Publications by authors named "Ines Martin Padura"

30 Publications

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ECM deposition is driven by caveolin-1-dependent regulation of exosomal biogenesis and cargo sorting.

J Cell Biol 2020 Nov;219(11)

Mechanoadaptation and Caveolae Biology Laboratory, Cell and Developmental Biology Area, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

The composition and physical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) critically influence tumor progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying ECM layering are poorly understood. Tumor-stroma interaction critically depends on cell communication mediated by exosomes, small vesicles generated within multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We show that caveolin-1 (Cav1) centrally regulates exosome biogenesis and exosomal protein cargo sorting through the control of cholesterol content at the endosomal compartment/MVBs. Quantitative proteomics profiling revealed that Cav1 is required for exosomal sorting of ECM protein cargo subsets, including Tenascin-C (TnC), and for fibroblast-derived exosomes to efficiently deposit ECM and promote tumor invasion. Cav1-driven exosomal ECM deposition not only promotes local stromal remodeling but also the generation of distant ECM-enriched stromal niches in vivo. Cav1 acts as a cholesterol rheostat in MVBs, determining sorting of ECM components into specific exosome pools and thus ECM deposition. This supports a model by which Cav1 is a central regulatory hub for tumor-stroma interactions through a novel exosome-dependent ECM deposition mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202006178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551399PMC
November 2020

Caveolin-1 Modulates Mechanotransduction Responses to Substrate Stiffness through Actin-Dependent Control of YAP.

Cell Rep 2018 11;25(6):1622-1635.e6

Mechanoadaptation & Caveolae Biology Lab, Cell and Developmental Biology Area, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid 28029, Spain. Electronic address:

The transcriptional regulator YAP orchestrates many cellular functions, including tissue homeostasis, organ growth control, and tumorigenesis. Mechanical stimuli are a key input to YAP activity, but the mechanisms controlling this regulation remain largely uncharacterized. We show that CAV1 positively modulates the YAP mechanoresponse to substrate stiffness through actin-cytoskeleton-dependent and Hippo-kinase-independent mechanisms. RHO activity is necessary, but not sufficient, for CAV1-dependent mechanoregulation of YAP activity. Systematic quantitative interactomic studies and image-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens provide evidence that this actin-dependent regulation is determined by YAP interaction with the 14-3-3 protein YWHAH. Constitutive YAP activation rescued phenotypes associated with CAV1 loss, including defective extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. CAV1-mediated control of YAP activity was validated in vivo in a model of pancreatitis-driven acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. We propose that this CAV1-YAP mechanotransduction system controls a significant share of cell programs linked to these two pivotal regulators, with potentially broad physiological and pathological implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.10.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231326PMC
November 2018

Lung Cancer Onset in Wild Type Mice Following Bone Marrow Reconstitution with kras(v12) Cells.

Sci Rep 2015 Aug 12;5:13047. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

European Institute of Oncology, Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, Milan, Italy.

A role for bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in tissue repair and malignancy onset has been proposed, but their contribution is still debated. We tested the ability of BMDCs containing the inducible kras(V12) oncogene to initiate lung adenocarcinoma. For our experimental strategy, we reconstituted lethally irradiated wild type mice with BMDCs carrying inducible kras(V12) and subsequently induced oncogene expression by 4-OHT administration. Epithelial lung lesions, from adenoma to adenocarcinomas, appeared at successive time points. These results show that lung tumors were derived from donor BMDCs and indicate a direct involvement of bone marrow cells in the development of epithelial cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep13047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4533313PMC
August 2015

Parallel multifunctionalization of nanoparticles: a one-step modular approach for in vivo imaging.

Bioconjug Chem 2015 Jan 19;26(1):153-60. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Advanced Imaging Unit, Department of Atherotrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES) , Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Multifunctional nanoparticles are usually produced by sequential synthesis, with long multistep protocols. Our study reports a generic modular strategy for the parallel one-step multifunctionalization of different hydrophobic nanoparticles. The method was designed and developed by taking advantage of the natural noncovalent interactions between the fatty acid binding sites of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the aliphatic surfactants on different inorganic nanomaterials. As a general example of the approach, three different nanoparticles-iron oxide, upconverting nanophosphors, and gold nanospheres-were nanoemulsified in water with BSA. To support specific applications, multifunctional capability was incorporated with a variety of previously modified BSA modules. These modules include different conjugated groups, such as chelating agents for (68)Ga or (89)Zr and ligand molecules for enhanced in vivo targeting. A large library of 13 multimodal contrast agents was developed with this convergent strategy. This platform allows a highly versatile and easy tailoring option for efficient incorporation of functional groups. Finally, as demonstration of this versatility, a bimodal (PET/MRI) probe including a maleimide-conjugated BSA was selectively synthesized with an RGD peptide for in vivo imaging detection of tumor angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bc500536yDOI Listing
January 2015

A RAB5/RAB4 recycling circuitry induces a proteolytic invasive program and promotes tumor dissemination.

