Publications by authors named "Inda S Soong"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Impact of the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay on Treatment Decisions for Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Node-Negative Breast Carcinoma in Hong Kong.

Clin Breast Cancer 2016 10 17;16(5):372-378. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Breast Care Centre, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Hong Kong Breast Cancer Foundation, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background: The Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay is validated to assess risk of distant recurrence and likelihood of chemotherapy (CT) benefit in estrogen receptor-positive ESBC in various populations. In Hong Kong, > 80% of breast cancers are early stage breast cancer (ESBC) and > 60% of these women receive CT. This prospective study measured changes in CT type and recommendations, as well as physician impression of assay impact in a homogenous Chinese population.

Methods: Consecutive patients with estrogen receptor-positive, T1-3 N0-1mi M0 ESBC were offered enrollment. After surgery, physicians discussed treatment options with patients, then ordered the assay, then reassessed treatment recommendation considering assay results. Changes in treatment recommendation, CT utilization, physician confidence, and physician rating of influence on their treatment recommendations were measured.

Results: A total of 146 evaluable patients received pre- and post-testing treatment recommendations. CT recommendations (including changes in intensity of CT) were changed for 34 of 146 patients (23.3%; 95% confidence interval, 16.7%-31.0%); change in intensity occurred in 7 of 146 (4.8%). There were 27 changes in treatment recommendations of adding or removing CT altogether (18.5% change; 95% confidence interval, 12.6%-25.8%). CT recommendations decreased from 52.1% to 37.7%, a net absolute reduction of 14.4% (P < .001; 27.6% net relative reduction). Pre-assay, 96% of physicians agreed/strongly agreed that they were confident in their treatment recommendation; post-assay, 90% of physicians agreed/strongly agreed with the same statement. Thirty percent of physicians agreed/strongly agreed that the test had influenced their recommendation, similar to the proportion of changed recommendations.

Conclusions: The Oncotype DX Assay appears to influence physician ESBC adjuvant treatment recommendations in Hong Kong.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2016.03.002DOI Listing
October 2016

Comparison of fluorescence in-situ hybridisation with dual-colour in-situ hybridisation for assessment of HER2 gene amplification of breast cancer in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Med J 2016 Apr;22(2):144-51

Objectives: To compare the PathVysion fluorescence in-situ hybridisation assay with the INFORM HER2 Dual in-situ hybridisation assay on 104 invasive breast cancers with a broad spectrum of immunohistochemistry scores.

Methods: This case series involved consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma with equivocal immunohistochemistry score and referred for further HER2 assessment from the departments of Surgery and/or Clinical Oncology of the two hospitals between January 2013 and February 2014. An additional 10 cases with negative HER2 immunohistochemistry and 11 cases with positive HER2 immunohistochemistry were further included.

Results: The results of both fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and dual in-situ hybridisation were available in 99 of 104 cases, respectively. Student’st test showed no statistically significant difference in the mean number of HER2 count, CEP17 copies, or HER2/CEP17 ratio between that obtained by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and that obtained by dual in-situ hybridisation. Pearson’s correlation of results for the two assays was strong for HER2/CEP17 signal ratio (R=0.963, P<0.001) and mean HER2 copies per nucleus (R=0.897, P<0.001). Overall agreement was 96.0% (95 out of 99 cases, ĸ0.882). Three of the four discordant cases were equivocal for either fluorescence in-situ hybridisation or dual in-situ hybridisation. The results of immunohistochemistry 0/1+ and 3+ cases showed 100% concordance between the two assays. The failure rate was 0.96% for fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and 3.85% for dual in-situ hybridisation. Cases that failed for fluorescence in-situ hybridisation were successful for dual in-situ hybridisation and vice versa.

Conclusions: Our study showed that dual in-situ hybridisation is a reliable and useful option for HER2 testing in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12809/hkmj144458DOI Listing
April 2016

Use of methylphenidate for the management of fatigue in Chinese patients with cancer.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2014 May 5;31(3):281-6. Epub 2013 May 5.

1Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Unlabelled: REASON FOR THE STUDY: Studies on methylphenidate for cancer-related fatigue showed conflicting results. This prospective study aims to determine whether methylphenidate is useful for relieving fatigue in Chinese patients with cancer. Chinese Version of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-C) was administered on days 1, 8, and 29. Methylphenidate dose on day 1 was 5 mg daily then adjusted after day 8 according to response and side effects tolerance.

Main Findings: Only 48% of the 25 recruited patients were on methylphenidate by day 29. Overall, no significant improvement in fatigue level was observed after methylphenidate, though benefits were shown in subgroups with age ≤ 65 and higher baseline BFI-C values.

Principal Conclusions: Methylphenidate may be useful for management of cancer-related fatigue in selected Chinese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909113487022DOI Listing
May 2014

Delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancers in Hong Kong: experience in a public cancer centre.

Hong Kong Med J 2010 Oct;16(5):373-7

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong.

Objective: Delayed presentation is an important obstacle to improving cancer treatment outcomes. We aimed to study the magnitude of this problem in Hong Kong and the factors associated with delayed presentation of patients with symptomatic breast cancers.

Design: Retrospective study using self-administered questionnaires.

Setting: Clinical Oncology Department in a regional public hospital in Hong Kong.

Patients: A total of 158 Chinese women with breast cancer referred to our hospital between October 2006 and December 2007 consented to participate in this study. Among these, 59 (37%) patients were referred after having surgery in private sector.

Results: The mean total delay (from first symptom to treatment) was 22 weeks. The mean patient delay (from first symptom to first consultation) was 13 weeks, constituting the largest component (60%) of the total delay. After symptom onset, the delay exceeded 12 weeks for consulting a doctor in 29%, and for receipt of treatment in 52% of them. Low family income (
Conclusions: Delayed presentation and treatment of symptomatic breast cancer remains an important issue in Hong Kong. Apart from socio-economic factors, limited access to public medical care was likely an important contributing factor in delays related to patients as well as to doctor/system.
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October 2010

Should young age be a contra-indication to breast conservation treatment in Chinese women? Twelve-year experience from a public cancer centre in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Med J 2009 Apr;15(2):94-9

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, 3 Lok Man Road, Chai Wan, Hong Kong.

Objective: It has been proposed that young women should not be treated by breast conservation treatment because of a higher risk of local recurrences and worse survival. We therefore examined whether breast conservation treatment in young Chinese women yielded inferior clinical outcomes compared to modified radical mastectomy.

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Clinical oncology department in a public hospital in Hong Kong.

Patients: A total of 258 Chinese women with invasive breast cancer, aged below 40 years, and referred between January 1994 and July 2006.

Results: A total of 124 (48%) and 134 (52%) patients were treated by breast conservation treatment and modified radical mastectomy, respectively. Mastectomy patients tended to have larger primary tumours (P<0.001) and more nodal involvement (P<0.001). At a median follow-up of 6.5 years, there was no significant difference in the local failure-free survival rate (92% vs 93%, P=0.324) and loco-regional failure-free survival rate (89% vs 88%, P=0.721) in patients having breast conservation treatment and mastectomy. Probably due to their earlier presentation with disease, the former actually had better 6-year distant failure-free survival (88% vs 71%, P=0.002) and overall survival (92% vs 81%, P=0.173) rates. Multivariate analyses showed that both the resection margin status (hazard ratio=2.77, P=0.050) and the presence of peritumoural vascular invasion (hazard ratio=3.01, P=0.038) were independent predictors of local recurrence; the nodal status (hazard ratio=3.91, P<0.001) was the only predictive factor for overall survival. The choice of breast conservation treatment (vs modified radical mastectomy) had no apparent adverse impact on all the clinical outcome parameters analysed.

