulates composition and function of the T cell pool in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2011 Jan 21;60(1):75-85. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

Laboratory for Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research (LIMCR), 3rd Medical Department with Haematology, Medical Oncology, Haemostaseology, Rheumatology and Infectiology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

The combination of cytotoxic treatment with strategies for immune activation represents an attractive strategy for tumour therapy. Following reduction of high tumour burden by effective cytotoxic agents, two major immune-stimulating approaches are being pursued. First, innate immunity can be activated by monoclonal antibodies triggering antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Second, tumour-specific T cell responses can be generated by immunization of patients with peptides derived from tumour antigens and infused in soluble form or loaded onto dendritic cells. The choice of cytotoxic agents for such combinatory regimens is crucial since most substances such as fludarabine are considered immunosuppressive while others such as cyclophosphamide can have immunostimulatory activity. We tested in this study whether fludarabine and/or cyclophosphamide, which represent a very effective treatment regimen for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, would interfere with a therapeutic strategy of T cell activation. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from patients prior and during fludarabine/cyclophosphamide therapy revealed rapid and sustained reduction of tumour cells but also of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. This correlated with a significant cytotoxic activity of fludarabine/cyclophosphamide on T cells in vitro. Unexpectedly, T cells surviving fludarabine/cyclophosphamide treatment in vitro had a more mature phenotype, while fludarabine-treated T cells were significantly more responsive to mitogenic stimulation than their untreated counterparts and showed a shift towards T(H)1 cytokine secretion. In conclusion, fludarabine/cyclophosphamide therapy though inducing significant and relevant T cell depletion seems to generate a micromilieu suitable for subsequent T cell activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-010-0920-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3029666PMC
January 2011

Caffeine confers radiosensitization of PTEN-deficient malignant glioma cells by enhancing ionizing radiation-induced G1 arrest and negatively regulating Akt phosphorylation.

Mol Cancer Ther 2010 Feb 26;9(2):480-8. Epub 2010 Jan 26.

Translational Radiobiology and Radiooncology Research Laboratory, Department of Radiotherapy, Charité Campus Mitte, Charité Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin-Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

PTEN mutations are frequently found in malignant glioma and can result in activated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt survival signaling associated with resistance to radiotherapy. Strategies to interfere with aberrant PI3K/Akt activity are therefore being developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with malignant glioma. The methylxanthine caffeine has been described as a PI3K inhibitor and is also known to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. However, a direct association between these two caffeine-mediated effects has not been reported yet. Therefore, we asked whether caffeine or its derivative pentoxifylline differentially affect the radiosensitivity of malignant gliomas with different PTEN status. As models, we used the radiosensitive EA14 malignant glioma cell line containing wild-type PTEN and the radioresistant U87MG malignant glioma cell line harboring mutant PTEN. Our study revealed that caffeine and pentoxifylline radiosensitized PTEN-deficient but not PTEN-proficient glioma cells. Radiosensitization of PTEN-deficient U87MG cells by caffeine was significantly correlated with the activation of the G(1) DNA damage checkpoint that occurred independently of de novo synthesis of p53 and p21. The p53 independency was also confirmed by a significant caffeine-mediated radiosensitization of the glioma cell lines T98G and U373MG that are deficient for both PTEN and p53. Furthermore, caffeine-mediated radiosensitization was associated with the inhibition of Akt hyperphosphorylation in PTEN-deficient cells to a level comparable with PTEN-proficient cells. Our data suggest that the methylxanthine caffeine or its derivative pentoxifylline are promising candidate drugs for the radiosensitization of glioma cells particularly with PTEN mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0498DOI Listing
February 2010