J Cell Biol 2014 Jul;206(2):307-28

Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare (IFOM), 20139 Milan, Italy Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy

The mechanisms by which tumor cells metastasize and the role of endocytic proteins in this process are not well understood. We report that overexpression of the GTPase RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis, is predictive of aggressive behavior and metastatic ability in human breast cancers. RAB5A is necessary and sufficient to promote local invasion and distant dissemination of various mammary and nonmammary tumor cell lines, and this prometastatic behavior is associated with increased intratumoral cell motility. Specifically, RAB5A is necessary for the formation of invadosomes, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. RAB5A promotes RAB4- and RABENOSYN-5-dependent endo/exocytic cycles (EECs) of critical cargos (membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease [MT1-MMP] and β3 integrin) required for invadosome formation in response to motogenic stimuli. This trafficking circuitry is necessary for spatially localized hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling that drives invasive, proteolysis-dependent chemotaxis in vitro and for conversion of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive ductal carcinoma in vivo. Thus, RAB5A/RAB4 EECs promote tumor dissemination by controlling a proteolytic, mesenchymal invasive program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201403127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107781PMC
July 2014

Complementary populations of human adipose CD34+ progenitor cells promote growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of breast cancer.

Cancer Res 2013 Oct 5;73(19):5880-91. Epub 2013 Aug 5.

Authors' Affiliations: Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Pathology, and Division of Plastic Surgery, European Institute of Oncology; and Division of Pathology, San Paolo University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Obesity is associated with an increased frequency, morbidity, and mortality of several types of neoplastic diseases, including postmenopausal breast cancer. We found that human adipose tissue contains two populations of progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer. CD45(-)CD34(+)CD31(+)CD13(-)CCRL2(+) endothelial cells can generate mature endothelial cells and capillaries. Their cancer-promoting effect in the breast was limited in the absence of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD31(-)CD13(+)CD140b(+) mesenchymal progenitors/adipose stromal cells (ASC), which generated pericytes and were more efficient than endothelial cells in promoting local tumor growth. Both endothelial cells and ASCs induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene expression in luminal breast cancer cells. Endothelial cells (but not ASCs) migrated to lymph nodes and to contralateral nascent breast cancer lesions where they generated new vessels. In vitro and in vivo, endothelial cells were more efficient than ASCs in promoting tumor migration and in inducing metastases. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) effectively mobilized endothelial cells (but not ASCs), and the addition of chemotherapy and/or of CXCR4 inhibitors did not increase endothelial cell or ASC blood mobilization. Our findings suggest that adipose tissue progenitor cells cooperate in driving progression and metastatic spread of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-0821DOI Listing
October 2013

Human haemato-endothelial precursors: cord blood CD34+ cells produce haemogenic endothelium.

PLoS One 2012 4;7(12):e51109. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Department of Haematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Embryologic and genetic evidence suggest a common origin of haematopoietic and endothelial lineages. In the murine embryo, recent studies indicate the presence of haemogenic endothelium and of a common haemato-endothelial precursor, the haemangioblast. Conversely, so far, little evidence supports the presence of haemogenic endothelium and haemangioblasts in later stages of development. Our studies indicate that human cord blood haematopoietic progenitors (CD34+45+144-), triggered by murine hepatocyte conditioned medium, differentiate into adherent proliferating endothelial precursors (CD144+CD105+CD146+CD31+CD45-) capable of functioning as haemogenic endothelium. These cells, proven to give rise to functional vasculature in vivo, if further instructed by haematopoietic growth factors, first switch to transitional CD144+45+ cells and then to haematopoietic cells. These results highlight the plasticity of haemato-endhothelial precursors in human post-natal life. Furthermore, these studies may provide highly enriched populations of human post-fetal haemogenic endothelium, paving the way for innovative projects at a basic and possibly clinical level.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051109PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514182PMC
May 2013

Spontaneous cell fusion of acute leukemia cells and macrophages observed in cells with leukemic potential.

Neoplasia 2012 Nov;14(11):1057-66

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Cell fusion plays a well-recognized physiological role during development, while its function during progression is still unclear. Here, we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells spontaneously fused with murine host cells in vivo. AML cells fused in most cases with mouse macrophages. Other targets of AML cell fusion were dendritic and endothelial cells. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis revealed that successive recipients conserved detectable amounts of parental DNA. Moreover, in a mouse AML1-ETO model where female AML1-ETO-leukemic cells, expressing CD45.2, were injected in congenic CD45.1 male mice AML cells, we found hybrid cells expressing both allelic types of CD45 and XXY set of sexual chromosomes. More importantly, the fusion protein AML1-ETO was transferred in the hybrid cells. When sorted hybrid cells were reinjected in a secondary recipient, they gave rise to leukemia with 100% penetrance and similar time of onset of leukemic cells. Our data indicate that in vivo fusion of cancer cells with host cells may be a mechanism of gene transfer for cancer dissemination and suggest that fused cells may be used to identify still unrecognized leukemogenic genes that are conserved in hybrid cells and able to perpetuate leukemia in vivo.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514741PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1593/neo.12736DOI Listing
November 2012

Residual dormant cancer stem-cell foci are responsible for tumor relapse after antiangiogenic metronomic therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts.

