Publications by authors named "Imtiaz Ahmed"

63 Publications

Interfacial Engineering of CuCoS/g-CN Hybrid Nanorods for Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Inorg Chem 2021 Aug 28;60(16):12355-12366. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemistry, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.

Altering the morphology of electrochemically active nanostructured materials could fundamentally influence their subsequent catalytic as well as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance. Enhanced OER activity for mixed-metal spinel-type sulfide (CuCoS) nanorods is generally done by blending the material that has high conductive supports together with those having a high surface volume ratio, for example, graphitic carbon nitrides (g-CN). Here, we report a noble-metal-free CuCoS nanorod-based electrocatalyst appropriate for basic OER and neutral media, through a simple one-step thermal decomposition approach from its molecular precursors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-copper(II), Cu[PDTC], and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-cobalt(II), Co[PDTC] complexes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns suggest that as-synthesized CuCoS nanorods are highly crystalline in nature and are connected on the g-CN support. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy studies affirm the successful formation of bonds that bridge (Co-N/S-C) at the interface of CuCoS nanorods and g-CN. The kinetics of the reaction are expedited, as these bridging bonds function as an electron transport chain, empowering OER electrocatalytically under a low overpotential (242 mV) of a current density at 10 mA cm under basic conditions, resulting in very high durability. Moreover, CuCoS/g-CN composite nanorods exhibit a high catalytic activity of OER under a neutral medium at an overpotential of 406 mV and a current density of 10 mA cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01566DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between Interleukin-1β Gene Polymorphism and Chronic Periodontitis.

Eur J Dent 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Dow College of Biotechnology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives:  Periodontitis is a pathological condition of the oral cavity, originating from multiple factors, including microbial, environmental and genetic factors. The vulnerability to several pathologies has been studied with the relationship to genetic polymorphisms, and one of the most prominent is the single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout the genome. The study aimed to find out the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of interleukin-1β +3954 gene with chronic periodontitis (CP) in Pakistan MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This case-control study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences. DNA was extracted from the blood and amplified by using conventional polymerase chain reaction of respective genes followed by sequencing. Mann-Whitney test accessed the difference of clinical parameters between cases and controls, and Fisher's exact test was applied to access the association of alleles between subjects. Data entered and analyzed using SPSS 21.

Results:  Significant differences were observed in clinical parameters in cases and controls ( < 0.001). In the IL-1β +3954 gene, T alleles were significantly higher in cases as compared with controls ( < 0.001). Genotype CC was significantly dominant in the controls and genotype CT and TT in patients (Chi-square = 19.83, < 0.001).

Conclusion:  Within the study's limits, IL-1β +3954 gene polymorphism is associated with periodontitis and is expected to be among the several causes of respective pathology in Pakistan's population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1730041DOI Listing
July 2021

Key factors driving the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and controlling strategies during aerobic composting of animal manure: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 8;791:148372. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure impedes the reutilization of manure resources. Aerobic composting is potentially effective method for resource disposal of animal manure, but the fate of ARGs during composting is complicated due to the various material sources and different operating conditions. This review concentrates on the biotic and abiotic factors influencing the variation of ARGs in composting and their potential mechanisms. The dynamic variations of biotic factors, including bacterial community, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and existence forms of ARGs, are the direct driving factors of the fate of ARGs during composting. However, most key abiotic indicators, including pH, moisture content, antibiotics and heavy metals, interfere with the richness of ARGs indirectly by influencing the succession of bacterial community and abundance of MGEs. The effect of temperature on ARGs depends on whether the ARGs are intracellular or extracellular, which should be paid more attention. The emergence of various controlling strategies renders the composting products safer. Four potential removal mechanisms of ARGs in different controlling strategies have been concluded, encompassing the attenuation of selective/co-selective pressure on ARGs, killing the potential host bacteria of ARGs, reshaping the structure of bacterial community and reducing the cell-to-cell contact of bacteria. With the effective control of ARGs, aerobic composting is suggested to be a sustainable and promising approach to treat animal manure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148372DOI Listing
October 2021

Switchable Transducers in GaN MEMS Resonators: Performance Comparison and Analysis.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

