Publications by authors named "Ina Rhee"

10 Publications

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Phase I Study of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) Inhibitor Navoximod (GDC-0919) Administered with PD-L1 Inhibitor (Atezolizumab) in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 06 15;25(11):3220-3228. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado.

Purpose: IDO1 induces immune suppression in T cells through l-tryptophan (Trp) depletion and kynurenine (Kyn) accumulation in the local tumor microenvironment, suppressing effector T cells and hyperactivating regulatory T cells (Treg). Navoximod is an investigational small-molecule inhibitor of IDO1. This phase I study evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of navoximod in combination with atezolizumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer.

Patients And Methods: The study consisted of a 3+3 dose-escalation stage ( = 66) and a tumor-specific expansion stage ( = 92). Navoximod was given orally every 12 hours continuously for 21 consecutive days of each cycle with the exception of cycle 1, where navoximod administration started on day -1 to characterize pharmacokinetics. Atezolizumab was administered by intravenous infusion 1,200 mg every 3 weeks on day 1 of each cycle.

Results: Patients ( = 157) received navoximod at 6 dose levels (50-1,000 mg) in combination with atezolizumab. The maximum administered dose was 1,000 mg twice daily; the MTD was not reached. Navoximod demonstrated a linear pharmacokinetic profile, and plasma Kyn generally decreased with increasing doses of navoximod. The most common treatment-related AEs were fatigue (22%), rash (22%), and chromaturia (20%). Activity was observed at all dose levels in various tumor types (melanoma, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cervical, neural sheath, non-small cell lung cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial bladder cancer): 6 (9%) dose-escalation patients achieved partial response, and 10 (11%) expansion patients achieved partial response or complete response.

Conclusions: The combination of navoximod and atezolizumab demonstrated acceptable safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics for patients with advanced cancer. Although activity was observed, there was no clear evidence of benefit from adding navoximod to atezolizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980952PMC
June 2019

Phase I study of the anti-α5β1 monoclonal antibody MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 08 15;82(2):339-351. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

California Cancer Associates for Research & Excellence, Encinitas, CA, USA.

Purpose: MINT1526A is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 (α5β1) with its extracellular matrix ligands. This phase I study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: MINT1526A was administered every 3 weeks (Q3W) as monotherapy (arm 1) or in combination with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, Q3W (arm 2). Each arm included a 3 + 3 dose-escalation stage and a dose-expansion stage.

Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in arm 1 (dose range 2-30 mg/kg) and 30 patients were enrolled in arm 2 (dose range 3-15 mg/kg). Monocyte α5β1 receptor occupancy was saturated at a dose of 15 mg/kg. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in either arm. The most common adverse events, regardless of causality, included abdominal pain (25%), diarrhea (25%), nausea (21%), vomiting (21%), and fatigue (21%) in arm 1 and nausea (40%), fatigue (33%), vomiting (30%), dehydration (30%), headache (30%), and hypertension (30%) in arm 2. No grade ≥ 3 bleeding events were observed in either arm. No confirmed partial responses (PR) were observed in arm 1. In arm 2, one patient with thymic carcinoma experienced a confirmed PR and two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experienced durable minor radiographic responses.

Conclusions: MINT1526A, with or without bevacizumab, was well-tolerated. Preliminary evidence of combination efficacy, including in patients with HCC, was observed, but cannot be distinguished from bevacizumab monotherapy in this phase I study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-018-3622-8DOI Listing
August 2018

Randomized Phase II Trial of Parsatuzumab (Anti-EGFL7) or Placebo in Combination with Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, and Bevacizumab for First-Line Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncologist 2018 06 7;23(6):654-e58. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany

Lessons Learned: The lack of efficacy associated with anti-EGFL7 combined with standard bevacizumab and chemotherapy in this phase II trial in non-small cell lung carcinoma is consistent with the lack of benefit observed in colorectal carcinoma, highlighting the challenge of enhancing the efficacy of VEGF inhibition in unselected populations.Future efforts with agents like anti-EGFL7 should be guided by advances in pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker development for antiangiogenic agents.

Background: Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein that is upregulated during angiogenesis and supports endothelial cell survival. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of the anti-EGFL7 antibody, parsatuzumab, in combination with bevacizumab plus platinum-based therapy for advanced or recurrent nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC).

Methods: Patients ( = 104) were randomized to either placebo or parsatuzumab (600 mg) in combination with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and carboplatin/paclitaxel, administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Carboplatin and paclitaxel were administered for up to six cycles. Bevacizumab and parsatuzumab/placebo were administered for a maximum of 24 months.