microRNA-34a expression correlates with MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and treatment-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2010 May 20;115(21):4191-7. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Laboratory for Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, 3rd Medical Department of Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostaseology, Rheumatology and Infectiology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), aberrations along the p53 axis lead to decreased overall survival and therapy resistance. Recent studies identified microRNA-34a (miR-34a) as a major downstream target of p53. We monitored the expression of miR-34a during disease development in a murine B-CLL model. miR-34a was up-regulated more than 20-fold during the leukemic but not during the preleukemic phase. In the human system, B-CLL cells also had 4.6-fold higher miR-34a expression compared with B cells of healthy controls. In B-CLL cells of patients with p53 aberrations, miR-34a expression was consistently low. The broad distribution of miR-34a levels in p53 wild-type patients prompted us to study the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309) in the intronic promoter of MDM2 and miR-34a expression. B-CLL cells of patients with the SNP309 GG genotype had significantly lower miR-34a expression levels compared with patients with the TT genotype (P = .002). Low miR-34a levels were able to predict shorter time to treatment (P = .003) and were associated with an abbreviated lymphocyte doubling time. Further, overexpression of miR-34a in primary B-CLL cells induced apoptosis. These findings suggest miR-34a as a possible therapeutic avenue and a sensitive indicator of the activity of the p53 axis in B-CLL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-07-234823DOI Listing
May 2010

Difference in the relative distribution of CD4+ T-cell subsets in B-CLL with mutated and unmutated immunoglobulin (Ig) VH genes: implication for the course of disease.

J Immunother 2009 Apr;32(3):302-9

Laboratory for Translational Radiobiology and Radiooncology, 3rd Medical Department at the Salzburg University Hospital, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease in which the clinical course is influenced by the presence or absence of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain (VH) gene mutations. The poor clinical outcome of the subgroup with unmutated Ig VH genes has been linked to the persistent ability of the B-cell receptor in tumor cells from these cases to respond to antigen. As B-cell receptor signaling generally relies on T-cell help, we hypothesized that the course of B-CLL might not only be influenced by the Ig VH mutational status but also by the activation/differentiation status of T cells. We assessed the relative distribution of naive and memory T-cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with mutated (M-CLL, n=71) and unmutated Ig VH genes (UM-CLL, n=42) and correlated it with the course of disease. We also compared the prosurvival potential of naive and memory T cells cocultured with B-CLL cells in vitro. A significant increase in relative numbers of central and effector memory T cells was observed in the CD4 T-cell pool from UM-CLL as compared with M-CLL cases and was associated with high Rai stage, progressive disease and shorter treatment-free survival (TFS). In a multivariate analysis, the relative number of CD4 central and effector memory T cells remained a significant prognostic parameter for TFS after correction for CD38 expression, Ig VH status, genomic aberrations, and Rai stage. The inverse correlation of memory CD4 T cells with TFS might be explained by their potential to support survival of B-CLL cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0b013e318197b5e4DOI Listing
April 2009

MDM2 SNP309 is associated with poor outcome in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2008 May;26(14):2252-7

Laboratory for Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, Third Medical Department, Salzburg University Hospital, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 309 in the promoter region of MDM2 leading to increased expression of MDM2 and attenuated function of p53 has been negatively associated with onset and outcome of disease in solid tumors. Because inactivation of p53 by deletion and/or mutations also impacts on the clinical course of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), we assessed the role of the SNP309 genotype in B-CLL.

Patients And Methods: The frequency of SNP309 T/T, T/G, or G/G genotypes and the p53 status (wild type, mutated, or deleted) were assessed and correlated with clinical outcome in 140 B-CLL patients and a second independent cohort. In addition, the correlation of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype with the MDM2 protein expression level in B-CLL cells was evaluated by immunoblotting.

Results: A significant negative association of the SNP309 T/G and G/G genotypes with overall survival was seen (T/G genotype, relative risk = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 11.5; P = .02; G/G genotype, relative risk = 9.1; 95% CI, 2.4 to 35.1; P = .001), but no correlation with incidence or onset of B-CLL was observed. The influence of the heterozygous SNP309 T/G genotype on treatment-free survival depended on the p53 status but not on the CD38, Zap-70, or IgVH mutational status or Rai stage of B-CLL patients. The unfavorable SNP309 T/G and G/G genotypes were associated with a gene-dosage-dependent increase of MDM2 expression.

Conclusion: The MDM2 SNP309 genotype influencing MDM2 expression levels was identified as an additional independent risk factor in B-CLL. Targeting MDM2-p53 interactions might emerge as a successful treatment strategy for B-CLL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.11.5212DOI Listing
May 2008

Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis preferentially in B-CLL cells of patients with unfavourable prognostic factors including del17p13.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2008 May 23;86(5):541-52. Epub 2008 Feb 23.