This work presents a comprehensive comparison of switchable electromechanical transducers in an AlN/GaN heterostructure toward the goal of reconfigurable RF building blocks in next-generation ad hoc radios. The transducers' inherent switching was achieved by depleting a 2D electron gas (2DEG) channel, allowing an RF signal launched by interdigital transducers (IDTs) to effectively excite the symmetric (S) Lamb mode of vibration in the piezoelectric membrane. Different configurations for applying DC bias to the channel for electromechanical actuation in the piezoelectric are discussed. Complete suppression of the mechanical mode was achieved with the transducers in the OFF state. Equivalent circuit models were developed to extract parameters from measurements by fitting in both ON and OFF states. This is the first time that an extensive comparative study of the performance of different switchable transducers in their ON/OFF state is presented along with frequency scaling of the resonant mode. The switchable transducer with Ohmic IDTs and a Schottky control gate showed superior performance among the designs under consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12040461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073700PMC
April 2021

Graph Regularized Autoencoder and its Application in Unsupervised Anomaly Detection.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Mar 17;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Dimensionality reduction is a crucial first step for many unsupervised learning tasks including anomaly detection and clustering. Autoencoder is a popular mechanism to accomplish dimensionality reduction. In order to make dimensionality reduction effective for high-dimensional data embedding nonlinear low-dimensional manifold, it is understood that some sort of geodesic distance metric should be used to discriminate the data samples. Inspired by the success of geodesic distance approximators such as ISOMAP, we propose to use a minimum spanning tree (MST), a graph-based algorithm, to approximate the local neighborhood structure and generate structure-preserving distances among data points. We use this MST-based distance metric to replace the Euclidean distance metric in the embedding function of autoencoders and develop a new graph regularized autoencoder, which outperforms a wide range of alternative methods over 20 benchmark anomaly detection datasets. We further incorporate the MST regularizer into two generative adversarial networks and find that using the MST regularizer improves the performance of anomaly detection substantially for both generative adversarial networks. We also test our MST regularized autoencoder on two datasets in a clustering application and witness its superior performance as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3066111DOI Listing
March 2021

Garlic (Allium sativum) based interplanting alters the heavy metals absorption and bacterial diversity in neighboring plants.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5833. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59# Qinglong Road, Fucheng District, Mianyang, 621010, Sichuan, China.

Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and let out in the environment by agriculture, industry, mining and therapeutic expertise and thrilling amassing of these elements pollutes the environment. In this study we have investigated the potential of garlic interplanting in promoting hyper accumulation and absorption of heavy metals to provide a basis for phytoremediation of polluted land. Monoculture and inter-plantation of garlic were conducted to investigate the absorption of cadmium and lead contamination in the land. A group of experiments with single planting (monoculture) of Lolium perenne, Conyza canadensis and Pteris vittata as accumulators were used. The results have shown that garlic has a potential as a hyper accumulate and absorb heavy metals. It was found that the accumulation of Cd and Pb was much higher with inter-planting. Garlic boosts up the absorption of heavy metals in Lolium perenne of Cd 66% and Pb 44% respectively. The Inter-planting of garlic with Pteris vittata promotes the Cd 26% and Pb 15%. While the maximum accumulation of Lead 87% and Cadmium 77% occurred in Conyza canadensis herb plant. The bacterial diversity in the soil was analyzed for each experimental soil and was found that the Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were commonly abundant in both single planting (monoculture) of ryegrass and interplanting ryegrass with garlic habitats. Variances were observed in the bacterial floral composition of single (monoculture) and intercropping (interplant) soils. Relative abundance of bacterial taxa revealed that the proportion of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria in the inter-planting group was slightly higher, while Firmicutes and Planctomycetes were low. This study provides the evidence to control the heavy metals contaminated soils with weed species. Growth promotion and heavy metal uptake of neighboring plants proved the specific plant-plant and plant-microbial associations with garlic plants. This inter-planting strategy can be used to improve heavy metal absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85269-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971001PMC
March 2021

Haematological and serum biochemical reference values of snow trout, Schizothorax labiatus habiting in river Sindh of Indian Himalayan region.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 21;98(5):1289-1302. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

Haematological and serum biochemical parameters are a valuable tool in determining the wellbeing status of different fish species and response in close association to various biological and environmental factors, therefore the aim of the present study was to establish sex-wise reference values of haemato-biochemical parameters of S. labiatus. The haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, total erythrocyte count (RBC), total leucocyte count (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, urea, total protein, albumin and globulin were analysed. The results revealed that the haematological parameters, i.e., Hb, RBC, WBC and PCV showed significant (P < 0.05) differences with respect to sex. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher values of Hb content (11.18 g dl ), RBC count (1.88 × 10  mm ) and PCV (36.15%) were noted in male fish than females throughout the study period, while significantly (P < 0.05) higher WBC count was noted in females (20.38 × 10  mm ) compared to males. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in erythrocyte indices like MCH, MCHC and MCV between sexes. The serum biochemical parameters, i.e., glucose, cholesterol and urea, also showed significant (P < 0.05) difference between the sexes, but no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in total protein, albumin and globulin. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest values of glucose (116.76 mg dl ) and urea (9.01 mg dl ) were recorded in male S. labiatus, while highest value of cholesterol (223.53 mg dl ) was noted in females. The information generated in the present study gives the basic reference values of haematological and serum biochemical parameters of S. labiatus which will be useful in monitoring the wellbeing status of fish populations. Moreover, the data will also be helpful to ascertain the occurrence of different clinical and subclinical diseases, which may in turn help to boost the overall production of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14661DOI Listing
May 2021