Lab Invest 2012 Jul 30;92(7):952-66. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Currently available chemotherapeutic options are not curative due in part to tumor resistance to conventional therapies. We generated orthotopic HCC mouse models in immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL2rγ null mice by injection of human alpha-feto protein (hAFP)- and/or luciferase-expressing HCC cell lines and primary cells from patients, where tumor growth and spread can be accurately monitored in a non-invasive way. In this model, low-dose metronomic administration of cyclophosphamide (LDM-CTX) caused complete regression of the tumor mass. A significant increase in survival (P<0.0001), reduced aberrant angiogenesis and hyperproliferation, and decrease in the number of circulating tumor cells were found in LDM-CTX-treated animals, in comparison with untreated mice. Co-administration of LDM-CTX with anti-VEGF therapy further improved the therapeutic efficacy. However, the presence of residual circulating hAFP levels suggested that some tumor cells were still present in livers of treated mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed that those cells had a hAFP+/CD13+/PCNA- phenotype, suggesting that they were dormant cancer stem cells (CSC). Indeed, discontinuation of therapy resulted in tumor regrowth. Moreover, in-vitro LDM-CTX treatment reduced hepatosphere formation in both number and size, and the resulting spheres were enriched in CD13+ cells indicating that these cells were particularly resistant to therapy. Co-treatment of the CD13-targeting drug, bestatin, with LDM-CTX leads to slower tumor growth and a decreased tumor volume. Therefore, combining a CD13 inhibitor, which targets the CSC-like population, with LDM-CTX chemotherapy may be used to eradicate minimal residual disease and improve the treatment of liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2012.65DOI Listing
July 2012

The white adipose tissue used in lipotransfer procedures is a rich reservoir of CD34+ progenitors able to promote cancer progression.

Cancer Res 2012 Jan 3;72(1):325-34. Epub 2011 Nov 3.

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Previous studies have suggested a "catalytic role" in neoplastic angiogenesis and cancer progression for bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). However, preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the quantitative role of marrow-derived EPCs in cancer vascularization is extremely variable. We have found that human and murine white adipose tissue (WAT) is a very rich reservoir of CD45-CD34(+) EPCs with endothelial differentiation potential, containing a mean of 263 times more CD45-CD34(+) cells/mL than bone marrow. Compared with marrow-derived CD34(+) cells mobilized in blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, purified WAT-CD34(+) cells expressed similar levels of stemness-related genes, significantly increased levels of angiogenesis-related genes, and increased levels of FAP-α, a crucial suppressor of antitumor immunity. In vitro, WAT-CD34(+) cells generated mature endothelial cells and capillary tubes as efficiently as mature mesenchymal cells. The coinjection of human WAT-CD34(+) cells from lipotransfer procedures contributed to tumor vascularization and significantly increased tumor growth and metastases in several orthotopic models of human breast cancer in immunodeficient mice. Endothelial cells derived from human WAT-CD34(+) cells lined the lumen of cancer vessels. These data indicate that CD34(+) WAT cells can promote cancer progression and metastases. Our results highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the role of different WAT-derived cells used in lipotransfer for breast reconstruction in patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1739DOI Listing
January 2012

Anti-VEGF and beyond: shaping a new generation of anti-angiogenic therapies for cancer.

Drug Discov Today 2011 Dec 22;16(23-24):1052-60. Epub 2011 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology and Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

The anti-angiogenic class of drugs is one of the few where representatives have gained international approval for clinical use in oncology during the past decade. Most of the biological and clinical activity of the currently available generation of anti-angiogenic drugs targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its related pathways. However, the clinical benefits associated with the use of these drugs have, so far, been limited. There is, therefore, an unmet need for biomarkers that can be used to identify patients who are most likely to benefit therapeutically and also to predict the best schedule and dosage for these drugs. Here, we discuss some of the emerging new combination strategies involving the approved anti-angiogenic drugs, some of the emerging targets associated with neoplastic angiogenesis and some novel agents used as a paradigm of the next generation of anti-angiogenic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2011.08.007DOI Listing
December 2011

Therapeutic effect of lenalidomide in a novel xenograft mouse model of human blastic NK cell lymphoma/blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Oct 19;17(19):6163-73. Epub 2011 Aug 19.