Results: The progression-free survival (PFS) hazard ratio (HR) was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.8;  = .047). The median PFS was 6.7 months for the parsatuzumab arm versus 8.1 months for the placebo arm. The hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.2;  = .847). The objective response rate (ORR) was 29% in the parsatuzumab arm and 56% in the placebo arm. Overall safety and tolerability were consistent with the established toxicity profile of bevacizumab.

Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy for the addition of parsatuzumab to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for first-line NS-NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067939PMC
June 2018

Immune-Modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (imRECIST): Refining Guidelines to Assess the Clinical Benefit of Cancer Immunotherapy.

J Clin Oncol 2018 03 17;36(9):850-858. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

F. Stephen Hodi and Mizuki Nishino, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Marcus Ballinger, Benjamin Lyons, Chris McKenna, Ina Rhee, Gregg Fine, Nathan Winslow, and Daniel S. Chen, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA; Jean-Charles Soria, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD; Josep Tabernero, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Thomas Powles, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom; David Smith, Compass Oncology, Vancouver, WA; Axel Hoos, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA; Ulrich Beyer, Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland; and Jedd D. Wolchok, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose Treating solid tumors with cancer immunotherapy (CIT) can result in unconventional responses and overall survival (OS) benefits that are not adequately captured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. We describe immune-modified RECIST (imRECIST) criteria, designed to better capture CIT responses. Patients and Methods Atezolizumab data from clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic urothelial carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma were evaluated. Modifications to imRECIST versus RECIST v1.1 included allowance for best overall response after progressive disease (PD) and changes in PD definitions per new lesions (NLs) and nontarget lesions. imRECIST progression-free survival (PFS) did not count initial PD as an event if the subsequent scan showed disease control. OS was evaluated using conditional landmarks in patients whose PFS differed by imRECIST versus RECIST v1.1. Results The best overall response was 1% to 2% greater, the disease control rate was 8% to 13% greater, and the median PFS was 0.5 to 1.5 months longer per imRECIST versus RECIST v1.1. Extension of imRECIST PFS versus RECIST v1.1 PFS was associated with longer or similar OS. Patterns of progression analysis revealed that patients who developed NLs without target lesion (TL) progression had a similar or shorter OS compared with patients with RECIST v1.1 TL progression. Patients infrequently experienced a spike pattern (TLs increase, then decrease) but had longer OS than patients without TL reversion. Conclusion Evaluation of PFS and patterns of response and progression revealed that allowance for TL reversion from PD per imRECIST may better identify patients with OS benefit. Progression defined by the isolated appearance of NLs, however, is not associated with longer OS. These results may inform additional modifications to radiographic criteria (including imRECIST) to better reflect efficacy with CIT agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.75.1644DOI Listing
March 2018

Randomized Phase II Trial of Parsatuzumab (Anti-EGFL7) or Placebo in Combination with FOLFOX and Bevacizumab for First-Line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Oncologist 2017 04 8;22(4):375-e30. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Lessons Learned: These negative phase II results for parsatuzumab highlight the challenges of developing an agent intended to enhance the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition without the benefit of validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers or strong predictive biomarker hypotheses.Any further clinical development of anti-EGFL7 is likely to require new mechanistic insights and biomarker development for antiangiogenic agents.

Background: EGFL7 (epidermal growth factor-like domain 7) is a tumor-enriched vascular extracellular matrix protein that supports endothelial cell survival. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of parsatuzumab (also known as MEGF0444A), a humanized anti-EGFL7 IgG monoclonal antibody, in combination with modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Methods: One-hundred twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to parsatuzumab, 400 mg, or placebo, in combination with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab, 5 mg/kg. Treatment cycles were repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity for a maximum of 24 months, with the exception of oxaliplatin, which was administered for up to 8 cycles.

Results: The progression-free survival (PFS) hazard ratio was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.93;  = .548). The median PFS was 12 months for the experimental arm versus 11.9 months for the control arm. The hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.46-2.1;  = .943). The overall response rate was 59% in the parsatuzumab arm and 64% in the placebo arm. The adverse event profile was similar in both arms.

Conclusions: There was no evidence of efficacy for the addition of parsatuzumab to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for first-line mCRC. 2017;22:375-e30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2016-0133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388369PMC
April 2017

Clinical translation of ferumoxytol-based vessel size imaging (VSI): Feasibility in a phase I oncology clinical trial population.

