Publications by authors named "Inessa Lokshina"

2 Publications

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Ferroptotic cell death and TLR4/Trif signaling initiate neutrophil recruitment after heart transplantation.

J Clin Invest 2019 02 26;129(6):2293-2304. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Surgery and.

Non-apoptotic forms of cell death can trigger sterile inflammation through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns, which are recognized by innate immune receptors. However, despite years of investigation the mechanisms which initiate inflammatory responses after heart transplantation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, decreases the level of pro-ferroptotic hydroperoxy-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, reduces cardiomyocyte cell death and blocks neutrophil recruitment following heart transplantation. Inhibition of necroptosis had no effect on neutrophil trafficking in cardiac grafts. We extend these observations to a model of coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury where inhibition of ferroptosis resulted in reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular systolic function, and reduced left ventricular remodeling. Using intravital imaging of cardiac transplants, we uncover that ferroptosis orchestrates neutrophil recruitment to injured myocardium by promoting adhesion of neutrophils to coronary vascular endothelial cells through a TLR4/TRIF/type I IFN signaling pathway. Thus, we have discovered that inflammatory responses after cardiac transplantation are initiated through ferroptotic cell death and TLR4/Trif-dependent signaling in graft endothelial cells. These findings provide a platform for the development of therapeutic strategies for heart transplant recipients and patients, who are vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion injury following restoration of coronary blood flow.
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February 2019

Tissue Resident CCR2- and CCR2+ Cardiac Macrophages Differentially Orchestrate Monocyte Recruitment and Fate Specification Following Myocardial Injury.

Circ Res 2019 01;124(2):263-278

From the Department of Medicine (G.B., A.B., A.L. Koenig, I.L., J.M., B.I., C.W., A. Kovacs, K.J.L.), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Rationale: Recent advancements have brought to light the origins, complexity, and functions of tissue-resident macrophages. However, in the context of tissue injury or disease, large numbers of monocytes infiltrate the heart and are thought to contribute to adverse remodeling and heart failure pathogenesis. Little is understood about the diversity of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages recruited to the heart after myocardial injury, including the mechanisms that regulate monocyte recruitment and fate specification.

Objective: We sought to test the hypothesis that distinct subsets of tissue-resident CCR2- (C-C chemokine receptor 2) and CCR2+ macrophages orchestrate monocyte recruitment and fate specification after myocardial injury.

Methods And Results: We reveal that in numerous mouse models of cardiomyocyte cell death (permanent myocardial infarction, reperfused myocardial infarction, and diphtheria toxin cardiomyocyte ablation), there is a shift in macrophage ontogeny whereby tissue-resident macrophages are predominately replaced by infiltrating monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Using syngeneic cardiac transplantation to model ischemia-reperfusion injury and distinguish tissue-resident from recruited cell populations in combination with intravital 2-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that monocyte recruitment is differentially orchestrated by distinct subsets of tissue-resident cardiac macrophages. Tissue-resident CCR2+ macrophages promote monocyte recruitment through an MYD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response 88)-dependent mechanism that results in release of MCPs (monocyte chemoattractant proteins) and monocyte mobilization. In contrast, tissue-resident CCR2- macrophages inhibit monocyte recruitment. Using CD (cluster of differentiation) 169-DTR (diphtheria toxin receptor) and CCR2-DTR mice, we further show that selective depletion of either tissue-resident CCR2- or CCR2+ macrophages before myocardial infarction results in divergent effects on left ventricular function, myocardial remodeling, and monocyte recruitment. Finally, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that tissue-resident cardiac macrophages differentially instruct monocyte fate specification.

Conclusions: Collectively, these observations establish the mechanistic basis by which monocytes are initially recruited to the injured heart and provide new insights into the heterogeneity of monocyte-derived macrophages.
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January 2019