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma/blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BNKL) is a rare and aggressive neoplasia characterized by infiltration of blast CD4(+)/CD56(+) cells in the skin, the bone marrow, and peripheral blood. Currently, more efforts are required to better define molecular and biological mechanisms associated with this pathology. To the best of our knowledge, no mouse model recapitulated human BNKL so far.

Experimental Design: Primary bone marrow cells from a BNKL patient were injected in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficient interleukin (IL) 2rγ(-/-) mice with the intent to generate the first BNKL orthotopic mouse model. Moreover, because of the lack of efficient treatments for BNKL, we treated mice with lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic drug.

Results: We generated in mice a fatal disease resembling human BNKL. After lenalidomide treatment, we observed a significant reduction in the number of peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen BNKL cells. Tumor reduction parallels with a significant decrease in the number of circulating endothelial and progenitor cells and CD31(+) murine endothelial cells. In mice treated with lenalidomide, BNKL levels of active caspase-3 were significantly augmented, thus showing proapoptotic and cytotoxic effects of this drug in vivo. An opposite result was found for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a proliferation marker.

Conclusions: Our BNKL model might better define the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this disease, and lenalidomide might be considered for the future therapy of BNKL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0212DOI Listing
October 2011

Evidence of distinct tumour-propagating cell populations with different properties in primary human hepatocellular carcinoma.

PLoS One 2011 23;6(6):e21369. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Experimental Hepatology Laboratory, Centre of Transfusion Medicine, Cellular Therapy and Cryobiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: Increasing evidence that a number of malignancies are characterised by tumour cell heterogeneity has recently been published, but there is still a lack of data concerning liver cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise tumour-propagating cell (TPC) compartments within human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: After long-term culture, we identified three morphologically different tumour cell populations in a single HCC specimen, and extensively characterised them by means of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, karyotyping and microarray analyses, single cell cloning, and xenotransplantation in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ/⁻ mice.

Results: The primary cell populations (hcc-1, -2 and -3) and two clones generated by means of limiting dilutions from hcc-1 (clone-1/7 and -1/8) differently expressed a number of tumour-associated stem cell markers, including EpCAM, CD49f, CD44, CD133, CD56, Thy-1, ALDH and CK19, and also showed different doubling times, drug resistance and tumorigenic potential. Moreover, we found that ALDH expression, in combination with CD44 or Thy-1 negativity or CD56 positivity identified subpopulations with a higher clonogenic potential within hcc-1, hcc-2 and hcc-3 primary cell populations, respectively. Karyotyping revealed the clonal evolution of the cell populations and clones within the primary tumour. Importantly, the primary tumour cell population with the greatest tumorigenic potential and drug resistance showed more chromosomal alterations than the others and contained clones with epithelial and mesenchymal features.

Conclusions: Individual HCCs can harbor different self-renewing tumorigenic cell types expressing a variety of morphological and phenotypical markers, karyotypic evolution and different gene expression profiles. This suggests that the models of hepatic carcinogenesis should take into account TPC heterogeneity due to intratumour clonal evolution.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0021369PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3121782PMC
November 2011

Circulating perivascular progenitors: a target of PDGFR inhibition.

Int J Cancer 2011 Sep 13;129(6):1344-50. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Cancer blood vessels consist of two interacting types of cells: inner lining endothelial cells (ECs) and surrounding perivascular cells (pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells or mural cells). PDGFRbeta(CD140b)+ progenitor perivascular cells (PPC) can differentiate into pericytes and regulate vessel stability and vascular survival in tumors. Similarly to what we have done with circulating ECs and progenitors, we developed a flow cytometry procedure for the enumeration of circulating PPCs and the study of their viability in murine models of cancer and in cancer patients. DNA+CD45-CD31-CD140b+ cells were enumerated by six-colour flow cytometry, their morphology was studied by electron microscopy, PPC specificity confirmed by reverse trascription-PCR (RT-PCR) expression of CD140b mRNA, and viability assessed by Syto16 and 7AAD. In preclinical marrow transplantation studies, 9 ± 4% of circulating PPCs were derived from the marrow donor. PPCs were increased in cancer-bearing mice and in patients affected by some types of cancer. At variance with the kinetic of circulating endothelial progenitors, high-dose cyclophosphamide reduced the number of viable PPCs. The administration of sunitinib, a drug known to inhibit PDGFR, was associated in murine models and in cancer patients with an increase of apoptotic/necrotic circulating PPC, suggesting a direct targeting of these cells. PPC enumeration might be studied as a tool for the definition of the optimal biologic dose of anti-PDGFR drugs and investigated clinically as a possible predictive/prognostic tool in patients receiving anti-PDGFR drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25816DOI Listing
September 2011

EPO receptor gain-of-function causes hereditary polycythemia, alters CD34 cell differentiation and increases circulating endothelial precursors.