Laboratory for Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, IIIrd Medical Department with Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostaseology, Rheumatology and Infectiology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

In the last decade, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used very successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). Much less is known about the effectiveness of As2O3 in other neoplastic disorders. In this paper, we report that after 18 h in vitro treatment with 4 microM As2O3, 75+/-18% of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) cells (n=52) underwent apoptosis. It is important to note that B-CLL cells harboring a deletion of chromosome 17p13, which predisposes to fludarabine resistance and has been identified as an important negative predictor of clinical outcome, were more susceptible to As2O3 toxicity than cells lacking this aberration. Furthermore, unfavourable risk profiles such as unmutated IgVH status, high CD38 expression and prior treatment were associated with significantly higher sensitivity of B-CLL cells to As2O3. As2O3 also preferentially killed B-CLL cells compared to B cells from healthy age-matched controls. Molecular analysis revealed that basal superoxide dismutase activity was positively correlated with the pro-apoptotic activity of As2O3 pointing to a role of reactive oxygen species in cell death induction. The high activity of As2O3 in B-CLL cells from high-risk patients makes it a promising drug for high-risk and/or fludarabine-refractory B-CLL patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-008-0314-6DOI Listing
May 2008

The effect of IgVH mutational status on the induction of apoptosis by rituximab in patients with heavily pretreated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence from a clinical phase I/II trial.

Haematologica 2006 Sep;91(9):1291-3

We investigated tumor cell apoptosis in vivo in 14 heavily pretreated patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia undergoing rituximab monotherapy. Apoptosis induction was more pronounced in patients with mutated IgVH genes than in those with unmutated IgVH genes, independently of the levels of expression of CD20, CD38, and ZAP-70 and of the presence of 17p deletion. Our results suggest an association between IgVH gene mutational status and rituximab-induced apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2006

Expression levels of CD38 in T cells predict course of disease in male patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2006 Nov 6;108(9):2950-6. Epub 2006 Jul 6.

Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, 3rd Medical Dept at the Salzburg University Hospital, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.

CD38 expression of tumor cells has been identified as an important prognostic factor in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Although CD38 is involved in effector functions of T cells, the prognostic value of CD38+ T cells has not yet been addressed in B-CLL. In the present study, CD38-expression levels in B-CLL cells and T cells from 204 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry and correlated with clinical and molecular risk parameters. CD38 expression significantly differed in the neoplastic clone from patients with low versus advanced stage, irrespective of the sex of patients. In contrast, CD38 expression was generally higher in T cells from female compared with male patients but only increased in male patients in a stage-dependent manner. In male patients, combined analysis of CD38 in T cells and B-CLL cells identified 4 subgroups with significantly different treatment-free survival. Multivariate analysis including Rai stage and molecular risk parameters of the neoplastic clone identified CD38-expression levels in T cells as an independent prognostic factor in male patients. Combined analysis of CD38 in B-CLL and T cells is superior in predicting outcome of male B-CLL patients than either parameter alone. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the sex-specific role of CD38+ T cells in B-CLL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-03-010553DOI Listing
November 2006

Systemic application of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor exacerbates excitotoxic brain injury in newborn mice.

Pediatr Res 2006 Apr;59(4 Pt 1):549-53

Department of Neonatology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria.

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to reduce brain lesion size and mortality in adult mice after hypoxic-ischemic injury. Another hematopoietic growth factor, stem cell factor (SCF), has been shown to be up-regulated in the brains of adult rodents following brain damage, where it stimulates postlesional neurogenesis. Injection of the excitotoxic agent ibotenate into the brain of newborn mice produces a brain lesion characterized by neuronal death and white matter cysts, which is similar to periventricular leucomalacia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether administration of SCF and G-CSF is neuroprotective against ibotenate lesions in neonatal mice. Contrary to our expectations, cortical and white matter brain lesions induced by ibotenate were enhanced following the administration of 50 microg/kg SCF or 200 microg/kg G-CSF. Dose-response studies indicated that G-CSF could increase grey matter lesions even at lower dosages (22 and 66 microg/kg). Administration of SCF and G-CSF in combination also increased cortical and white matter lesions, to 133 +/- 8% and 187 +/- 12%. In the undamaged brain, G-CSF or G-CSF+SCF treatment had no effect on apoptosis in the grey or white matter; however, these treatments significantly increased apoptosis in the damaged brain. Our data clearly demonstrate that G-CSF and SCF are not neuroprotective and result in deleterious enhancement of excitotoxic brain damage in newborn mice. We conclude that G-CSF and SCF should be used cautiously in newborn infants with brain lesions; if they are used, long term neurologic and neurodevelopmental follow-up is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/01.pdr.0000205152.38692.81DOI Listing
April 2006

A role of TRAIL in killing osteoblasts by myeloma cells.

