Publications by authors named "Inga Ludwin"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Longitudinal vaginal septum: a proposed classification and surgical management.

Fertil Steril 2020 10 18;114(4):899-901. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; Ludwin & Ludwin Gynecology, Private Medical Center, Krakow, Poland; Centermed Private Hospital and Clinic, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: To demonstrate various types of longitudinal vaginal septa (LVS), their classification, and the surgical management of typical and unique morphologic conditions of LVS.

Design: Video presentation of clinical appearance and surgical techniques for treatment of LVS.

Setting: University hospital and two private.

Patient(s): Representative cases from 121 consecutive women treated from 2013 to 2018 with LVS as a part of complex uterovaginal malformations or in isolated forms with [1] typical morphologic configuration of LVS, [2] rarer variants, or [3] specific anatomic restrictions.

Intervention(s): Resection of LVS performed as a main surgical procedure in cases with didelphys and bicornuate uterus in symptomatic women and as a part of corrective surgery of complete septate uterus. The three main nonsuturing techniques used were speculoscopy and septum excision using three different electrosurgical modalities; speculoscopy with laparoscopic devices; and vaginoscopy with hysteroscopic instruments.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical appearance and suggested classification, feasibility of surgery, and perioperative and anatomic results in a short follow-up period (3 months).

Result(s): We identified distinct types of longitudinal vaginal septa. Considering clinical appearance, we suggest classification of LVS based on four main features: [2] completeness of vaginal division: partial and complete type; [2] the symmetricity: symmetric and asymmetric position (with dominant left and right side); [3] association with the cervix: merged and isolated forms; and [4] concomitant vaginal openings: normal, and narrow openings: vaginal stenosis and hymen persistent (Fig. 1). Vaginoscopic techniques by hysteroscope were successful in atraumatic treatment of women with substantial anatomic restrictions, and all of the presented techniques can be effectively used for typical LVS. However, vessel-sealing systems allow for bloodless surgery in contrast with other methods. This study was based on previously acquired data during large prospective study approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent to participate in the prospective study and permit publishing anonymous data regarding the medical images, videos of procedures, and results was obtained from all patients.

Conclusion(s): A new classification of longitudinal vaginal septum allows better characterization compared with the currently available classification systems. Different surgical modalities are discussed with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Vaginoscopic incision using resectoscope is a reasonable alternative for women with an intact hymen and vaginal stenosis. The impact of vaginal septum resection on obstetric, reproductive, and sexual outcomes should be assessed in randomized controlled trials and large well-designed studies.
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October 2020

Virginity-sparing management of blind hemivagina in obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome.

Fertil Steril 2018 10;110(5):976-978

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.

Objectives: To demonstrate the hymen-sparing management of a blind hemivagina in obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome with the use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided vaginoscopic septoplasty supported by pre- and postoperative diagnostics with the use of a novel ultrasound technique: 3-dimensional saline-solution infusion contrast sonovaginocervicography (3D-SVC) with virtual speculoscopy.

Design: Video presentation of surgical and ultrasound techniques.

Setting: University hospital and two private centers.

Patient(s): We are demonstrating four cases with blind hemivagina as a component of OHVIRA syndrome and varying level and features of obstruction including: 1) hemihydrocolpos; 2) hemihematocolpos; 3) "old blood" deposits in small hemivagina; and 4) narrow hymenal opening.

Interventions(s): The patients were diagnosed preoperatively by means of 3D-SVC with the use of TRUS. Surgery was planned according to available data from ultrasound and 3D-SVC, and the place of incision of the vaginal septum and blinded hemivagina with cervix were performed with the use of TRUS guidance. Wide septal incision was performed with the use of a monopolar or bipolar resectoscope with needle Collin electrode, and after incision the occult second of double cervix or part of septate cervix was visualized, and the septum was excised with the use of a loop electrode. In narrow hymenal opening, a small diagnostic sheath was used for wide septal incision. Anatomic results in the vagina were assessed with the use of 3D-SVC 2 months after surgery.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Agreement between imaging from preoperative diagnostics with the use of 3D-SVC and intraoperative findings, and anatomic (hymenal integrity, obstruction, status of vagina and cervix) and clinical outcomes (pain).