PLoS One 2010 Aug 5;5(8):e12015. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Background: Gain-of-function of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) mutations represent the major cause of primary hereditary polycythemia. EPOR is also found in non-erythroid tissues, although its physiological role is still undefined.

Methodology/principal Findings: We describe a family with polycythemia due to a heterozygous mutation of the EPOR gene that causes a G-->T change at nucleotide 1251 of exon 8. The novel EPOR G1251T mutation results in the replacement of a glutamate residue by a stop codon at amino acid 393. Differently from polycythemia vera, EPOR G1251T CD34(+) cells proliferate and differentiate towards the erythroid phenotype in the presence of minimal amounts of EPO. Moreover, the affected individuals show a 20-fold increase of circulating endothelial precursors. The analysis of erythroid precursor membranes demonstrates a heretofore undescribed accumulation of the truncated EPOR, probably due to the absence of residues involved in the EPO-dependent receptor internalization and degradation. Mutated receptor expression in EPOR-negative cells results in EPOR and Stat5 phosphorylation. Moreover, patient erythroid precursors present an increased activation of EPOR and its effectors, including Stat5 and Erk1/2 pathway.

Conclusions/significance: Our data provide an unanticipated mechanism for autosomal dominant inherited polycythemia due to a heterozygous EPOR mutation and suggest a regulatory role of EPO/EPOR pathway in human circulating endothelial precursors homeostasis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012015PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916842PMC
August 2010

Molecular and functional analysis of the stem cell compartment of chronic myelogenous leukemia reveals the presence of a CD34- cell population with intrinsic resistance to imatinib.

Blood 2009 Dec;114(25):5191-200

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology L & A Seràgnoli, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

We show the molecular and functional characterization of a novel population of lineage-negative CD34-negative (Lin(-)CD34(-)) hematopoietic stem cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis. Molecular karyotyping and quantitative analysis of BCR-ABL transcript demonstrated that approximately one-third of CD34(-) cells are leukemic. CML Lin(-)CD34(-) cells showed kinetic quiescence and limited clonogenic capacity. However, stroma-dependent cultures induced CD34 expression on some cells and cell cycling, and increased clonogenic activity and expression of BCR-ABL transcript. Lin(-)CD34(-) cells showed hematopoietic cell engraftment rate in 2 immunodeficient mouse strains similar to Lin-CD34(+) cells, whereas endothelial cell engraftment was significantly higher. Gene expression profiling revealed the down-regulation of cell-cycle arrest genes and genes involved in antigen presentation and processing, while the expression of genes related to tumor progression, such as angiogenic factors, was strongly up-regulated compared with normal counterparts. Phenotypic analysis confirmed the significant down-regulation of HLA class I and II molecules in CML Lin(-)CD34(-) cells. Imatinib mesylate did not reduce fusion transcript levels, BCR-ABL kinase activity, and clonogenic efficiency of CML Lin(-)CD34(-) cells in vitro. Moreover, leukemic CD34(-) cells survived exposure to BCR-ABL inhibitors in vivo. Thus, we identified a novel CD34(-) leukemic stem cell subset in CML with peculiar molecular and functional characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-08-176016DOI Listing
December 2009

Circulating endothelial cells as biomarkers for angiogenesis in tumor progression.

Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2009 Jun 1;1:304-18. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

An increased number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) has been reported in cancer patients. CEPs are derived from the bone marrow and will, during angiogenesis, differentiate into endothelial cells. CECs are mature endothelial cells (ECs) released from the vessel intima during physiological endothelial turnover or as a result of tumor treatment. Preclinical studies have shown that during tumor progression, the amount of circulating CECs correlates with angiogenesis. Moreover, there is growing evidence suggesting that CECs and CEPs viability and kinetics correlate with the patient responses to anti-angiogenic therapies. Thus, circulating CECs and CEPs may act as surrogate markers to test putative therapeutic efficacy. Moreover measuring CECs and CEPs may be useful to assess effects of antiangiogenic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/s28DOI Listing
June 2009

p66Shc deletion confers vascular protection in advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

Endothelium 2008 Sep-Oct;15(5-6):276-87

European Institute of Oncology (EIO), Milan, Italy.