Metric basis and metric dimension of 1-pentagonal carbon nanocone networks.

Sci Rep 2020 11 12;10(1):19687. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

University of Management and Technology, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

Resolving set and metric basis has become an integral part in combinatorial chemistry and molecular topology. It has a lot of applications in computer, chemistry, pharmacy and mathematical disciplines. A subset S of the vertex set V of a connected graph G resolves G if all vertices of G have different representations with respect to S. A metric basis for G is a resolving set having minimum cardinal number and this cardinal number is called the metric dimension of G. In present work, we find a metric basis and also metric dimension of 1-pentagonal carbon nanocones. We conclude that only three vertices are minimal requirement for the unique identification of all vertices in this network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76516-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661522PMC
November 2020

Effect of different shapes of Nano-CuO and humic acid on two-generations of Daphnia Magna.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;207:111274. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road Haidian District, 100191, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanomaterials (NMs) have significant technological advantages due to their unique properties but their release into the environment also carry potential eco-toxicological risks. CuO NMs have numerous industrial and commercial applications, however less is known about the risks to human health and ecosystems. This study investigated different shapes of nano-CuO (cubic and octahedron) with humic acid (HA: 2 mg/L and 10 mg/L) on the reproduction, growth, survival rate and Cu accumulation in the two-generations of Daphnia Magna species. Nano-CuO cubic and octahedron shapes were analyzed by SEM, demonstrating {111} and {100} facets. The results indicated that octahedron has the more evident toxic effect than cubic shape for both generations. Continuous exposure to nano-CuO exhibited negative effects on body length, cumulative neonates and Cu accumulation in filial generation F (1). Survival rate of CuO octahedron was the least 66%, while CuO cubic was 73% for parental generation F (0). In addition, HA showed a significant reduction in the toxicity of nano-CuO for both generations, leading to an enhanced survival rate, body length and reproduction. This study provides insights of the long-term effect of different shapes of nano-CuO in the existence of humic acid to the multi-generations ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111274DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative evaluation of two anticoagulants used for the analysis of haematological, biochemical parameters and blood cell morphology of himalayan snow trout, Schizopyge plagiostomus.

Tissue Cell 2020 Dec 21;67:101398. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Fish Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190 006 India. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin and KEDTA on haematology, biochemical parameters and blood cell morphology of snow trout Schizopyge plagiostomus inhabiting in Kashmir Himalayan region. The haematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cellcount (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte indices; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), produced certain significant differences in their values with respect to both anticoagulants. Higher values of Hct, MCH and MCV while lower RBC count and MCHC values were recorded with a sample treated with KEDTA compared to sample treated with lithium heparin. However, no significant change in Hb and WBC count was observed in the values of samples treated with both the anticoagulants. In the present study, the effect of two anticoagulant in biochemical parameters revealed that the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) produced significant (P < 0.05) differences. Higher AST and lower ALP activity were recorded in the sample treated with KEDTA compared to overall values in serum. Morphometric analysis showed an increase in the RBC perimeter area in samples treated with KEDTA as compared to samples treated with lithium heparin. On the basis of above findings, it is recommended that in fish blood analysis heparin as anticoagulant could be useful as compared to K EDTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2020.101398DOI Listing
December 2020

Simple contents and good readability: Improving health literacy for LEP populations.

Int J Med Inform 2020 09 11;141:104230. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, USA.

Accessing and receiving quality healthcare in an unfamiliar health system is a significant challenge for many new immigrants and refugees. This study aims to provide a three-phase model to develop a web-based health information website that helps populations with limited English proficiency (LEP) increase health literacy and improve healthcare service access.

Method: First, we conducted a needs assessment from community leaders and service providers. Second, we developed contents from credible sources and tested each item using multiple readability tests. Last, we revised each item to lower the readability and retest its readability.

Results: The average reading level for the original 99 topics was assessed at 10.84 (SD= 3.26). After revisions, we were able to lower the readability to 8.56 (SD= 2.96), which was around two grade levels lower, on average.