FASEB J 2006 Apr 25;20(6):759-61. Epub 2006 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, 3rd Medical Department of the Salzburg General Hospital and Private Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

In multiple myeloma (MM), neoplastic plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow where their survival, proliferation, and apoptosis are controlled at multiple levels by interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment. Myeloma cells actively control these interactions by activating stromal and endothelial cells for production of survival factors, such as interleukin-6, and suppressing other cell types such as erythroblasts, normal B cell progenitors, and T-cells. In the present study, we identified primary osteoblasts as additional potential targets for myeloma cell-mediated suppression which was partly dependent on the death receptor ligand TRAIL. Besides killing of osteoblasts, myeloma cell lines sensitized osteoblasts to cell death mediated by recombinant TRAIL, whereas primary osteoblasts protected myeloma cells from TRAIL-mediated apoptosis that was mediated by osteoprotegerin (OPG). Besides increase of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, suppression of bone-forming cells by myeloma cells might contribute to bone loss in MM patients. In addition, clinical development of recombinant TRAIL as anti-myeloma therapy should include evaluation of potential side effects on viability of normal bone cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.05-4329fjeDOI Listing
April 2006

PKCdelta is involved in signal attenuation in CD3+ T cells.

Immunol Lett 2005 Jan;96(2):291-3

Department of Medical Biology and Human Genetics, Innsbruck Medical University, Schoepfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

PKCdelta has been implicated in the signalling events after engagement of the antigen specific receptor on B cells and the Fc-epsilon receptor on mast cells. Employing our recently established PKCdelta null mice , we here investigate the physiological function of PKCdelta in CD3+ T cells. As result, administration of anti-CD3 antibodies in vivo induced markedly increased blood plasma IL-2 levels (but not IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels) in the PKCdelta null mice, when compared to wild-type sibling controls. Additionally, in vitro T cell proliferative responses to allogenic MHC are significantly enhanced in PKCdelta-deficient CD3+ T cells. These findings suggest that PKCdelta serves a so far unrecognized role in TCR-induced negative regulation of IL-2 cytokine production and T cell proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2004.08.011DOI Listing
January 2005

Tuning the rheostat of the myelopoietic system via Fas and TRAIL.

Crit Rev Immunol 2003 ;23(4):301-22

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Laboratory of Molecular Cytology, University of Innsbruck Medical School, Anichstrasse 35, Innsbruck, Austria.

During the last decade, the concerted effort of numerous scientific groups has expanded our understanding of the finely tuned network present within bone marrow for the regulation of the hematopoietic system. This network, comprising humoral and cellular cross talk, is responsible for the adaptation of hematopoietic populations to demands as they arise. Major components of this control system are death receptors and their specific ligands, which eliminate superfluous cells once they have fulfilled their respective functions. The important role of Fas (CD95/Apo-1), one member of this death receptor family, in the regulation of T- and B-cell functions has been established. Alteration of Fas expression and/or function in lymphoid cells may contribute to the development of autoimmunity and/or neoplastic diseases. In addition to controlling lymphoid compartments, Fas is also involved in the regulation of myeloid cell functions. More recently, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its specific receptors (TRAIL-R) have been identified as further members of this death receptor/ligand family. The TRAIL-R/TRAIL system is of vital importance for the maturation and functioning of immune effector cells of lymphoid, as well as myeloid, origin. In the present review, we have summarized current knowledge about both death receptor/ligand systems in the expansion and functioning of cells from the myeloid compartments, highlighted their role in normal hematopoiesis, and assessed their alterations in pathologic or neoplastic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/critrevimmunol.v23.i4.30DOI Listing
August 2004
-->