Publications by authors named "Inbal Samuk"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Blunt High-Grade Pancreatic Injury in Children: A 20-Year Experience in Two Pediatric Surgical Centers.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Mar;23(3):180-185

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4-15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.
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March 2021

Assessing the previously repaired patient with an anorectal malformation who is not doing well.

Semin Pediatr Surg 2020 Dec 7;29(6):150995. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Reconstructive Pelvic Medicine Program, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Surgery, University of Washington, USA.

In this review, the care of children with a previously repaired anorectal malformation is explored. We know that the surgical care of children with anorectal malformations is complex; however, despite an increased understanding of the congenital anomaly and significant technical advances in the operative repair, many of these children continue to have poor functional outcomes. In this article we focus on the common surgical complications, discuss typical presentations, consider appropriate investigations, and review the risks and benefits of revisional surgery in those patients that are 'not doing well' following their primary reconstruction.
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December 2020

Not only appendicitis: rare appendix disorders manifesting as surgical emergencies in children.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Feb 18;180(2):407-413. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kaplan St 14, 4920235, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pathology in children. However, other rare non-inflammatory non-neoplastic disorders involving the appendix may manifest as surgical emergencies. This study aimed to describe these atypical entities and present representative cases. The database of a tertiary children's medical center was reviewed for all the patients aged 0-18 years who underwent urgent appendectomy between June 2014 and December 2019, for rare disorders of the appendix unrelated to inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Of 1367 patients who underwent appendectomy, 1345 were operated urgently or emergently. Of these, six, all males, mean age 32.6 months (range 0.7-76), underwent appendectomy for rare surgical complications that involved the appendix. These included torsion of the appendix (2), a strangulated internal hernia through an appendicular ring (1) or through a mesoappendix gap (1), an incarcerated appendix in an acute hernia sac (1), and appendiceal intussusception (1). In all cases, the role of the appendix in the pathologic process was unexpected and came as a surprise to the surgeon. During a median follow-up of 4.2 months (range 1-8 months), one patient underwent relaparotomy for small bowel obstruction 4 weeks after the original procedure.Conclusion: The appendix in children can be the source of rare pathological disorders that present as surgical emergencies. Familiarity with these entities may aid in achieving accurate preoperative diagnosis and contribute to surgical team orientation on exploratory laparotomy. However, correct diagnosis is often only established during timely surgical intervention.
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February 2021

Perineal Groove: An Anorectal Malformation Network, Consortium Study.

J Pediatr 2020 07;222:207-212

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam and VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To review the Anorectal Malformation Network experience with perineal groove (PG) focusing on its clinical characteristics and management.

Study Design: Data on patients with PG managed at 10 participating Anorectal Malformation Network centers in 1999-2019 were collected retrospectively by questionnaire.

Results: The cohort included 66 patients (65 females) of median age 1.4 months at diagnosis. The leading referral diagnosis was anal fissure (n = 20 [30.3%]): 23 patients (34.8%) had anorectal malformations. Expectant management was practiced in 47 patients (71.2%). Eight (17%) were eventually operated for local complications. The median time to surgery was 14 months (range, 3.0-48.6 months), and the median age at surgery was 18.3 months (range, 4.8-58.0 months). In the 35 patients available for follow-up of the remaining 39 managed expectantly, 23 (65.7%) showed complete or near-complete self-epithelization by a mean age 15.3 months (range, 1-72 months) and 4 (11.4%) showed partial self-epithelization by a mean age 21 months (range, 3-48 months). Eight patients showed no resolution (5 were followed for ≤3 months). Nineteen patients (28.7%) were primarily treated with surgery. In total, 27 patients were operated. Dehiscence occurred in 3 of 27 operated patients (11.1%).

Conclusions: PG seems to be an underestimated anomaly, frequently associated with anorectal malformations. Most cases heal spontaneously; therefore, expectant management is recommended. When associated with anorectal malformations requiring reconstruction, PG should be excised in conjunction with the anorectoplasty.
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July 2020

Does Maternal Omega 3 Supplementation Protect Against Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis?

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 05;70(5):652-656

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv.

Objectives: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is potentially life threatening. The etiology of IHPS remains unknown and many risk factors have been reported. We aimed to assess the prevalence of known risk factors and investigate maternal nutrition and habits as possible additional risk factors for IHPS.

Methods: This case-control study includes mothers of infants diagnosed with IHPS and control mothers of infants, age 2 to 11 months, hospitalized in the pediatric department due to other conditions. Cases of IHPS were identified by review of all infants diagnosed with IHPS and operated upon in 2010 to 2016 at 2 major hospitals in central Israel. Data regarding potential risk factors were collected via questionnaires in both study groups.

