Publications by authors named "Inge A M van Roovert-Reijrink"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low Incubation Temperature During Late Incubation and Early Feeding Affect Broiler Resilience to Necrotic Enteritis in Later Life.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:784869. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Resilient animals can cope with environmental disturbances in life with minimal loss of function. Resilience can be enhanced by optimizing early-life conditions. In poultry, eggshell temperature () during incubation and early feeding are two early-life conditions that are found to alter neonatal chick quality as well as immune response in later life. However, whether these early-life conditions affect disease resilience of chickens at later ages has never been studied yet. Hence, we studied the effects of EST [(37.8°C () or 36.7°C ()] during late incubation (≥embryonic days 17-19.5) and feeding strategy after hatch [immediately () or 51-54 h delayed ()] on later-life broiler resilience in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. At hatch, 960 broilers of both sexes from a 54-week-old Ross breeder flock were equally divided over 32 pens (eight replicate pens per treatment combination) and grown for 6 weeks. Necrotic enteritis was induced by a single inoculation of spp. at d 21 and repeated inoculation (3×/d) during d 21-25. Mortality and body weight (BW) gain were measured daily during d 21-35 as indicators of resilience. Additionally, disease morbidity was assessed (gut lesions, dysbacteriosis, shedding of oocysts, footpad dermatitis, and natural antibody levels in blood). Results showed a lack of interaction between EST and feeding strategy for the vast majority of the variables. A lower EST resulted in lower BW gain at d 5 and 8 post inoculation ( = 0.02) and more oocysts in feces at d 8 post inoculation compared to control EST ( < 0.01). Early feeding tended to lower mortality compared to delayed feeding ( = 0.06), but BW gain was not affected by feeding strategy. Morbidity characteristics were hardly affected by EST or feeding strategy. In conclusion, a few indications were found that a lower EST during late incubation as well as delayed feeding after hatch may each impair later-life resilience to necrotic enteritis. However, these findings were not manifested consistently in all parameters that were measured, and conclusions are drawn with some restraint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.784869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713642PMC
December 2021

Effects of lighting schedule during incubation of broiler chicken embryos on leg bone development at hatch and related physiological characteristics.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(8):e0221083. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Providing a broiler chicken embryo with a lighting schedule during incubation may stimulate leg bone development. Bone development may be stimulated through melatonin, a hormone released in darkness that stimulates bone development, or increased activity in embryos exposed to a light-dark rhythm. Aim was to investigate lighting conditions during incubation and leg bone development in broiler embryos, and to reveal the involved mechanisms. Embryos were incubated under continuous cool white 500 lux LED light (24L), continuous darkness (24D), or 16h of light, followed by 8h of darkness (16L:8D) from the start of incubation until hatching. Embryonic bone development largely takes place through cartilage formation (of which collagen is an important component) and ossification. Expression of genes involved in cartilage formation (col1α2, col2α1, and col10α1) and ossification (spp1, sparc, bglap, and alpl) in the tibia on embryonic day (ED)13, ED17, and at hatching were measured through qPCR. Femur and tibia dimensions were determined at hatch. Plasma growth hormone and corticosterone and pineal melatonin concentrations were determined every 4h between ED18.75 and ED19.5. Embryonic heart rate was measured twice daily from ED12 till ED19 as a reflection of activity. No difference between lighting treatments on gene expression was found. 24D resulted in higher femur length and higher femur and tibia weight, width, and depth at hatch than 16L:8D. 24D furthermore resulted in higher femur length and width and tibia depth than 24L. Embryonic heart rate was higher for 24D and 16L:8D in both its light and dark period than for 24L, suggesting that 24L embryos may have been less active. Melatonin and growth hormone showed different release patterns between treatments, but the biological significance was hard to interpret. To conclude, 24D resulted in larger leg bones at hatch than light during incubation, but the underlying pathways were not clear from present data.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695123PMC
March 2020

Light-dark rhythms during incubation of broiler chicken embryos and their effects on embryonic and post hatch leg bone development.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0210886. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

There are indications that lighting schedules applied during incubation can affect leg health at hatching and during rearing. The current experiment studied effects of lighting schedule: continuous light (24L), 12 hours of light, followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D), or continuous darkness (24D) throughout incubation of broiler chicken eggs on the development and strength of leg bones, and the role of selected hormones in bone development. In the tibiatarsus and femur, growth and ossification during incubation and size and microstructure at day (D)0, D21, and D35 post hatching were measured. Plasma melatonin, growth hormone, and IGF-I were determined perinatally. Incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia, a leg pathology resulting from poor ossification at the bone's epiphyseal plates, was determined at slaughter on D35. 24L resulted in lower embryonic ossification at embryonic day (E)13 and E14, and lower femur length, and lower tibiatarsus weight, length, cortical area, second moment of area around the minor axis, and mean cortical thickness at hatching on D0 compared to 12L:12D especially. Results were long term, with lower femur weight and tibiatarsus length, cortical and medullary area of the tibiatarsus, and second moment of area around the minor axis, and a higher incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia for 24L. Growth hormone at D0 was higher for 24D than for 12L:12D, with 24L intermediate, but plasma melatonin and IGF-I did not differ between treatments, and the role of plasma melatonin, IGF-I, and growth hormone in this process was therefore not clear. To conclude, in the current experiment, 24L during incubation of chicken eggs had a detrimental effect on embryonic leg bone development and later life leg bone strength compared to 24D and 12L:12D, while the light-dark rhythm of 12L:12D may have a stimulating effect on leg health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210886PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347197PMC
November 2019

Incubation lighting schedules and their interaction with matched or mismatched post hatch lighting schedules: Effects on broiler bone development and leg health at slaughter age.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 17;114:416-422. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The incidence of leg pathologies in broiler chickens with a developmental origin may be decreased by stimulating embryonic bone development through lighting schedules during incubation, but this may depend on post hatch lighting conditions. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules during incubation and their interactions with matched or mismatched lighting schedules post hatch affected bone development and leg health at slaughter age. In a 3×2 factorial designed experiment, eggs were incubated under continuous cool white LED light (Inc), 16h of light, 8h of darkness (Inc), or continuous darkness (Inc) from set till hatch. After hatch, broilers were housed under continuous light (PH, to match Inc and Inc) or 16h of light, 8h of darkness (PH, to match Inc). Gait scores were determined on D21, D28, and D34. After slaughter on D35, legs were scored for varus-valgus deformities, rotated tibia, tibial dyschondroplasia, bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), epiphyseolysis, and epiphyseal plate abnormalities from 1=absent to 4=severe. Femur and tibia dimensions and mineral density were determined. Inc led to more epiphyseal plate abnormalities than Inc or Inc. Inc led to more BCO than Inc. Gait scores on D21, D28, and D34, and bone dimensions did not differ between treatments. Inc led to higher femur mineral density than Inc with Inc intermediate. Providing a chicken with a matched post hatch lighting schedule did not affect most measurements of bone development and health. It can be concluded that a circadian incubation lighting schedule may improve leg health in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.07.013DOI Listing
October 2017

Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

Poult Sci 2015 Dec 13;94(12):2980-8. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming treatment suggested lower environmental stress than for the abrupt light-dark transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev276DOI Listing
December 2015
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