Magn Reson Med 2017 02 26;77(2):814-825. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Clinical Imaging Group, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose: To assess the feasibility of acquiring vessel size imaging (VSI) metrics using ferumoxytol injections and stock pulse sequences in a multicenter Phase I trial of a novel therapy in patients with advanced metastatic disease.

Methods: Scans were acquired before, immediately after, and 48 h after injection, at screening and after 2 weeks of treatment. ΔR , ΔR2*, vessel density (Q), and relative vascular volume fractions (VVF) were estimated in both normal tissue and tumor, and compared with model-derived theoretical and experimental estimates based on preclinical murine xenograft data.

Results: R and R2* relaxation rates were still significantly elevated in tumors and liver 48 h after ferumoxytol injection; liver values returned to baseline by week 2. Q was relatively insensitive to changes in ΔR2*, indicating lack of dependence on contrast agent concentration. Variability in Q was higher among human tumors compared with xenografts and was mostly driven by ΔR . Relative VVFs were higher in human tumors compared with xenografts, while values in muscle were similar between species.

Conclusion: Clinical ferumoxytol-based VSI is feasible using standard MRI techniques in a multicenter study of patients with lesions outside of the brain. Ferumoxytol accumulation in the liver does not preclude measurement of VSI parameters in liver metastases. Magn Reson Med 77:814-825, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5677523PMC
February 2017

De novo CpG island methylation in human cancer cells.

Cancer Res 2006 Jan;66(2):682-92

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

A major obstacle toward understanding how patterns of abnormal mammalian cytosine DNA methylation are established is the difficulty in quantitating the de novo methylation activities of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) thought to catalyze these reactions. Here, we describe a novel method, using native human CpG island substrates from genes that frequently become hypermethylated in cancer, which generates robust activity for measuring de novo CpG methylation. We then survey colon cancer cells with genetically engineered deficiencies in different DNMTs and find that the major activity against these substrates in extracts of these cells is DNMT1, with minor contribution from DNMT 3b and none from DNMT3a, the only known bona fide de novo methyltransferases. The activity of DNMT1 against unmethylated CpG rich DNA was further tested by introducing CpG island substrates and DNMT1 into Drosophila melanogaster cells. The exogenous DNMT1 methylates the integrated mammalian CpG islands but not the Drosophila DNA. Additionally, in human cancer cells lacking DNMT1 and DNMT3b and having nearly absent genomic methylation, gene-specific de novo methylation can be initiated by reintroduction of DNMT1. Our studies provide a new assay for de novo activity of DNMTs and data suggesting a potential role for DNMT1 in the initiation of promoter CpG island hypermethylation in human cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1980DOI Listing
January 2006

Histone modifications and silencing prior to DNA methylation of a tumor suppressor gene.

Cancer Cell 2003 Jan;3(1):89-95

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

We attempted to answer two central questions about epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p16(INK4a) in this study: (1) whether the maintenance of associated histone modifications is dependent on DNA methylation and (2) whether such histone modifications can occur prior to DNA methylation. By coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation with gene targeting and the analysis of specific alleles, we found that elimination of DNA methylation from a p16(INK4a) allele resulted in profound changes in surrounding histones. After continued passage of such cells, methylation of histone H3 lysine-9 occurred in conjunction with re-silencing in the absence of DNA methylation. These results have important implications for understanding the biochemical events underlying the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the resultant growth suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00234-9DOI Listing
January 2003

DNMT1 and DNMT3b cooperate to silence genes in human cancer cells.

Nature 2002 Apr;416(6880):552-6

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Inactivation of tumour suppressor genes is central to the development of all common forms of human cancer. This inactivation often results from epigenetic silencing associated with hypermethylation rather than intragenic mutations. In human cells, the mechanisms underlying locus-specific or global methylation patterns remain unclear. The prototypic DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt1, accounts for most methylation in mouse cells, but human cancer cells lacking DNMT1 retain significant genomic methylation and associated gene silencing. We disrupted the human DNMT3b gene in a colorectal cancer cell line. This deletion reduced global DNA methylation by less than 3%. Surprisingly, however, genetic disruption of both DNMT1 and DNMT3b nearly eliminated methyltransferase activity, and reduced genomic DNA methylation by greater than 95%. These marked changes resulted in demethylation of repeated sequences, loss of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) imprinting, abrogation of silencing of the tumour suppressor gene p16INK4a, and growth suppression. Here we demonstrate that two enzymes cooperatively maintain DNA methylation and gene silencing in human cancer cells, and provide compelling evidence that such methylation is essential for optimal neoplastic proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/416552aDOI Listing
April 2002