Result(s): In these four cases, 3D-SVC accurately recognized the morphology of blind hemivagina, oblique vaginal septa, and double or septate cervix. Successful minimally invasive wide septoplasty with preservation of hymen were performed with the use of hysteroscope and TRUS guidance. Concomitant laparoscopy was performed if endometriosis and hematosalpinx were present. No peri- or late postoperative complications occurred. Patients were discharged within 3 hours or within 12 hours in case of laparoscopy. Anatomic results were optimal (lack of septum) or suboptimal (wide opening) after septum resection and incision, respectively, without recurrence of obstruction according to 3D-SVC. Pain was not noticed 2 months after the primary surgery.

Conclusion(s): 3D-SVC is a useful and accurate technique in diagnosis, surgery planning, and postoperative assessment in women with blind hemivagina and intact hymen. TRUS-guided vaginoscopic septoplasty is a reasonable alternative to traditional vaginal surgery and allows hymen preservation.
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October 2018

Pre-, intra-, and postoperative management of Robert's uterus.

Fertil Steril 2018 09;110(4):778-779

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio.

Objectives: To demonstrate a minimally invasive approach and management in three different types of Robert's uterus.

Design: Video presentation of surgical and ultrasound techniques.

Setting: University hospital and two private centers.

Patients: Patients with three types of Robert's uterus; a rare form of septate uterus consisting of non-communicating hemicavity, a contralateral unicornuate uterine cavity in a single uterine body with normal fundus: with large hematometra in the blind hemi-cavity and acute pelvic pain; with an inactive blind hemi-cavity without hematometra and recurrent miscarriages; and with small hematometra in the blind hemi-cavity.

Interventions: Three-dimensional ultrasound with saline infusion sonohysterography and automatic volume calculation software (SonoHySteroAVC) were used for differential diagnosis and surgical planning. Transrectally guided hysteroscopic metroplasty, a incision of myometrium between two parts of cavities by resectoscope and Collin's electrode, were performed and recorded. Sequentional balloon anti-adhesion therapy and three-dimensional ultrasound with saline infusion sonohysterography with SonoHysteroAVC were used in post-operative management.

Main Outcome Measures: Pre-, intra- and postoperative findings regarding uterine morphology, feasibility of surgery and anatomical and clinical outcomes.

Results: A successful unification of non-communicating and communicating uterine cavity parts during surgery, better shape and several times higher volume of uterine cavity, and total elimination of pain associated with obstruction after healing period were recorded.

Conclusions: Three-dimensional ultrasound techniques seem to be the best tool for complex pre- and postoperative management of Robert's uterus. Minimally invasive ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic metroplasty should be considered as the first choice of treatment because of the potential for normalization of uterine morphology and function.
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September 2018

"Y Sign" at the Level of the 3-Vessel and Trachea View: An Effective Fetal Marker of Aortic Dextroposition Anomalies in the First Trimester.

J Ultrasound Med 2018 Aug 27;37(8):1869-1880. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Dobreusg Ultrasound Group Practice, Krakow, Poland.

Objectives: The "Y sign" at the level of the 3-vessel and trachea view corresponds to thinning of main pulmonary artery and arterial duct and a dilated transverse aortic arch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Y sign for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies at the time of the first-trimester scan and to assess the screening performance of only the Y sign, only abnormal left axis deviation (axis sign), and their combination for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies.

Methods: A prospective evaluation of 6025 pregnant women undergoing first-trimester ultrasonography was conducted. The cardiac axis was measured in all examined patients and considered abnormal (positive axis sign) at greater than 57 °. The frequency of the Y sign and the axis sign was assessed for this population, and their screening performance for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies was calculated.

Results: A total of 5775 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Aortic dextroposition anomalies were diagnosed in 17 cases (tetralogy of Fallot in 8 and Fallot-like double-outlet right ventricle in 9). The Y sign was found in 18 of 5775 (0.3%) fetuses examined, of which 7 of 18 were confirmed with tetralogy of Fallot, 9 of 18 with a Fallot-like double-outlet right ventricle, and 2 of 18 with pulmonary stenosis. A positive axis sign of greater than 57 ° was found in 20 fetuses, including 4 with normal heart anatomy. The sensitivity values of the Y sign, the axis sign, and their combination were 94%, 76%, and 94%, respectively.