Conclusion: the main purpose for building an English based health information website was to assist the population with LEP. By using simple English with lower readability, it will ease the translation process. This study demonstrates a process to develop suitable contents for populations in need. In the future, incorporating visual aid and other multimedia will be beneficial in user engagement and knowledge retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104230DOI Listing
September 2020

"Clinical comparison of bond failure rate between two types of mandibular canine-canine bonded orthodontic retainers- a randomized clinical trial".

BMC Oral Health 2020 06 29;20(1):180. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Research, School of Public Health, Dow University Of Health Sciences Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Bonded retainers are widely used as they are esthetically pleasing, easily acceptable, provide greater stability, compliance free and causes no soft tissue irritation and speech problems. Though, fracture and bond failure are their shortcomings. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the number of bond failures and type of failure pattern between two types of mandibular canine-canine bonded retainers.

Methods: Total 60 subjects were recruited initially and were assessed for eligibility, out of which 6 were excluded and 2 were lost to follow up. They were randomly divided into two groups. Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) retainers were inserted in group 1 subjects while group 2 subjects received multistranded stainless steel (MSW) retainers. The subjects were recalled after every 3 months over a period of 1 year. Bond failure rate and failure pattern based on adhesive remnant index were evaluated at each visit. The bond failure rate and failure pattern were compared between the two retainers by using Chi-square test.

Results: The bond failure rates were 42.94% for FRC retainer and 31.41% for MSW retainer. Hence, total number of bond failures in both retainers were 37.17%. The difference of bond failure between two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Type "0" failure pattern was detected commonly with both types of retainers (p <  0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that multistranded stainless steel wire retainer is a superior option to be used for fixed lingual retention in mandibular arch as it exhibited lower bond failure as compared to fiber reinforced composite retainer. Adhesive failure is the most common type of bond failure observed with both types of fixed retainers.

Trial Registration: ID NCT03881813 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ); March 19, 2019, retrospective registration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01167-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325010PMC
June 2020

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to dextromethorphan.

Contact Dermatitis 2020 Nov 29;83(5):424-425. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Dermatology Department, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cod.13633DOI Listing
November 2020

Effectiveness of Two Types of Fixed Lingual Retainers in Preventing Mandibular Incisor Relapse.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Mar;30(3):282-286

Department of Orthodontics, Dr. Ishrat-Ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare and evaluate the relapse tendency of two types of fixed lingual retainers using Little's irregularity index for a follow-up of one year.

Study Design: Randomised clinical trial.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Orthodontics, Dr. Ishrat Ul Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences and Dow Dental College in Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan, from November 2017 to March 2019.

Methodology: A total of 54 patients were recruited and divided into two groups by random allocation. Subjects who have completed fixed appliance (MBT) orthodontic treatment and non extraction cases with moderate crowding in the lower arch were included. Subjects with caries, restoration, fracture or missing lower anterior teeth were excluded. Group 1 received fiber reinforced composite (FRC) retainers and group 2 received multistranded stainless steel (MSW) retainers. They were recalled after every three months interval for one year. Relapse tendency of retainers using Little's irregularity index was evaluated at each visit.

Results: Comparison of relapse tendency between two retainers showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). The mean difference of CPD between two retainers at T0 was found to be 0.09 mm (p=0.01). At T1, it was determined to be 0.3 mm (p=0.022), and at T2 it was found to be 0.3 mm (p=0.008). At T3 and T4, it was found to be 0.5 mm (p<0.001) and 0.5 mm (p=0.002), respectively. All mean differences were statistically significant.

Conclusion: Fiber-reinforced retainers are more effective in preventing the mandibular incisor relapse. The results of the study also suggest that the irregularity of the dentition increases with the passage of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.03.282DOI Listing
March 2020

[email protected] Hybrid Derived from Layered-Structure Cd-MOF for Fuel Cell ORR Activity.

ACS Omega 2020 Feb 27;5(5):2123-2132. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Universität Paderborn, Warburgerstrasse 100, Paderborn D-33098, Germany.