Results: Sixty-six cases and 67 controls were included in the study. Maternal omega 3 supplement consumption during pregnancy was significantly less common among cases of IHPS as compared with controls (P = 0.031). Consumption of omega 3 supplement was defined as consumption of at least 1 to 2 per week during the pregnancy period. Following adjustment for known risk factors, including male sex and maternal smoking, maternal omega 3 supplement consumption remained associated with a significantly lower risk of developing IHPS (odds ratio = 0.303, 95% confidence interval 0.111-0.828, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Maternal omega 3 supplement consumption during pregnancy was associated with a significantly reduced risk of IHPS. Further studies are needed to support these results and investigate possible mechanisms of the effect of omega 3.
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May 2020

Perianal abscess in infants: Amenable to conservative treatment in selected cases.

Pediatr Int 2019 Nov 13;61(11):1146-1150. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: Perianal abscess is a common surgical condition in daily pediatric practice. Management is a subject of controversy and a variety of approaches are practiced. While the most frequent approach is drainage with/without fistulotomy, the superiority of this approach and the place of conservative approach has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of conservative approach in selected cases of perianal abscesses in infants.

Methods: Data of 19 patients aged <24 months treated conservatively for perianal abscess at a tertiary hospital in 2014-2018 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Criteria for a conservative approach were: spontaneous drainage into the anal canal (n = 8) or perianal skin (n = 4), and phlegmonous infiltrate with fluid collection detected on ultrasound (n = 7). Mean age at symptom onset was 8.4 months. Twelve patients were managed for the first time. Previous care in seven patients included 1-4 drainage procedures (n = 4), spontaneous drainage (n = 1) and antibiotics (n = 2). Five patients were on oral antibiotics at presentation. After diagnosis, 18 patients received i.v. antibiotics and one, oral antibiotics. Three patients (15.7%) ultimately required surgical drainage; two were lost to follow up. During follow up (mean, 22.4 months) four patients (28.5%) had a single recurrent episode; abscess in three (managed conservatively in two and surgically in one) and fistula-in-ano in one patient that healed spontaneously. Thus, surgical intervention was prevented in 13/17 patients (76.4%) available for follow up.

Conclusions: Perianal abscess in infants is amenable to conservative management in selected cases. Avoiding surgical intervention is advantageous, especially given the high recurrence rate.
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November 2019

Emergency or urgent splenectomy in children for non-traumatic reasons.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Sep 16;178(9):1363-1367. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Head of Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.

Emergency splenectomy is rarely performed since a widespread consensus exists towards conservative management of splenic injury. However, in selected conditions, mainly hematological, there is a role for emergency or urgent splenectomy. This study aims to retrospectively review these cases and discuss outcome in relation to the pre-existing splenic pathologies. Between 2000 and 2015, 12 patients, five girls, and seven boys, with a median age of six years (3 months-13.11 years), underwent emergency or urgent splenectomy for non-traumatic conditions. All patients had major associated disorders; mainly hematological (11 cases) including hemolytic anemia with pancytopenia (1), sickle cell anemia (1), AML (1), ALL (2), CML (1), T cell lymphoma (1), Burkitt lymphoma (1), and ITP (3). One patient had a microvillous inclusion disease. Indications for splenectomy included diffuse resistant splenic abscesses (4), intracranial hemorrhage (4) or hypersplenism (3) with refractory thrombocytopenia, and spontaneous splenic rapture (1). Nine patients improved following surgery but three died, owing to massive intracranial hemorrhage (1) and severe respiratory failure (2) despite aggressive management.Conclusions: Rarely, an emergency splenectomy is required in complex settings, mostly refractory hematological conditions, in a deteriorating patient when all other measurements have failed. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory in the treatment of these complex cases. What is known • Conservative treatment is advised for splenic injury. • Many hematological disorders are responsible of splenic pathology. What is new • Emergency splenectomy in children for reasons other than trauma is a treatment of last resort that should be performed in a multidisciplinary context. • The outcome of emergency splenectomy in children for reasons other than trauma depends on the underlying medical condition.
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September 2019

Anorectal malformations and perineal hemangiomas: The Arm-Net Consortium experience.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Oct 29;54(10):1993-1997. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Pediatric Surgery Department, Cà Foncello Hospital, Treviso, Italy.

Aim: Perineal hemangiomas rarely occur in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs), but they can pose a significant challenge and warrant special attention. Surgical incision of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) may involve the hemangioma site resulting in hemorrhage, damage to blood supply, leading to complications and adversely affecting outcome. The aim of this study was to review the experience of the ARM-Net Consortium in the management of perineal hemangioma associated with ARM and evaluate treatment strategies.