Conclusions: Visualization of the Y sign should increase the suspicion of aortic dextroposition anomalies in the late first trimester. The screening performance of the Y sign alone and in combination with an abnormal cardiac axis was high and may aid in the early diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies in the fetus.
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August 2018

Inter-Rater Reliability of Air/Saline HyCoSy, HyFoSy and HyFoSy Combined With Power Doppler for Screening Tubal Patency.

Ultraschall Med 2019 Feb 12;40(1):47-54. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Purpose:  To estimate the inter-observer reliability and agreement of offline analyses of three different ultrasound techniques for assessing tubal patency.

Methods:  100 tubes (n = 100) in 50 women were evaluated for tubal patency between November 2013 and July 2015 using ultrasound as index tests and laparoscopy as the reference standard. Three different ultrasound techniques were applied: two-dimensional grayscale ultrasound using air + saline as the contrast media (2D-HyCoSy); two- and three-dimensional grayscale ultrasound using foam as the contrast media (2 D/3D-HyFoSy); and the same technique but adding bi-directional power Doppler (2 D/3D-Doppler-HyFoSy). The videos containing full standardized exams using these three techniques were split into three parts, anonymized, encoded, randomized and reassessed in Nov. 2015 by two observers who assessed tubal patency using standardized criteria. These observers were blinded to any clinical information and each other's results. Proportions of observed agreement (po) and Cohen's Kappa (κ) including the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.

Results:  The inter-observer reliability/agreement in 2 D/3D-Doppler-HyFoSy (po = 0.99, κ = 0.95, 95 % CI: 0.93 - 0.97) was higher compared to 2D-air/saline-HyCoSy (po = 0.83, κ = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.40 - 0.68) and 2 D/3D-HyFoSy (po = 0.92, κ = 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.54 - 0.76).

Conclusion:  The inter-observer reliability and agreement of the diagnosis of tubal patency evaluating stored videos are improved when foam and power Doppler are used during acquisition. Therefore, this technique may be preferred to minimize misclassification and misdiagnosis.
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February 2019

Pain Intensity During Ultrasound Assessment of Uterine Cavity and Tubal Patency With and Without Painkillers: Prospective Observational Study.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2017 May - Jun;24(4):599-608. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; Ludwin & Ludwin Gynecology, Private Medical Center, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Study Objective: To determine the pain intensity and incidence of mild to severe pain during the ultrasound assessment of the uterine cavity and tubal patency using saline, air and saline, and foam as contrasts with and without painkiller.

Design: Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1).

Setting: Private clinic.

Patients: Three hundred infertile women who were consecutively submitted to uterine cavity and tubal patency assessment by ultrasound using saline, air, and foam in single exam between October 2012 and November 2013.

Interventions: No painkillers were used until March 2013 when we started offering an effervescent codeine tablet containing paracetamol 500 mg and codeine phosphate 30 mg approximately 1 hour before the procedure.

Measurements And Main Results: Pain intensity measured with an 11-point (0-10) numerical rating scale and incidence of moderate/severe levels of pain (numerical rating scale > 3) during the main components of the procedure (speculum insertion, catheter insertion, saline infusion, air and saline infusion, foam infusion, and after the procedure [0 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours]) were assessed. The incidence of moderatesevere pain was significantly lower in women using painkillers considering any moment of the procedure: 49 of 175 (28%) versus 65 of 125 (52%); relative risk, .54; 95% confidence interval, .40-.72; p < .001; number needed to treat, 4. Less women presented with moderate/severe pain during air and saline compared with foam infusion: 31 of 300 (10%) versus 75 of 300 (25%); p < .001; relative risk, .41, 95% confidence interval, .28-.61.

Conclusion: The incidence of moderate/severe pain during the ultrasound assessment of the uterine cavity and tubal patency is common. Our results suggest that using paracetamol + codeine before the procedure reduces the pain level, but randomized controlled trials are required.
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December 2017

Endometrial cancer and hyperplasia rate in women before menopause with abnormal uterine bleeding undergoing endometrial sampling.

Przegl Lek 2017;74(4):139-43.

Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the most common symptom of endometrial cancer (EC) and endometrial hyperplasia with (AH) or without (EH) atypia. Risk of malignancy and hyperplasia is significantly lower in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Only 10% of EC occurs before menopause. Obesity and age are well-recognized risk factors of endometrial cancer. Endometrial sampling is recommended in women at high risk of endometrial malignancy. The primary objective was to determine the incidence of EC, AH and EH in premenopausal women undergoing dilation and curettage (D&C) because of AUB. Additional objective of the study was to estimate the risk of EC and AH in overweight and obese women with two types of AUB: heavy menstrual bleeding (AUB-HMB) and intermenstrual bleeding (AUB-IMB), according to PALM-COEIN classification.

Material And Methods: Retrospective study in the population of women undergoing D&C in tertiary hospital because of AUB between Jan-2016 and Dec-2016. The incidence of EC, AH, EH was established. The influence of the variables: age, BMI, AUBHMB/ AUB-IMB on the occurrence of abnormal histology (EC, AH, EH) was evaluated. Finally, the model built by using backward stepwise regression and mechanism of v-fold cross-validation, showed no statistically significant relationship.

Results: EC was detected in 2/213 cases (0.9%; 95% CI 0.0003 to 0.036), AH in 3/213 cases (1.4%), giving a total of 5/213 (2.3%) women with AH or EC. EH was detected in 16/213 (7.5%) women. High BMI raises the chance of AH diagnosis: OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.05- 1.28). The presence of HMB compared to IMB reduces the chance of EH: OR 0.24 (95% CI 0.07-0.9). IMB increases the chance for the diagnosis of EH 4.11 times compared to HMB (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-14.9; p = 0.016).

Conclusions: EC in premenopausal women with AUB undergoing D&C is rare. There is a need to search for more effective methods of selection of patients than commonly used. Age and BMI do not seem to be factors that should be used to select patients.
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June 2018

Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

Menopause 2016 10;23(10):1130-8

1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland2Center of Rheumatology, Immunology and Rehabilitation, Dietl Specialistic Hospital, Krakow, Poland3Department of Public Health, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland4Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA.

Results: Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P < 0.001) or those with postmenopausal disease onset (P = 0.001). Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P < 0.001) in women with premenopausal RA onset, but was independent of the participant's age at menarche, number of pregnancies, or MTX therapy. Participants with RA onset at ≤ 35 years of age had a ninefold higher risk of premature menopause (P = 0.008).

Conclusions: The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.
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October 2016

Screening for trisomy 18 using traditional combined screening vs. ultrasound-based protocol in tertiary center environment.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Aug 5;30(15):1765-1770. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

f St. Lucas Obstetric Center , Czestochowa , Poland.

Objectives: To compare the screening performances of combined screening test risk algorithm for trisomy 18 (T18) using various cutoffs with a multiparameter ultrasound-based method. To compare the general and maternal age (MA)-based screening performances for T18 by means of combined screening and an ultrasound-based method.

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter study based on a mixed-risk non-selected population of women referred to referral centers for a first-trimester screening. Each subject was offered a choice between either a traditional combined screening (CSG arm) or an ultrasound-based screening (USG arm). General and MA-based screening performances were measured.

Results: The study population comprised 10 820 pregnancies as follows: 5132 in the CSG arm, including 28 cases of T18, and 5688 in the USG arm, including 29 cases of T18. In the CSG arm, the detection rate (DR) for T18 at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 3% was 86%, whereas the DR was 100% for the USG arm. MA influenced the T18 screening performance in the CSG arm and reduced the DR in MA ranges  <26 years and 31-35 years. This influence was not observed in the USG arm.

Conclusions: Only, a multiparameter ultrasound-based screening method may be considered an effective alternative to combined screening for T18 screening. The technique exhibits high and stable DRs irrespective of MA.
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August 2017

What are the most common first-trimester ultrasound findings in cases of Turner syndrome?

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jul 29;30(13):1632-1636. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

a Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics , Jagiellonian University , Krakow , Poland.

Objectives: To identify the most common first-trimester ultrasound findings in Turner syndrome (TS). To evaluate which first-trimester findings can be best used to predict the likelihood of TS.

Methods: This was a prospective study, based on singleton pregnancies. The referrals included 6210 patients. Scan protocol covered a review of the early fetal anatomy and markers of aneuploidy.