Fuel cell technology is the supreme alternate option for the replacement of fossil fuel in the current era. Pt alloys can perform well as fuel cell electrodes for being used as catalytic materials to perform the very notorious oxygen reduction reaction. In this regard, first, a layered metal-organic framework with empirical formula [CHCdO] ·4HO is synthesized and characterized using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Then, a nanostructured porous carbon material with a sheet morphology (PC900) having a high BET surface area of 877 m g is fabricated by an inert-atmosphere thermal treatment of the framework upon heating up to 900 °C. Pt and Ni nanoparticles are embedded into PC900 to prepare a homogenized hybrid functional material, i.e., [email protected] The [email protected] hybrid is proved to be an excellent ORR catalyst in terms of half-wave potential and limiting current density with 7% Pt loading compared with the commercially available 20% Pt/C catalyst. [email protected] also shows stability of current up to 12 h with only a very small variation in current. This work highlights the importance of Pt alloys in future large-scale commercial applications of fuel cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016934PMC
February 2020

Single dose high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for localised prostate cancer: Early results of a UK national cohort study.

Radiother Oncol 2020 02 7;143:95-100. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, UK; University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: HDR brachytherapy alone is effective for the treatment of localised prostate cancer when given in 2-4 or more fractions. Single dose treatment has been explored in small cohort studies to date. This paper reports a large patient population with localised prostate cancer treated with single dose HDR brachytherapy delivering 19 Gy providing early outcome data from this approach.

Patients And Methods: Seven centres across the UK collaborated in this national protocol to deliver 19 Gy to the PTV defined by the prostate capsule and a 3 mm expansion with clearly defined planning constraints for the urethra and rectum. Entry criteria allowed all risk groups provided PSA ≤40 µg/L and staging investigations were negative for metastases. The primary end point was biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) defined using the Phoenix definition. Toxicity was measured using CTCAE v4.0.

Results: A total of 441 patients were entered with median follow up 26 months (range 2-56). Median age was 73 (range 54-84) and 10% were low risk, 65% intermediate risk and 25% high risk. ADT was received by 37.6% overall and 90% of high risk patients for a median period of 6 months. Three year bRFS was overall 88%: this was 100% in low risk, 86% in intermediate risk and 75% in high risk. Only Gleason score was an independent predictor of bRFS. Relapse in 25 patients was assessed radiologically and occurred in the prostate in 15 of these, 11 of whom had localised prostate relapse only. Acute toxicity was low with no grade 3 or 4 events; there were two cases of late urinary stricture and two grade 3 late rectal events.

Conclusion: This is the largest cohort of single dose HDR brachytherapy patients treated with a single dose published to date. It shows that with 19 Gy there is 100% bRFS at 3 years in low risk patients but results in intermediate and high risk groups are less encouraging falling to 86% and 75% at 3 years with relapse predominantly in the prostate. Limited by the short follow up period of this study, the long-term outcomes of this single dose HDR approach remains uncertain. It is important to have close ongoing surveillance of this cohort as the data matures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.12.017DOI Listing
February 2020

External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: The Impact of EBRT Volume.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 03 11;106(3):525-533. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, United Kingdom; University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: Whole pelvis radiation therapy (WPRT) may improve clinical outcomes over prostate-only radiation therapy (PORT) in high-risk prostate cancer patients by sterilization of micrometastatic nodal disease, provided there is optimal control of the primary site.

Methods And Materials: A prospective multicenter cohort study of eligible patients (stage ≥T2c, Gleason score ≥7 or presenting prostate-specific antigen ≥10) treated between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in a United Kingdom national protocol delivering combined external beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Centers elected to deliver WPRT, 46 Gy in 23 fractions or PORT 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions with 15 Gy single dose high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The primary endpoint was biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This was not a randomized comparison and was subject to bias; the findings are therefore hypothesis generating, but not conclusive.

Results: Eight hundred and twelve patients were entered; 401 received WPRT and 411 received PORT. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 5-year bPFS rates for WPRT versus PORT arms were 89% versus 81% (P = .007) for all patients and 84% versus 77% (P = .001) for high-risk patients. Differences in bPFS remained significant after accounting for Gleason score, presenting prostate-specific antigen, T stage, and androgen deprivation therapy duration as covariates. There was no difference in overall survival. The overall post treatment toxicities across both cohorts were low with no greater than 1.5% of ≥grade 3 toxicities at any follow-up time point. WPRT increased both prevalence and cumulative incidence of acute genitourinary toxicity (P = .004) and acute gastrointestinal toxicity (P = .003). No difference in late radiation toxicity was observed.

Conclusions: A significant improvement in 5-year bPFS was seen in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with WPRT compared with PORT in a combined external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy schedule with no increase in late radiation toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.09.044DOI Listing
March 2020

Perineal recurrence of prostate cancer post-brachytherapy.