Materials And Methods: Data on all patients with ARM and a perineal hemangioma located in the planes of the PSARP dissection who were managed at participating ARM-Net centers were collected retrospectively by questionnaire, as follows: ARM type, hemangioma distribution and penetration, imaging findings, medical/surgical management, timing of definitive repair, complications and outcome.

Results: Ten patients from eight centers were included. Three patients each had a rectobulbar or rectovestibular fistula, 2 had a rectoperineal fistula, and one had a rectoprostatic fistula; in one patient, the hemangioma was too disfiguring to determine malformation type. Mean follow-up time was 36.6 months (median 29 months). Colostomies were performed before definitive repair in 8 patients. Five patients received systemic beta-blockers before PSARP: 3 were operated uneventfully following partial/complete involution of the hemangioma, and 2 are awaiting surgery. The two patients with rectoperineal fistula were managed expectantly. The remaining 3 patients underwent surgery with no preoperative medical treatment, and all had complications: mislocated neoanus in three and complete perineal dehiscence in one.

Conclusion: Attempting PSARP in the presence of a perineal hemangioma may lead to complications and adversely affect outcome. This study confirms the benefits of beta blocker treatment before surgical reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: Treatment study, level III.
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October 2019

Emergencies in the Treatment of Wandering Spleen.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Jun;20(6):354-357

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Wandering spleen is a rare entity that may pose a surgical emergency following torsion of the splenic vessels, mainly because of a delayed diagnosis. Complications after surgery for wandering spleen may necessitate emergency treatment.

Objectives: To describe the clinical course and treatment for children who underwent emergency surgeries for wandering spleen at a tertiary pediatric medical center over a 21 year period and to indicate the pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment as reflected by our experience and in the literature.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched retrospectively for all children who underwent emergency treatment for wandering spleen between 1996 and 2017. Data were collected from the medical files. The relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: Of ten patients who underwent surgery for wandering spleen during the study period, five underwent seven emergency surgeries. One patient underwent surgery immediately at initial presentation. In the other four, surgical treatment was delayed either due to misdiagnosis or for repeated imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Emergency laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen in all patients; splenectomy was performed in two and the spleen was preserved in three. Four of the seven emergency operations were performed as the primary surgery and three were performed to treat complications.

Conclusions: Wandering spleen should ideally be treated on an elective or semi-elective basis. Surgical delays could be partially minimized by a high index of suspicion at diagnosis and by eliminating unnecessary and time-consuming repeated imaging studies.
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June 2018

Dual versus Triple Antibiotics Regimen in Children with Perforated Acute Appendicitis.

Eur J Pediatr Surg 2018 Dec 25;28(6):491-494. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Introduction:  Acute appendicitis is the most common emergency condition in pediatric surgery. Historically, a triple-antibiotic therapy consisted of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin has been used postoperatively for perforated appendicitis. According to recently published trials, dual therapy consists of ceftriaxone and metronidazole only, offers a more efficient and cost-effective antibiotic management compared with triple therapy. Based on these results, our department applied dual antibiotic therapy for children with perforated appendicitis that underwent appendectomy from 2009 and forth.

Aim:  The aim of our study was to compare postoperative outcomes between patients treated with triple therapy (ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole) (group A) versus dual therapy (ceftriaxone and metronidazole) (group B).

Methods:  Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected by review of the medical records for all children who underwent appendectomy for the perforated appendix at the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, a tertiary pediatric care center between 2007 and 2011. Children with perforated appendicitis received antibiotic therapy in accordance with the hospital's guidelines that were valid at the time the surgery took place. In the first period (years 2007-2009) (group A) a triad of ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole and the second period (2009-2011) (group B) dual therapy consists of ceftriaxone and metronidazole. The two groups were compared for outcome and complications, such as wound infections, changing of antibiotic therapy, and length of stay.

Results:  During the study period 1,203 patients underwent an appendectomy. Of these, 175 patients were diagnosed with perforated appendix and were treated with postoperative antibiotic's regimen. Group A and group B consisted of 89 and 86 patients, respectively. The two groups were not different significantly in terms of demographic data, length of stay, or readmission rates. However, more rates of wound infection and changing of antibiotic therapy were seen in group B, although not statistically significant ( = 0.064).

Conclusion:  Dual antibiotic therapy for perforated appendicitis is a cost-effective and efficient mode of therapy compared with triple-antibiotic's regimen. However, prospective studies are required to determine whether this policy is associated with higher rates of wound infections and change in antibiotic therapy.
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December 2018

Appendiceal Intussusception: A Diagnostic Challenge.