Results: Study population comprised 5644 pregnancies: 5613 with a normal karyotype and 31 cases of TS. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between euploidy and TS groups in terms of nuchal translucency (NT; 1.7 mm versus 8.8 mm) and fetal heart rate (FHR; 160 versus 171 beats per minute). None of the TS cases demonstrated absent markers of aneuploidy as opposed to 5133 (91.4%) cases of euploidy. NT and abnormal DV flow (aDV or revDV) were the most common markers found in combination in TS cases (n = 17; 54.8%). 27 (0.5%) cases of euploidy and 17 (54.8%) cases of TS revealed congenital heart defects. Fetal hydrops was observed in 14 cases of TS (43.8%) and in 5 of euploidy (0.1%). In backward regression model, NT > 3.5 mm and right dominant heart (RDH) augmented the risk of TS risk by 991 and 314 times, respectively.

Conclusions: First-trimester sonography is a feasible method to identify the most characteristic features of TS fenotype. When the first-trimester pattern of TS is considered, a highly thickened NT, FHR above the 95th percentile, abnormal ductus venosus velocimetry, fetal hydrops, and RDH should be specifically searched for.
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July 2017

Reliability of hysteroscopy-based diagnosis of septate, arcuate and normal uterus: estimate or guestimate?

Hum Reprod 2016 06 21;31(6):1376-7. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 31-501, Poland Ludwin & Ludwin Gynecology - Private Medical Center, Krakow 31-511, Poland.

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June 2016

Reliability of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy and American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification systems for congenital uterine anomalies detected using three-dimensional ultrasonography.

Fertil Steril 2015 Sep 7;104(3):688-97.e8. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To estimate the inter-rater/intrarater reliability of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE-ESGE) classification of congenital uterine malformations and to compare the results obtained with the reliability of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) classification supplemented with additional morphometric criteria.

Design: Reliability/agreement study.

Setting: Private clinic.

Patient(s): Uterine malformations (n = 50 patients, consecutively included) and normal uterus (n = 62 women, randomly selected) constituted the study. These were classified based on real-time three-dimensional ultrasound single volume transvaginal (or transrectal in the case of virgins, 4 cases) ultrasonography findings, which were assessed by an expert rater based on the ESHRE-ESGE criteria. The samples were obtained from women of reproductive age.

Intervention(s): Unprocessed three-dimensional datasets were independently evaluated offline by two experienced, blinded raters using both classification systems.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The κ-values and proportions of agreement.

Result(s): Standardized interpretation indicated that the ESHRE-ESGE system has substantial/good or almost perfect/very good reliability (κ >0.60 and >0.80), but the interpretation of the clinically relevant cutoffs of κ-values showed insufficient reliability for clinical use (κ < 0.90), especially in the diagnosis of septate uterus. The ASRM system had sufficient reliability (κ > 0.95).

Conclusion(s): The low reliability of the ESHRE-ESGE system may lead to a lack of consensus about the management of common uterine malformations and biased research interpretations. The use of the ASRM classification, supplemented with simple morphometric criteria, may be preferred if their sufficient reliability can be confirmed real-time in a large sample size.
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September 2015

Vertical transmission of HPV in pregnancy. A prospective clinical study of HPV-positive pregnant women.

Ginekol Pol 2014 Sep;85(9):672-6

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Data reporting vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus are inconsistent and scant. Vertical transmission may occur by hematogenic route (transplacental), or by ascending contamination, or through the birth canal, which may result in the dreaded and rare laryngeal papillomatosis. Infected sperm at fertilization is a potential route of infection, too.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the rate of vertical transmission of HPV in HPV-positive pregnant women to their newborn infants, as well as the risk factors of HPV vertical transmission.

Material And Methods: The clinical material was provided by 136 pregnant women, aged 18-45 years. Out of this group, 30 (22.05%) women with abnormal Pap test and positive DNA HPV test were prospectively observed Neonatal status, i.e. DNA HPV from the nasopharyngeal smear was recorded in all infants during the perinatal period. The conventional Pap test was performed with the cervix brush in all women. The Bethesda 2011 classification system was applied.

Results: An average C Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration in the studied pregnant women was 711.6083 (Std Dev--12.93). The most frequent cytological findings in the cervical smears from the examined women were ASCUS, n = 13 (43.3%), then--LSIL, n = 10 (33.3%), HSIL--n = 5 (16.7%) and AGC--n = 2 (6.7%). In the neonates, the presence of LR HPV DNA was detected in 9 cases (30.0%) and HR HPV DNA in 7 cases (23.3%). Fourteen neonates (46.7%) tested HPV DNA negative in the perinatal period.