Conclusion: Breast conservation treatment is a reasonable option for many suitably selected young Chinese women.
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April 2009

Trends and patterns of breast conservation treatment in Hong Kong: 1994-2007.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 May 26;74(1):98-103. Epub 2008 Dec 26.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: Breast conservation treatment (BCT) was quite unpopular in Hong Kong until the early 1990s, but the trends and patterns of BCT use in the past 14 years have not been studied since. The purpose of this study was to identify the latest trends and patterns.

Methods And Materials: All consecutive cases of female breast cancer referred to a community oncology center in Hong Kong between 1994 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 2,375 women with T1-2 invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery, 1,137 (48%) had T1 (2 cm-
Results: Of the total patient cohort, 2,153 (91%) patients presented with palpable breast masses and only 104 (4%) with mammographically detected cancers. Overall, 721 (30%) and 1,654 (70%) patients underwent BCT and mastectomy, respectively. There was no significant increase in the BCT rates (31%, SD 5%; p = 0.804) or mammographic detection rates (5%, SD 1%; p = 0.125) in Hong Kong between 1994 and 2007. In multivariate analyses, age
Conclusions: Our results indicate a satisfactory acceptance of BCT by patients who are young and have small tumors, node-negative disease, or surgery in private hospitals. However, the continuing unpopularity of breast screening is likely a major factor limiting the broad use of BCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.07.066DOI Listing
May 2009

HER2 overexpression of breast cancers in Hong Kong: prevalence and concordance between immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridisation assays.

Hong Kong Med J 2008 Apr;14(2):130-5

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene overexpression in breast cancer patients encountered in Hong Kong and the concordance of HER2 findings from primary immunohistochemistry assays and confirmatory in-situ hybridisation assays.

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Department of Clinical Oncology in a public hospital in Hong Kong.

Patients: All patient referrals between July 2006 and June 2007 with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (for prevalence evaluation), and all patients treated at our unit with confirmatory in-situ hybridisation tests performed within the study period (for concordance evaluation).

Results: There were 272 consecutive breast cancer patients eligible for prevalence evaluation. The distribution for immunohistochemistry staining in 249 cases for scores 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ were 99 (40%), 40 (16%), 58 (23%), and 52 (21%) respectively. In the remaining 23 patients, four and 19 breast cancers were unscored and reported by immunohistochemistry to be HER2-positive and -negative, respectively. The overall HER2 overexpression rate (3+ or reported as positive) was 21%. HER2 overexpression was associated with grade 3 histology (P<0.001) and negative hormonal receptor status (P<0.001). However, it was not associated with age (P=0.525), T-classification (P=0.740), N-classification (P=0.691), nor group stages (P=0.433). Of the 37 patients with confirmatory in-situ hybridisation tests performed, 10 (71%) of 14 with immunohistochemistry staining of 3+ and 1 (4%) of 23 with immunohistochemistry staining of 2+ were found to have HER2 gene amplification.

Conclusions: More than 25% of HER2 overexpression identified by immunohistochemistry assays in this Hong Kong cohort could not be verified by confirmatory in-situ hybridisation assays. Compliance with the latest guidelines for HER2 testing should improve the future accuracy and concordance.
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April 2008

Clinical outcome of breast conservation therapy for breast cancer in Hong Kong: prognostic impact of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and 2005 St. Gallen risk categories.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007 Jul 26;68(3):667-72. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of breast conservation therapy (BCT) for invasive breast cancers in our predominantly Chinese population.

Methods And Materials: Clinical outcomes of 412 T1-2 invasive breast cancers treated by wide local excision and external radiotherapy from 1994 to 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 7% lesions were first detected by mammograms. Adjuvant tamoxifen and chemotherapy were added in 74% and 45% patients, respectively.