Eur J Pediatr Surg 2018 Feb 25;28(1):30-33. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Introduction:  Appendiceal intussusception is a rare condition in children characterized by an invagination of the appendix into the cecum to various degrees. The treatment is appendectomy; however since symptoms are not specific, clinical diagnosis is challenging and frequently only intraoperative. We present a series of five patients with appendiceal intussusception and discuss features that may direct the pediatric surgeon to achieve early recognition and provide optimal treatment.

Materials And Methods:  The database of a tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed for all patients treated for appendiceal intussusception during the period from January 1995 to January 2016. Data collected by chart review included demographics, clinical characteristics, imaging studies, surgical technique, and outcome. The findings were analyzed by descriptive statistics.

Results:  This series included five patients (two females and three males) with ages ranging between 27 and 42 months (mean: 35.2). Patients presented with intermittent abdominal pain (IAP, all five patients), alternate vomiting (three of five patients), alternate diarrhea (two of five patients), fever (two of five patients), and rectal bleeding (one of five patients). The average length of symptoms was 22.6 days. Eighteen diagnostic studies were performed, including abdominal ultrasound for all patients, barium enema for three patients with secondary ileocolic intussusception, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) for one patient. The average number of studies per patient was 3.6. In surgery, the appendiceal intussusception was found to be complete in four patients, whereas it was partial in the remaining patient. In all patients, appendectomy was performed with resection of a small rim of cecal wall due to marked congestion and edema in an attempt to decrease recurrence.

Conclusion:  The mainstay of clinical presentation is intermittent abdominal pain while patients may be completely asymptomatic between attacks. Appendiceal intussusception may act as a leading point to ileocolic intussusception and is frequently concealed by it. The treatment is appendectomy. Both pediatric surgeons and radiologists should be aware of this occurrence to provide adequate management and avoid complications.
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February 2018

Point-of-Care Ultrasound in a Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery.

Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Nov;18(11):677-679

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider's Children Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, affiliated with Sacker Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming a common tool for routine use in emergency medicine, anesthesiology and intensive care for diagnostic and interventional purposes. When a portable ultrasound device became available for the department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery at the Schneider's Children Medical Center of Israel, we added POCUS assessments to the physician's daily rounds. POCUS is performed by pediatric surgeons trained in basic ultrasonography skills. Starting September 2015 all POCUS examinations were documented.

Objectives: To describe the current use, diagnostic and therapeutic impacts of POCUS in a department of pediatric and adolescent surgery.

Methods: We conducted an observational study of all the documented POCUS procedures performed during a half-year period. Data regarding patient condition and the POCUS procedures were collected, as well as data on the use of other diagnostic modalities, mainly formal ultrasound exams (by radiologists) and computed tomography scans and their correlation with the POCUS assessment.

Results: Fifty-one POCUS exams were performed during the study period, most of which served to define the presence and resolution of a collection - intraabdominal (34%) and subcutaneous (31%). Despite a high rate for formal diagnostic studies (65%), probably due to a relative lack of confidence of surgeons performing the POCUS exams during this initial period, most results (92%) were compatible.

Conclusions: The ability and availability to perform multiple POCUS exams by the attending physician proved to be a valuable aide to the classical physical and laboratory examinations of surgical patients, and we predict its increasing use in quotidian practice.
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November 2016

Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction.

European J Pediatr Surg Rep 2016 Dec 31;4(1):1-5. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler Medical School, University of Tel Aviv, Petach Tikvah, Israel.

Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case.
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December 2016

Anorectal malformation with rectobladder neck fistula: A distinct and challenging malformation.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Oct 14;51(10):1592-6. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Colorectal Center for Children, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, ML 2023, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Background: Rectobladder neck fistula is the highest and most complex anorectal malformation in boys and the only one that requires an abdominal approach, open or laparoscopic, for repair. The aim of this study was to describe the unique characteristics of rectobladder neck fistulas that warrant special attention and to describe the associated anatomic variants in the genitourinary tract.

Methods: The database of a tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed for all patients treated for rectobladder neck fistula, by our team in 1980-2011. Data on surgical history, associated and functional defects, treatment and outcome were collected by chart review.