Conclusions: HPV infection (incidental or chronic) is observed in approximately 22% of pregnant women from the Matopolska province. Neonatal HPV infection in HPV-positive women was observed in 53.3% of the subjects. CRP concentration > 10 mg/dl in the serum of pregnant women statistically significantly (p 0.001) reduces the risk of vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus.
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September 2014

Differentiating between septate and bicornuate uterus: bi-dimensional and 3-dimensional power Doppler findings.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2014 Nov-Dec;21(6):1123-6. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Krakow, Poland.

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June 2015

Diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional sonohysterography compared with office hysteroscopy and its interrater/intrarater agreement in uterine cavity assessment after hysteroscopic metroplasty.

Fertil Steril 2014 May 26;101(5):1392-9. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional sonohysterography (3D-SIS) and office hysteroscopy in uterine cavity assessment after hysteroscopic metroplasty (HM) and determine the interrater/intrarater agreement for 3D-SIS.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: University hospital, private hospital, and clinic.

Patient(s): One hundred forty-one women undergoing HM for septate uterus with a history of miscarriage and/or infertility.

Intervention(s): 3D-SIS and office hysteroscopy at 6-8 weeks after HM.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Shape of the uterine cavity, length of the fundal notch (≥1 or <1 cm), and the presence of intrauterine adhesions were assessed, and the interrater/intrarater agreement of 3D-SIS was evaluated in 30 randomly selected patients.

Result(s): Uterine abnormalities were detected with the use of hysteroscopy in 18 (12.8%) of 141 women. 3D-SIS was highly accurate (97.2%), sensitive (97%), and specific (100%), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 85%. The diagnostic values of hysteroscopy and 3D-SIS were not significantly different (McNemar test). 3D-SIS showed substantial interrater/intrarater agreement regarding overall uterine cavity evaluation (κ = 0.79 and 0.78, respectively).

Conclusion(s): 3D-SIS demonstrated substantial interrater/intrarater agreement for the postoperative evaluation of the uterine cavity, being as diagnostically accurate as hysteroscopy. The use of second-look hysteroscopy may be limited to cases that require reoperation.
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May 2014

Transrectal ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic myomectomy of submucosal myomas with a varying degree of myometrial penetration.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013 Sep-Oct;20(5):672-85. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Study Objective: To predict the 1-step complete resection rate after transrectal ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic myomectomy and to determine the usefulness of intraoperative transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in monitoring hysteroscopic electroresection of submucosal myomas.

Design: Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1).

Setting: University hospital.

Patients: One hundred twenty women with symptomatic (abnormal uterine bleeding or reproductive disorder), single, submucosal myomas underwent hysteroscopic electroresection. Groups 1 and 2 were monitored, respectively, with or without TRUS. Anatomical inclusion criteria were myoma ≤5 cm and myometrial free margin ≥3 mm above the myoma.

Interventions: Myomas were evaluated preoperatively via sonohysterograpy and were graded according to the guidelines outlined by the European Society of Hysteroscopy (ESH), including size and myometrial free margin, and according to the STEPW (size, topography, extension, penetration, and lateral wall) classification. On the basis of sonographic findings, patients with myomas >3 cm received gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for 1 to 3 months. Hysteroscopic myomectomy was performed with or without TRUS guidance. At 4 to 8 weeks after the initial procedure, postoperative transvaginal ultrasonography, sonohysterography, or second-look hysteroscopy was performed.

Measurements And Main Results: In the TRUS group, a significantly higher percentage of 1-step complete resections was observed than in the group without TRUS (91% vs 73%) (p = .02). This was associated with a statistically significant difference in the subgroups of myomas that were deeply penetrating into the myometrium (89% vs 55%) (p < .01). One-way logistic analysis of data for all treated patients indicated the use of TRUS, as well as the ESH and STEPW classifications, as significant factors influencing the 1-step complete resection. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, use of TRUS (odds ratio [OR], 2.74; p < .001), myomas graded 0 or 1 according to ESH (OR, 3.55; p < .001), and size <3 cm (OR, 2.35; p < .05) were significantly associated with 1-step complete resection (area under the curve, 0.80; p < .001). In the TRUS group there were two significant predictors: size <3 cm (OR = 5.21; p < .05) and myometrial free margin <5 mm (OR, 0.18; p < .05).