Previous studies showed that p66(Shc-/-) mice on a very-high-fat diet (HFD) had reduced oxidative stress, foam cell, and early atherosclerotic lesion formation. Here, the authors have used hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/-)) mice to investigate the role of p66Shc deletion in advanced atheroma. The authors generated mice deficient of both ApoE and p66Shc genes (ApoE(-/-) /p66(Shc-/-)). They used microsatellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the genetic background and considered only animals with a constant percentages of C57B6L and 129SV background strands (it was obtained the 50.3% +/- 6.4% of C57B6L background). Computer-assisted analysis revealed that advanced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc+/+) were significantly larger than those observed in ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc-/-). Accordingly, the lipid-laden macrophage foam cells and oxidation-specific epitopes in ApoE(-/-)/p66(shc+/+) HFD-treated groups were higher than those observed in normal diet (ND)-treated groups. Thus, p66(Shc-/-) plays an important protective role also against advanced atherosclerotic lesion formation. Finally, the authors have used microarray to investigate major changes in gene expression in aortas of mice with ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc-/-) background treated with a very HFD in comparison to ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc+/+) (these data have been confirmed by by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry). DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analysis revealed that CD36 antigen (CD36), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), and thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) can be involved in p66 deletion-dependent vascular protection through the adipocytokine/lipid signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10623320802487791DOI Listing
February 2009

Human acute leukemia cells injected in NOD/LtSz-scid/IL-2Rgamma null mice generate a faster and more efficient disease compared to other NOD/scid-related strains.

Int J Cancer 2008 Nov;123(9):2222-7

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Transplantation of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) primary cells and cell lines in different strains of immunodeficient mice has led to preclinical models extensively used to investigate acute leukemia stem cells, biology and drug sensitivity. We studied the engraftment kinetics of AML and ALL cell lines and primary cells in 3 strains of NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid) (NOD/scid, NS)-related mice (NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)B2m(tm1Unc)/J, abbreviated NOD/scid/beta2 null, NSB; and NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjll)/SzJ, abbreviated NOD/scid/IL-2Rgamma null, NSG). The engraftment of human malignant cells was investigated by means of clinicopathological criteria, flow cytometry, PCR and immunohistochemistry. In NSG mice, we observed a significantly faster development of leukemia-related symptoms and a higher percentage of leukemia cells in the blood, in the marrow and in the spleen. The leukemia-related angiogenic switch (measured as the number of circulating endothelial cells and progenitors) was faster in NSG compared to NS and NSB mice. These models will be instrumental to studies on leukemia-initiating stem cells, leukemia biology, preclinical treatment studies, and to obtain patient-specific preclinical models to design and investigate patient-tailored therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23772DOI Listing
November 2008

Genetic deletion of p66(Shc) adaptor protein prevents hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Mar 14;104(12):5217-22. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research, University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of endothelial NO bioavailability are key features of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The p66(Shc) adaptor protein controls cellular responses to oxidative stress. Mice lacking p66(Shc) (p66(Shc-/-)) have increased resistance to ROS and prolonged life span. The present work was designed to investigate hyperglycemia-associated changes in endothelial function in a model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus p66(Shc-/-) mouse. p66(Shc-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with citrate buffer (control) or made diabetic by an i.p. injection of 200 mg of streptozotocin per kg of body weight. Streptozotocin-treated p66(Shc-/-) and WT mice showed a similar increase in blood glucose. However, significant differences arose with respect to endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. WT diabetic mice displayed marked impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, increased peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation, nitrotyrosine expression, and lipid peroxidation as measured in the aortic tissue. In contrast, p66(Shc-/-) diabetic mice did not develop these high-glucose-mediated abnormalities. Furthermore, protein expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and endothelial NO synthase were up-regulated in p66(Shc-/-) but not in WT mice. We report that p66(Shc-/-) mice are resistant to hyperglycemia-induced, ROS-dependent endothelial dysfunction. These data suggest that p66(Shc) adaptor protein is part of a signal transduction pathway relevant to hyperglycemia vascular damage and, hence, may represent a novel therapeutic target against diabetic vascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609656104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1829289PMC
March 2007

Genetic deletion of the p66Shc adaptor protein protects from angiotensin II-induced myocardial damage.

Hypertension 2005 Aug 5;46(2):433-40. Epub 2005 Jul 5.

Molecular and Cellular Medicine Laboratory, INBB, Alghero and Osilo, Italy.

Angiotensin II (Ang II), acting through its G protein-coupled AT1 receptor (AT1), contributes to the precocious heart senescence typical of patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. AT1 was suggested to transactivate an intracellular signaling controlled by growth factors and their tyrosin-kinase receptors. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, this downstream mechanism comprises the p66Shc adaptor protein, previously recognized to play a role in vascular cell senescence and death. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (1) to characterize the cardiovascular phenotype of p66Shc knockout mice (p66Shc(-/-)), and (2) to test the novel hypothesis that disrupting the p66Shc might protect the heart from the damaging action of elevated Ang II levels. Compared with wild-type littermates (p66Shc(+/+)), p66Shc(-/-) showed similar blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall thickness. However, cardiomyocyte number was increased in mutant animals, indicating a condition of myocardial hyperplasia. In p66Shc(+/+), infusion of a sub-pressor dose of Ang II (300 nmol/kg body weight [BW] daily for 28 days) caused left ventricular hypertrophy and apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In contrast, p66Shc(-/-) were resistant to the proapoptotic/hypertrophic action of Ang II. Consistently, in vitro experiments showed that Ang II causes apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes isolated from p66Shc(+/+) hearts to a greater extent as compared with p66Shc(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate a fundamental role of p66Shc in Ang II-mediated myocardial remodeling. In perspective, p66Shc inhibition may be envisioned as a novel way to prevent the deleterious effects of Ang II on the heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000174986.73346.baDOI Listing
August 2005

Manifestations of inflammatory arthritis are critically dependent on LFA-1.