Results: The study group included 111 patients. The most common anatomic urologic defect was a single kidney in 37 patients (33.3%) and the most common functional urologic defect was vesicoureteral reflux in 40 patients (36%), including 11/37 patients with a single kidney (29.7%). Of the 40 patients who underwent cystoscopy, 16 (40%) had a higher than normal location of the verumontanum. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 290months (median 59). Urinary continence was achieved in 40 of the 61 patients (65.5%) for whom data were available, and fecal continence was achieved in 9 of the 69 patients (13%) for whom data were available. A sacral ratio of 0.4 or less was associated with lower rates of urinary control (23%) and fecal control (0%), relative to higher ratios. Twenty stomas (18%) were found to be located too distally, limiting the availability of the bowel for a pull through.

Conclusions: Rectobladder neck fistula carries a poor prognosis for bowel control and is associated with a high rate of urinary malformations that require long-term care. Pediatric surgeons need to be aware of these complications in order to provide proper treatment and parental counseling. Intra-vesical verumontanum is found in a surprisingly high percentage of patients. The combination of a single kidney with vesicoureteral reflux is common and should be closely followed to avoid renal deterioration. Special attention should be given to colostomy construction to avoid complications and unnecessary procedures. A sacral ratio of 0.4 or less is an indicator of poor fecal and urinary control.
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October 2016

Abdominal transplantation for unresectable tumors in children: the zooming out principle.

Pediatr Surg Int 2016 Apr 28;32(4):337-46. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: To present our experience in abdominal transplantations to manage unresectable abdominal neoplasms in children and to describe the role of extensive surgeries in such cases.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 22 abdominal transplantations in 21 patients for abdominal tumors over 16 years. Transplantation techniques included liver transplant (LT), multivisceral transplant (MVTx), and intestinal autotransplant (IA). Follow-up intervals ranged from 0.3 to 168 months (median 20 months).

Results: LT alone was performed in 15 patients for primary malignant (11) and benign (4) liver tumors. Pathological classification included HB hepatoblastoma (6), HCC hepatocellular cancer (3), hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma HEH (1), angiosarcoma (1), benign vascular tumors (3), and adenoma (1). IA was performed in four patients for lesions involving the root of the mesentery; tumors of the head of pancreas (3) and mesenteric hemangioma (1). MVTx was performed in 2 patients for malignancies; pancreaticoblastoma (1), recurrent hepatoblastoma (1), and in one patient as a rescue procedure after IA failure. Four of the eleven patients who underwent LT for malignant liver tumor had metastatic disease at presentation. Six of them died of recurrent neoplasm (3), transplant-related complications (2), and underlying disease (1). All LT patients who had benign tumors are alive with functioning grafts. All IA patients survived and are on an oral diet, with one patient requiring TPN supplementation. One of the three patients who underwent MVTx died of metastatic disease.

Conclusions: Allo/auto transplantation for abdominal tumors is a valuable modality when conventional treatments fail or are not feasible.
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April 2016

Anorectal injuries in children: a 20-year experience in two centers.

Pediatr Surg Int 2015 Sep 19;31(9):815-9. Epub 2015 Jul 19.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler Medical School, University of Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel,

Introduction: Anorectal injuries in children are not frequently reported and their management is challenging. This report reviews the experience in managing this type of injuries in two medical centers over 20 years.

Methods: An institutional database search for patients who were treated for anorectal injuries between 1994 and 2015 was undertaken. Twenty cases were located and medical records reviewed. This study was conducted with institutional review board approval (#572-14).

Results: There were 6 girls and 14 boys with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years (mean 7 years). Eleven patients sustained penetrating trauma, while nine sustained blunt trauma. The mechanism of injury was variable and associated injuries were more common in blunt trauma. Most common presenting symptoms were rectal bleeding (n = 12) and anal pain (n = 11), followed by abdominal pain in six patients. Eighteen anorectal injuries were extraperitoneal and two intraperitoneal. Among patients with extraperitoneal injuries, 12/18 were managed by primary repair with (6) or without (6) fecal diversion and 2/18 by wound irrigation and drainage with fecal diversion and delayed repair. Four patients had superficial anal and perineal injuries that were irrigated and left to heal by secondary intention. Two patients with intraperitoneal rectal injuries underwent primary repair with fecal diversion. Follow-up period ranged from 2 weeks to 8 years (mean 2 years). There were three cases of wound infection, one case of suture line leak requiring reoperation and one case of vesicorectal fistula in a patient with combined trauma of the rectum and urinary bladder. There was no mortality. Fecal continence was preserved in all patients available for follow-up evaluation.

Conclusions: Primary repair of the perineal wound and anal sphincters can be performed safely in most cases given hemodynamic stability. Fecal diversion should be saved for cases with severe perineal involvement or cases with substantial associated injuries and concern of gross contamination.
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September 2015