Conclusion: Intraoperative use of TRUS during hysteroscopic myomectomy increases the chance of complete 1-step removal of submucosal myomas that deeply penetrate the myometrium.
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May 2014

Hormone replacement therapy regimens in chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure and the subsequent correction of hormone levels.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2012 ;33(7):697-702

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Collegium Medium Jagiellonian University of Kraków, Poland.

Objectives: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a consequence of gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy given in antyneoplasia treatment. In young women it will correlate with menopausal symptoms which tend to appear due to depleted ovarian follicle reserve.

Design: It was a case series study that included women 18-50 years old who were treated for malignancy with gonadotoxic chemioradiotherapy. We have measured blood hormonal levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone within one month of various hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Results: We have observed different kind of hormonal reaction according to FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels due to various hormonal replacement therapy. The administration of various HRT regimens presented with a decrease in the blood concentration of estradiol E2 and progesterone and a concomitant increase of FSH and LH. These findings demonstrate a shift to physiological ranges and a simultaneous improvement of symptoms associated with CI-POF.

Conclusions: The most appropriate therapy needs to be selected according to the patient's alleviation of symptoms and correction of blood hormone levels.
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April 2013

Two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography and sonohysterography versus hysteroscopy with laparoscopy in the differential diagnosis of septate, bicornuate, and arcuate uteri.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013 Jan-Feb;20(1):90-9

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Study Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy and to compare the diagnostic value of 3-dimensional sonohysterography (3D-SIS), 3-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography (3D-TVS), 2-dimensional sonohysterography (2D-SIS), and 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography (2D-TVS) (initial and expert diagnosis) in the differential diagnosis of septate, bicornuate, and arcuate uteri.

Design: Prospective clinical study (Canadian Task Force II-2).

Setting: University hospital and private hospital and clinic.

Patients: A total of 117 women with a history of recurrent abortions or infertility and a 2D-TVS initial diagnosis of a septate, bicornuate, or arcuate uterus.

Interventions: Expert 2D-TVS, 3D-TVS, 2D-SIS, and 3D-SIS performed by experienced examiners and hysteroscopy with laparoscopy to establish the final diagnosis.

Measurements And Main Results: Hysteroscopy performed in conjunction with laparoscopy (HL) detected 23 arcuate, 60 septate, 22 bicornuate, and 12 normal uteri. 3D-SIS showed perfect diagnostic accuracy (100.0%) in general detection of uterine abnormalities, compared with initial 2D-TVS (77.8%), expert 2D-TVS (90.6%), 2D-SIS (94.0%), and 3D-TVS (97.4%). In the overall diagnosis of uterine anomalies, all of the diagnostic methods had statistically significantly better diagnostic value than initial 2D-TVS (p < .001), whereas 3D-SIS was the only method that was better than expert 2D-TVS (p < .001).

Conclusions: Although 3D-SIS was identical to HL, with the highest accuracy, there was no significant difference in diagnostic value between 3D-TVS with 2D-SIS and 3D-SIS or between expert 2D-TVS and 3D-TVS with 2D-SIS. The high diagnostic value of these ultrasonographic tools questions the need for endoscopy in the differential diagnosis of the most common congenital uterine anomalies.
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July 2013

[Current guidelines for prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation].

Przegl Lek 2012 ;69(12):1283-6

Klinika Ginekologii i Onkologii, Szpitala Uniwersyteckiego w Krakowie.

Cytostatic drugs extravasation is the serious side effect of chemotherapy. It may lead to health-threatening complications as well as to impairment of cancer patients quality of life. Prevention, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment significantly reduce the consequences of extravasation. Training of medical staff and patients education have enormous importance on this point.
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August 2013

Prevalence of HPV-DNA in Pap smears containing ASC and AGC performed within Population Programme of Prophylaxis and Early Detection of Early Cervical Cancer.

Przegl Lek 2012 ;69(11):1189-93

Katedra Połoznictwa i Ginekologii, Klinika Ginekologii i Onkologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Kraków.

Aim: to assess the incidence of HPV -DNA in women with ASC/AGC compared to patients with normal Pap smears.