BJR Case Rep 2019 Sep 29;5(3):20180104. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

We present a rare case of perineal recurrence of prostate cancer post low dose rate brachytherapy. Increased levels of prostate-specific antigen were recorded 12 years post brachytherapy. Pelvic CT and MRI visualized a nodular lesion in the perineum, and positron emission tomography demonstrated choline-avidity. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the nodule was performed, yielding histology consistent with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Metastatic prostatic seeding to the perineum is a rare complication of brachytherapy. We discuss the putative mechanism, approach to diagnosis, and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjrcr.20180104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750620PMC
September 2019

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: An Update on Experimental Therapeutics.

Eur Med J (Chelmsf) 2019 Mar 14;4(1):20-29. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Pulmonary Immunology and Physiology Laboratory (PIP), Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that affects thousands of newborns and infants every year. Although it is accepted that BPD results from lung damage and inflammation triggered by mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia, the causes and molecular events leading to lung damage and arrested development remain unknown. While recent advances in neonatal care have improved the survival of very low-weight infants, the rates of BPD have not improved accordingly. This is mainly due to our limited understanding of the disease's pathogenesis and the effective therapeutic options available. Current therapeutics for BPD involve ventilation management, steroid treatment, and administration of various agents, such as pulmonary surfactant, caffeine, vitamin A, nitric oxide, and stem cells. However, the efficacy of these agents in preventing and ameliorating BPD symptoms varies depending on the populations studied and the disease stage. As the field moves towards personalised therapeutic approaches, this review summarises clinical and experimental studies conducted in various models, aiming to increase understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these agents can prevent or treat BPD. Due to the increasing number of extremely premature infants, it is imperative that we continue to work towards understanding the mechanisms of BPD pathogenesis and generating more effective therapeutic options.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6673641PMC
March 2019

Morphological Analysis Of Cementoenamel Junction Types In Premolars And Molars Of A Sample Of Pakistani Population.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Apr-Jun;31(2):221-225

Department of Oral Biology, Dr. Ishrat-Ul -Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, DOW University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Cementoenamel junction represents the demarcation between enamel covered crown and cementum covered root surface. There is paucity of population specific data of the morphological variability of cementoenamel junctions of permanent and primary teeth. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological diversity and interrelationship of cementoenamel junction of premolar and molar teeth in permanent dentition of a sample of Pakistani population with potential forensic and anthropological implications.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Oral Biology department of Dr Ishrat ul Ebad khan institute of oral health science, Dow University from March till September 2016. Seventy-five maxillary and mandibular permanent premolar and molars from adult patients of both sexes were selected and sectioned. Longitudinal ground sections were prepared to study the morphological interrelationship between Cementum and Enamel in each specimen to be viewed under light microscope. A chi-square test was applied between the categorical variables.

Results: Results showed 57.3% of sections had cementum overlapping enamel interrelation, 32% showed edge to edge cementum and enamel relation and 9.3% showed that cementum and enamel failed to meet resulting in exposed dentine, while 1.3% sample showed enamel over cementum relation. No significant correlation was found between gender, type of tooth, maxillary, mandibular arches and the morphological variation of CEJ (p>0.05).

Conclusions: It can be concluded that there are considerable morphological variations in CEJ of premolars and molars with preponderance of cementum overlapping enamel in these teeth. Based on these findings, dentists are advised to be mindful of dental procedures involving the CEJ and that these interventions should be performed meticulously avoiding any detachment of cementum and subsequent exposure of dentin resulting in dentin hypersensitivity.
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July 2019

Health-related quality of life and prevalence of six chronic diseases in homeless and housed people: a cross-sectional study in London and Birmingham, England.

BMJ Open 2019 04 24;9(4):e025192. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Collaborative Centre for Inclusion Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To compare health-related quality of life and prevalence of chronic diseases in housed and homeless populations.

Design: Cross-sectional survey with an age-matched and sex-matched housed comparison group.

Setting: Hostels, day centres and soup runs in London and Birmingham, England.

Participants: Homeless participants were either sleeping rough or living in hostels and had a history of sleeping rough. The comparison group was drawn from the Health Survey for England. The study included 1336 homeless and 13 360 housed participants.

Outcome Measures: Chronic diseases were self-reported asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epilepsy, heart problems, stroke and diabetes. Health-related quality of life was measured using EQ-5D-3L.

Results: Housed participants in more deprived neighbourhoods were more likely to report disease. Homeless participants were substantially more likely than housed participants in the most deprived quintile to report all diseases except diabetes (which had similar prevalence in homeless participants and the most deprived housed group). For example, the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 1.1% (95% CI 0.7% to 1.6%) in the least deprived housed quintile; 2.0% (95% CI 1.5% to 2.6%) in the most deprived housed quintile; and 14.0% (95% CI 12.2% to 16.0%) in the homeless group. Social gradients were also seen for problems in each EQ-5D-3L domain in the housed population, but homeless participants had similar likelihood of reporting problems as the most deprived housed group. The exception was problems related to anxiety, which were substantially more common in homeless people than any of the housed groups.