J Immunol 2005 Mar;174(6):3668-75

Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Leukocyte infiltration of synovial fluid and tissues is the hallmark of inflammatory arthritis. Selectins and beta2 integrins have been implicated in the multistep process of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. However, previous work has revealed disparate requirements for leukocyte recruitments to specific anatomic locales. Moreover, the mechanisms regulating recruitment of leukocytes to the joint in inflammatory arthritis models are not fully understood. We hypothesized that beta2 integrins, expressed on leukocytes, might play a pathogenic role in synovial inflammation. Using mice deficient in all beta2 integrins (CD18 null mice), we demonstrate that expression of these heterodimeric adhesion molecules is critical for arthritis induction in the K/B x N serum transfer model. Using null-allele mice and blocking mAbs, we demonstrate specifically that CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) is absolutely required for the development of arthritis in this model. Blocking mAbs further revealed an ongoing requirement for LFA-1 I-domain adhesive function in disease perpetuation. These findings suggest that the LFA-1 I-domain forms an attractive target for treatment of human inflammatory arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.6.3668DOI Listing
March 2005

Deletion of p66shc gene protects against age-related endothelial dysfunction.

Circulation 2004 Nov 25;110(18):2889-95. Epub 2004 Oct 25.

Cardiovascular Research & Cardiology, Institute of Physiology, Zürich, Irchel and University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been recognized as the major determinant of age-related endothelial dysfunction. The p66shc protein controls cellular responses to oxidative stress. Mice lacking p66shc (p66shc-/-) have increased resistance to ROS and a 30% prolonged life span. The present study investigates age-dependent changes of endothelial function in this model.

Methods And Results: Aortic rings from young and old p66shc-/- or wild-type (WT) mice were suspended for isometric tension recording. Nitric oxide (NO) release was measured by a porphyrinic microsensor. Expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), superoxide dismutase, and nitrotyrosine-containing proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Nitrotyrosine residues were also identified by immunohistochemistry. Superoxide (O2-) production was determined by coelenterazine-enhanced chemiluminescence. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine was age-dependently impaired in WT mice but not in p66shc-/- mice. Accordingly, an age-related decline of NO release was found in WT but not in p66shc-/- mice. The expression of eNOS and manganese superoxide dismutase was not affected by aging either in WT or in p66shc-/- mice, whereas iNOS was upregulated only in old WT mice. It is interesting that old WT mice displayed a significant increase of O2- production as well as of nitrotyrosine expression compared with young animals. Such age-dependent changes were not found in p66shc-/- mice.

Conclusions: We report that inactivation of the p66shc gene protects against age-dependent, ROS-mediated endothelial dysfunction. These findings suggest that the p66shc is part of a signal transduction pathway also relevant to endothelial integrity and may represent a novel target to prevent vascular aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000147731.24444.4DDOI Listing
November 2004

Increased DC trafficking to lymph nodes and contact hypersensitivity in junctional adhesion molecule-A-deficient mice.

J Clin Invest 2004 Sep;114(5):729-38

Department of Vascular Biology, Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC) Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane adhesive protein expressed at endothelial junctions and in leukocytes. In the present work, we found that DCs also express JAM-A. To evaluate the biological relevance of this observation, Jam-A(-/-) mice were generated and the functional behavior of DCs in vitro and in vivo was studied. In vitro, Jam-A(-/-) DCs showed a selective increase in random motility and in the capacity to transmigrate across lymphatic endothelial cells. In vivo, Jam-A(-/-) mice showed enhanced DC migration to lymph nodes, which was not observed in mice with endothelium-restricted deficiency of the protein. Furthermore, increased DC migration to lymph nodes was associated with enhanced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Adoptive transfer experiments showed that JAM-A-deficient DCs elicited increased CHS in Jam-A(+/+) mice, further supporting the concept of a DC-specific effect. Thus, we identified here a novel, non-redundant role of JAM-A in controlling DC motility, trafficking to lymph nodes, and activation of specific immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI21231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514585PMC
September 2004

p66ShcA modulates tissue response to hindlimb ischemia.

Circulation 2004 Jun 1;109(23):2917-23. Epub 2004 Jun 1.