Results: The median follow-up was 5.4 years. The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate, distant failure-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 4%, 92%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. The 5-year distant failure-free survival for the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk categories (2005 St. Gallen) were 98%, 91%, and 80%, respectively (p = 0.0003). Cosmetic results were good to excellent in more than 90% of the assessable patients. Grade 3 histology (hazard ratio [HR], 4.461; 95% CI, 1.216-16.360; p = 0.024), age (HR, 0.915; 95% CI, 0.846-0.990; p = 0.027), and close/positive final margins (HR, 3.499; 95% CI, 1.141-10.729; p = 0.028) were significant independent risk factors for IBTR. Both St. Gallen risk categories (p = 0.003) and IBTR (HR, 5.885; 95% CI, 2.494-13.889; p < 0.0005) were independent prognostic factors for distant failure-free survival.

Conclusions: Despite the low percentage of mammographically detected lesions, the overall clinical outcome of BCT for invasive breast cancers in the Chinese population is comparable to the Western series. The 2005 St. Gallen risk category is a promising clinical tool, but further validation by large studies is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.12.043DOI Listing
July 2007

Treatment of Stage IV(A-B) nasopharyngeal carcinoma by induction-concurrent chemoradiotherapy and accelerated fractionation: impact of chemotherapy schemes.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006 Nov;66(4):1004-10

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by induction-concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

Methods And Materials: Between 1998 and 2003, 75 Stage IV(A-B) NPC patients were treated with 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (PF) (n = 41) or cisplatin plus gemcitabine (PG) (n = 34), followed by accelerated radiotherapy in concurrence with 2 cycles of cisplatin. In 18 (24%) patients, cisplatin was completely replaced by carboplatin in both concurrent cycles, mainly because of borderline renal functions.

Results: The median follow-up was 3.6 years. The 3-year locoregional failure-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival of the whole group were 80%, 68%, and 80% respectively. No significant difference was found between patients treated with either induction regimens. However, patients with only carboplatin in the 2 concurrent cycles had significantly inferior 3-year locoregional failure-free survival (56% vs. 86%, p = 0.014), progression-free survival (39% vs. 72%, p = 0.001), and overall survival (61% vs. 87%, p = 0.046) when compared with the rest of the group. In multivariate analysis, the complete replacement of cisplatin by carboplatin during concurrent chemoradiotherapy was still an independent adverse factor in locoregional failure-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.662; 95% CI, 1.145-11.765; p = 0.029) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.390; 95% CI, 1.443-7.937; p = 0.005).

Conclusions: The more convenient PG regimen is as effective as the PF regimen as induction chemotherapy for patients with advanced NPC. Replacing cisplatin with carboplatin in the concurrent phase carries a poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.06.016DOI Listing
November 2006

Treatment of stage IV(A-B) nasopharyngeal carcinoma by induction-concurrent chemoradiotherapy and accelerated fractionation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005 Dec 19;63(5):1331-8. Epub 2005 Sep 19.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: To explore a more effective strategy for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma with extensive locoregional disease.

Methods And Materials: Between October 1998 and January 2003, 49 patients with Stage IV(A-B) disease infiltrating or abutting neurologic structures were treated with induction-concurrent chemotherapy and accelerated radiotherapy (RT). A combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was used in the induction phase and single-agent cisplatin in the concurrent phase. All patients were irradiated with conformal techniques at 2 Gy/fraction, six daily fractions weekly, to a total dose of 70 Gy.

Results: Although 92% of patients had one or more acute toxicities Grade 3 or worse, 96% completed the whole course of RT, and 92% had five or more cycles of chemotherapy. The great majority of toxicities were uneventful, but 1 patient died of neutropenic sepsis. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, 20 patients had failure at one or more sites and 15 patients died. The 3-year locoregional and distant failure-free rate was 77% and 75%, respectively, and the overall survival rate was 71%. At last follow-up, 27% of patients had developed late Grade 3 or worse toxicity (24% were hearing impairments), but none had radiation-induced neurologic damage.

Conclusion: The current strategy achieved encouraging results for this poor prognostic group, and confirmation of the therapeutic gain by a prospective randomized trial is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.05.061DOI Listing
December 2005
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