Conclusions: While differences in health between housed socioeconomic groups can be described as a 'slope', differences in health between housed and homeless people are better understood as a 'cliff'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6501971PMC
April 2019

Paracaval lipoma: Case study and literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Apr 13;14(4):518-520. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mountain Vista Medical Center, 1301 S. Crismon Road, Mesa, AZ 85209, USA.

Paracaval lipoma refers to a fatty tissue collection surrounding the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC). It is a relatively infrequent benign finding on abdominal CT imaging, speculated to be a result of negative thoracic pressure on the IVC during inspiration. If not recognized, paracaval lipoma can be confused for thrombus or, worse yet, malignant invasion of the IVC, resulting in a costly and unnecessary workup. Here we describe a 51-year-old white male presenting to our institution with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, increasing abdominal girth, jaundice, and ascites; subsequent CT of the abdomen and pelvis without contrast revealed an incidental finding of fat deposition around the caudate lobe with a juxtacaval distribution, consistent with paracaval lipoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2018.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412101PMC
April 2019

Selective M1 macrophage polarization in granuloma-positive and granuloma-negative Crohn's disease, in comparison to intestinal tuberculosis.

Intest Res 2018 Jul 27;16(3):426-435. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutritions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background/aims: Classical M1 macrophage activation exhibits an inflammatory phenotype while alternative M2 macrophage activation exhibits an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We aimed to determine whether there are discriminant patterns of macrophage polarization in Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (iTB).

Methods: Colonic mucosal biopsies from 29 patients with iTB, 50 with CD, and 19 controls were examined. Dual colored immunohistochemistry was performed for iNOS/CD68 (an M1 marker) and CD163/CD68 (an M2 marker), and the ratio of M1 to M2 was assessed. To establish the innate nature of macrophage polarization, we analyzed the extent of mitochondrial depolarization, a key marker of inflammatory responses, in monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from CD and iTB patients, following interferon-γ treatment.

Results: M1 polarization was more prominent in CD biopsies (=0.002) than in iTB (=0.2) and control biopsies. In granuloma-positive biopsies, including those in CD, M1 predominance was significant (=0.001). In iTB, the densities of M1 did not differ between granuloma-positive and granuloma-negative biopsies (=0.1). Interestingly, higher M1 polarization in CD biopsies correlated with high inflammatory response exhibited by peripheral blood-derived monocytes from these patients.

Conclusions: Proinflammatory M1 polarization was more common in colonic mucosa of CD patients, especially in the presence of mucosal granulomas. Further characterization of the innate immune system could help in clarifying the pathology of iTB and CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.16.3.426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077298PMC
July 2018

Elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are associated with major depressive disorder: A case-control study.

SAGE Open Med 2018 9;6:2050312118773953. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Major depressive disorder is diagnosed on the basis of patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives, and a mental status examination, and yet we do not have any reliable biomarker for this. Mood-regulating pathways are affected by oxidative injury to lipids and cortisol is released into the blood due to stimulation of corticotrophin receptors in the adrenal cortex. Here, we aimed to determine serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in major depressive disorder patients and controls.

Methods: We collected blood samples from 247 major depressive disorder patients and 248 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively.

Results: We found malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± standard deviation at 4.49 ± 1.37 and 2.87 ± 0.82 µmol/L, respectively,  < 0.001. Cortisol levels were also found significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± SD at 19.22 ± 1.64 and 17.37 ± 1.34 µg/dL, respectively,  < 0.001. Significant negative correlation was observed between serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in patients ( =-0.170,  = 0.021). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed good diagnostic value for malondialdehyde and cortisol, with the area under the curve at 0.853 and 0.819, respectively.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that increased serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are strongly associated with major depressive disorder. We believe elevations of malondialdehyde and cortisol in serum level arise independently and they could serve as biomarkers for major depressive disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312118773953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946642PMC
May 2018

Nickel oxide decorated zinc oxide composite nanorods: Excellent catalyst for photoreduction of hexavalent chromium.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Aug 16;523:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Chemical Science, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab 151001, India. Electronic address:

In light of the growing interest and ability to search for new materials, we have synthesized Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles decorated Zinc (ZnO) nanorods composite (NiO/ZnO) nanostructure. The NiO/ZnO heterostructure formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fabricated environmental friendly NiO/ZnO composite nanostructure shows a well-defined photoreduction characteristic of hexavalent Chromium (Cr) (VI) to tri-valent Chromium (Cr) (III) under UV-light. Such an enhanced photoreduction property is attributed due to the decreased electron-hole recombination process which was proved by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photocurrent study, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity rate of the NiO decorated ZnO nanorods was much higher than that of bare ZnO nanorods for the reduction of chromium (VI) and the rate is found to be 0.306 min. These results have demonstrates that suitable surface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance photocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.03.012DOI Listing
August 2018

A physically based compact I-V model for monolayer TMDC channel MOSFET and DMFET biosensor.

Nanotechnology 2018 Jun 9;29(23):235203. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

In this work, a compact transport model has been developed for monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) channel MOSFET. The analytical model solves the Poisson's equation for the inversion charge density to get the electrostatic potential in the channel. Current is then calculated by solving the drift-diffusion equation. The model makes gradual channel approximation to simplify the solution procedure. The appropriate density of states obtained from the first principle density functional theory simulation has been considered to keep the model physically accurate for monolayer TMDC channel FET. The outcome of the model has been benchmarked against both experimental and numerical quantum simulation results with the help of a few fitting parameters. Using the compact model, detailed output and transfer characteristics of monolayer WSe FET have been studied, and various performance parameters have been determined. The study confirms excellent ON and OFF state performances of monolayer WSe FET which could be viable for the next generation high-speed, low power applications. Also, the proposed model has been extended to study the operation of a biosensor. A monolayer MoS channel based dielectric modulated FET is investigated using the compact model for detection of a biomolecule in a dry environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aab5acDOI Listing
June 2018

Interarterial course of anomalous right coronary artery: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

Radiol Case Rep 2017 Dec 27;12(4):664-667. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Integrated Medicine, Midwestern University, Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, 19555 North 59th Ave, Glendale, AZ 85308.

Anomalous coronary artery from the opposite sinus is a rare congenital anomaly that can present with symptoms similar to coronary artery disease, and sudden cardiac death. Management of anomalous coronary artery from the opposite sinus varies; however, current guidelines suggest surgery in symptomatic patients. Our patient is a middle-aged male with a history of coronary artery disease and status post coronary artery bypass graft. He presented with complaints of vague chest pain. After a positive stress test, he was sent to the catheterization suite. Diagnosis of an anomalous right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus was made. The patient underwent surgical revascularization and was awaiting follow-up with cardiology at the time of study. A timely diagnosis of an anomalous coronary artery is critical in symptomatic patients because of the risk of sudden cardiac death, especially in patients with arteries with an interarterial course. This case demonstrates the importance of making the correct diagnosis, as appropriate surgical management can drastically improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2017.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823319PMC
December 2017

Martian Popping Thing.

J Cytol 2018 Jan-Mar;35(1):53-54

Department of Pathology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JOC.JOC_238_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5795730PMC
February 2018

A creeping hand eruption.

BMJ 2017 Jan 12;356:i6326. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Dermatology, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6326DOI Listing
January 2017

Haematological response of snow barbell, Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel, naturally infected with a new Trypanosoma species.

J Parasit Dis 2016 Sep 21;40(3):791-800. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Fish Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006 J&K India.

The present study deals with the description of a new piscine trypanosome species found infecting the fresh water fish Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel from river Jhelum, Srinagar, J&K, India and evaluating the haematological parameters of the infected fish. Haematological examination of S. plagiostomus revealed 61.1 % infection with an intensity of 1-9 trypanosomes/100 RBC's. Small (26.9 ± 1.39 µm) and large (47.17 ± 3.50 µm) forms of the trypanosome were observed in light microscopy investigations, revealing the dimorphic nature of the species. The trypanosome species was found to be distinct from the other related dimorphic species in morphometric dimensions including cell length, cell breadth, kinetoplast index, flagellar index, and cytological peculiarities, respectively. The detailed descriptions of the two morphological forms found in the blood of S. plagiostomus are provided. Based on the geographical location, morphometrics, cytological peculiarities, host status and comparative study, the new species is named Trypanosoma kashmirensis n. sp. The parasitic infestation caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in red blood cell counts, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations while, the leucocyte (WBC) count, mean cellular volume and mean cellular haemoglobin showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the infected fish as compared to the non-infected. The above alterations of the haematological parameters could be used as an important tool for the indication of Trypanosoma infection in the fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0580-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996193PMC
September 2016
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