Laboratorio di Patologia Vascolare, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Because p66(ShcA)-null (p66(ShcA)-/-) mice exhibit both lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased resistance to cell death induced by oxidative stress, we investigated whether tissue damage that follows acute ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion was altered in p66(ShcA)-/- mice.

Methods And Results: Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by femoral artery dissection, and ischemia/reperfusion was induced with an elastic tourniquet. Both procedures caused similar changes in blood perfusion in p66(ShcA) wild-type (p66(ShcA)wt) and p66(ShcA)-/- mice. However, significant differences in tissue damage were found: p66(ShcA)wt mice displayed marked capillary density decrease and muscle fiber necrosis. In contrast, in p66(ShcA)-/- mice, minimal capillary density decrease and myofiber death were present. When apoptosis after ischemia was assayed, significantly lower levels of apoptotic endothelial cells and myofibers were found in p66(ShcA)-/- mice. In agreement with these data, both satellite muscle cells and endothelial cells isolated from p66(ShcA)-/- mice were resistant to apoptosis induced by simulated ischemia in vitro. Lower apoptosis levels after ischemia in p66(ShcA)-/- cells correlated with decreased levels of oxidative stress both in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusions: p66(ShcA) plays a crucial role in the cell death pathways activated by acute ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion, indicating p66(ShcA) as a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of ischemic tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000129309.58874.0FDOI Listing
June 2004

The life span determinant p66Shc localizes to mitochondria where it associates with mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 and regulates trans-membrane potential.

J Biol Chem 2004 Jun 12;279(24):25689-95. Epub 2004 Apr 12.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy.

P66Shc regulates life span in mammals and is a critical component of the apoptotic response to oxidative stress. It functions as a downstream target of the tumor suppressor p53 and is indispensable for the ability of oxidative stress-activated p53 to induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptogenic effect of p66Shc are unknown. Here we report the following three findings. (i) The apoptosome can be properly activated in vitro in the absence of p66Shc only if purified cytochrome c is supplied. (ii) Cytochrome c release after oxidative signals is impaired in the absence of p66Shc. (iii) p66Shc induces the collapse of the mitochondrial trans-membrane potential after oxidative stress. Furthermore, we showed that a fraction of cytosolic p66Shc localizes within mitochondria where it forms a complex with mitochondrial Hsp70. Treatment of cells with ultraviolet radiation induced the dissociation of this complex and the release of monomeric p66Shc. We propose that p66Shc regulates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial damage after dissociation from an inhibitory protein complex. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that mitochondria regulate life span through their effects on the energetic metabolism (mitochondrial theory of aging). Our data suggest that mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis might also contribute to life span determination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M401844200DOI Listing
June 2004

Deletion of the p66Shc longevity gene reduces systemic and tissue oxidative stress, vascular cell apoptosis, and early atherogenesis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Feb 5;100(4):2112-6. Epub 2003 Feb 5.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein and oxidation-sensitive mechanisms are central in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis. Here, we have used p66(Shc-/-) and WT mice to investigate the effects of high-fat diet on both systemic and tissue oxidative stress and the development of early vascular lesions. To date, the p66(Shc-/-) mouse is the unique genetic model of increased resistance to oxidative stress and prolonged life span in mammals. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that chronic 21% high-fat treatment increased the aortic cumulative early lesion area by approximately 21% in WT mice and only by 3% in p66(Shc-/-) mice. Early lesions from p66(Shc-/-) mice had less content of macrophage-derived foam cells and apoptotic vascular cells, in comparison to the WT. Furthermore, in p66(Shc-/-) mice, but not WT mice, we found a significant reduction of systemic and tissue oxidative stress (assessed by isoprostanes, plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, and the formation of arterial oxidation-specific epitopes). These results support the concept that p66(Shc-/-) may play a pivotal role in controlling systemic oxidative stress and vascular diseases. Therefore, p66(Shc) might represent a molecular target for therapies against vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0336359100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149967PMC
February 2003

A p53-p66Shc signalling pathway controls intracellular redox status, levels of oxidation-damaged DNA and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

Oncogene 2002 May;21(24):3872-8

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Correlative evidence links stress, accumulation of oxidative cellular damage and ageing in lower organisms and in mammals. We investigated their mechanistic connections in p66Shc knockout mice, which are characterized by increased resistance to oxidative stress and extended life span. We report that p66Shc acts as a downstream target of the tumour suppressor p53 and is indispensable for the ability of stress-activated p53 to induce elevation of intracellular oxidants, cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Other functions of p53 are not influenced by p66Shc expression. In basal conditions, p66Shc-/- and p53-/- cells have reduced amounts of intracellular oxidants and oxidation-damaged DNA. We propose that steady-state levels of intracellular oxidants and oxidative damage are genetically determined and regulated by a stress-induced signal transduction pathway involving p53 and p66Shc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205513DOI Listing
May 2002