Material And Methods: The study group consisted of 242 women (207 ASC and 35 AGC cases). The control group counted 200 age-matched women with negative Pap smears. Cervical samples collected from all the participants were tested for the presence of HPV-DNA using the Hybrid Capture-2 test.

Results: Total HPV infection was significantly higher in the study than in the control group (43.0% vs.14.0%) (p=0.005). There was no difference in the incidence of HPV -DNA between ASC and AGC groups. Prevalence of HPV-DNA ASC-H was significantly higher in ASC-US group (83.3% vs. 40.5%) (p=0.004). HPV positive endometrial AGC significantly outnumbered HPV positive endocervical AGC (88.9% vs. 26.9%) (p=0.003). Similar trends were observed for the high-risk type of HPV (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The significant difference in HPV -DNA incidence between the study and control groups suggests that HPV plays a role in the development of ASC and AGC. The implementation of HPV testing in all women diagnosed with ASC or AGC can lead to tailored therapeutic management and more careful follow-up care.
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May 2013

Diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography, hysterosalpingography and diagnostic hysteroscopy in diagnosis of arcuate, septate and bicornuate uterus.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2011 Mar 11;37(3):178-86. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography (SHG), hysterosalpingography (HSG) and diagnostic hysteroscopy (DH) in uterine anomaly detection and to assess the role of these various modalities in the differential diagnosis of arcuate, septate and bicornuate uteri.

Methods: Eighty-three women, with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions or infertility and initial diagnosis of uterine anomaly were included in the study. Diagnostic work-up comprised of SHG, HSG and DH. To assess the accuracy of these methods all the patients underwent hysterolaparoscopy to establish the final diagnosis. The correlation between the results of each method was evaluated and diagnostic accuracy of each method was assessed in the whole group of women as well as in subgroups of arcuate, septate and bicornuate uteri using receiver operator curve (ROC) method by estimating the area under the curve (AUC).

Results: In the overall diagnosis of uterine anomalies, SHG with accuracy of 95.2% and correlation index of 0.873 (P < 0.001) proved to be a significantly better tool compared to DH (SHG(AUC) = 0.924 versus DH(AUC) = 0.761 P = 0.008), while no significant differences were observed between SHG versus HSG and DH versus HSG. SHG showed significantly higher accuracy (100.0%) compared to DH (80.7%) and HSG (80.7%) in differentiation of a septate (SHG(AUC) = 1.000 versus DH(AUC) = 0.816 P < 0.001 and SHG(AUC) = 1.000 versus HSG(ACC) = 0.818; P < 0.001) and bicornuate uterus (SGH(AUC) = 1.000 versus DH(ACC) = 0.707; P < 0.001 and SHG(ACC) = 1.000 versus HSG(AUC) = 0.790; P = 0.002).

Conclusion: SHG is a noninvasive, cost-effective method available in an outpatient setting that is highly accurate in identifying uterine anomalies, in particular septate and bicornuate uterus.
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March 2011

[Influence of vaginal microflora on the presence of persistent atypical squamous cells and atypical glandular cells in pap smear--a 3-year study].

Ginekol Pol 2010 May;81(5):364-9

Klinika Ginekologii i Onkologii Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagielońskiego w Krakowie.

Aim Of The Study: the evaluation of influence of abnormal vaginal biocoenosis on presence and maintenance ASC and AGC in Pap smears.

Methods: The study group consisted of 242 non-pregnant women (25-65 years of age): 207 women (4.96%) with atypical sqamous cells and 35 (0.7%) with atypical glandular cells. In all women the vaginal flora was assessed by Nugent scale.

Results: Vaginal flora was normal in 157 (75.8%) and pathological in 50 (24.1%) women with ASC. In the ASC subgroup, the highest proportion of physiological vaginal flora was observed in 151 patients (77.4%) with ASC-US, in comparison to 44 (22.6%) with ASC-H, in which the percentage of women with normal or abnormal flora was the same (50% vs 50%). This difference was statistically significant. In case of AGC, vaginal culture was physiological in 23 (65.7%) women, and in 12 (34.3%) abnormal vaginal flora with features of the inflammation. The statistically significant influence of abnormal vaginal flora on the presence of atypical endometrial and endocervical cells was not observed.

Conclusions: We did not observed any influence of abnormal vaginal flora on the presence, regression and progression of ASC and AGC.
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May 2010