Publications by authors named "Imre W K Kouw"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ingestion of Free Amino Acids Compared with an Equivalent Amount of Intact Protein Results in More Rapid Amino Acid Absorption and Greater Postprandial Plasma Amino Acid Availability Without Affecting Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Young Adults in a Double-Blind Randomized Trial.

J Nutr 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Human Biology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: The rate of protein digestion and amino acid absorption determines the postprandial rise in circulating amino acids and modulates postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates.

Objective: We sought to compare protein digestion, amino acid absorption kinetics, and the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response following ingestion of intact milk protein or an equivalent amount of free amino acids.

Methods: Twenty-four healthy, young participants (mean ± SD age: 22 ± 3 y and BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m2; sex: 12 male and 12 female participants) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine, after which they ingested either 30 g intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled milk protein or an equivalent amount of free amino acids labeled with l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained to assess protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics (secondary outcome), whole-body protein net balance (secondary outcome), and mixed muscle protein synthesis rates (primary outcome) throughout the 6-h postprandial period.

Results: Postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations increased after ingestion of intact milk protein and free amino acids (both P < 0.001), with a greater increase following ingestion of the free amino acids than following ingestion of intact milk protein (P-time × treatment < 0.001). Exogenous phenylalanine release into plasma, assessed over the 6-h postprandial period, was greater with free amino acid ingestion (76 ± 9%) than with milk protein treatment (59 ± 10%; P < 0.001). Ingestion of free amino acids and intact milk protein increased mixed muscle protein synthesis rates (P-time < 0.001), with no differences between treatments (from 0.037 ± 0.015%/h to 0.053 ± 0.014%/h and 0.039 ± 0.016%/h to 0.051 ± 0.010%/h, respectively; P-time × treatment = 0.629).

Conclusions: Ingestion of a bolus of free amino acids leads to more rapid amino acid absorption and greater postprandial plasma amino acid availability than ingestion of an equivalent amount of intact milk protein. Ingestion of free amino acids may be preferred over ingestion of intact protein in conditions where protein digestion and amino acid absorption are compromised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab305DOI Listing
October 2021

No differences in muscle protein synthesis rates following ingestion of wheat protein, milk protein, and their protein blend in healthy, young males.

Br J Nutr 2021 Feb 18:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

TiFN, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Plant-derived proteins have been suggested to have less anabolic properties when compared with animal-derived proteins. Whether blends of plant- and animal-derived proteins can compensate for their lesser anabolic potential has not been assessed. The present study compares post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates following the ingestion of milk protein with wheat protein or a blend of wheat plus milk protein in healthy, young males. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group design, 36 males (23 (sd 3) years) received a primed continuous L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine infusion after which they ingested 30 g milk protein (MILK), 30 g wheat protein (WHEAT) or a 30 g blend combining 15 g wheat plus 15 g milk protein (WHEAT+MILK). Blood and muscle biopsies were collected frequently for 5 h to assess post-prandial plasma amino acid profiles and subsequent myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Ingestion of protein increased myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in all treatments (P < 0·001). Post-prandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between MILK v. WHEAT (0·053 (sd 0·013) v. 0·056 (sd 0·012) %·h-1, respectively; t test P = 0·56) or between MILK v. WHEAT+MILK (0·053 (sd 0·013) v. 0·059 (sd 0·025) %·h-1, respectively; t test P = 0·46). In conclusion, ingestion of 30 g milk protein, 30 g wheat protein or a blend of 15 g wheat plus 15 g milk protein increases muscle protein synthesis rates in young males. Furthermore, muscle protein synthesis rates following the ingestion of 30 g milk protein do not differ from rates observed after ingesting 30 g wheat protein or a blend with 15 g milk plus 15 g wheat protein in healthy, young males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000635DOI Listing
February 2021

Exercise Plus Presleep Protein Ingestion Increases Overnight Muscle Connective Tissue Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2021 Feb 14;31(3):217-226. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Maastricht University Medical Centre.

Protein ingestion and exercise stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. When combined, exercise further increases the postprandial rise in myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether protein ingestion with or without exercise also stimulates muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates. The authors assessed the impact of presleep protein ingestion on overnight muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates at rest and during recovery from resistance-type exercise in older men. Thirty-six healthy, older men were randomly assigned to ingest 40 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]-leucine-labeled casein protein (PRO, n = 12) or a nonprotein placebo (PLA, n = 12) before going to sleep. A third group performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening before ingesting 40 g intrinsically-labeled casein protein prior to sleep (EX+PRO, n = 12). Continuous intravenous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]-leucine were applied with blood and muscle tissue samples collected throughout overnight sleep. Presleep protein ingestion did not increase muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates (0.049 ± 0.013 vs. 0.060 ± 0.024%/hr in PLA and PRO, respectively; p = .73). Exercise plus protein ingestion resulted in greater overnight muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates (0.095 ± 0.022%/hr) when compared with PLA and PRO (p < .01). Exercise increased the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into muscle connective tissue protein (0.036 ± 0.013 vs. 0.054 ± 0.009 mole percent excess in PRO vs. EX+PRO, respectively; p < .01). In conclusion, resistance-type exercise plus presleep protein ingestion increases overnight muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates in older men. Exercise enhances the utilization of dietary protein-derived amino acids as precursors for de novo muscle connective tissue protein synthesis during overnight sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0222DOI Listing
February 2021

Intermittent versus continuous enteral nutrition attenuates increases in insulin and leptin during short-term bed rest.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Sep 10;120(9):2083-2094. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+), Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To compare endocrine responses to intermittent vs continuous enteral nutrition provision during short-term bed rest.

Methods: Twenty healthy men underwent 7 days of bed rest, during which they were randomized to receive enteral nutrition (47%E as carbohydrate, 34%E as fat, 16%E as protein and 3%E as fibre) in a continuous (CONTINUOUS; n = 10; 24 h day at a constant rate) or intermittent (INTERMITTENT; n = 10; as 4 meals per day separated by 5 h) pattern. Daily plasma samples were taken every morning to assess metabolite/hormone concentrations.

Results: During bed rest, plasma leptin concentrations were elevated to a lesser extent with INTERMITTENT vs CONTINUOUS (iAUC: 0.42 ± 0.38 vs 0.95 ± 0.48 nmol L, respectively; P = 0.014) as were insulin concentrations (interaction effect, P < 0.001) which reached a peak of 369 ± 225 pmol L in CONTINUOUS, compared to 94 ± 38 pmol L in INTERMITTENT (P = 0.001). Changes in glucose infusion rate were positively correlated with changes in fasting plasma GLP-1 concentrations (r = 0.44, P = 0.049).

Conclusion: Intermittent enteral nutrition attenuates the progressive rise in plasma leptin and insulinemia seen with continuous feeding during bed rest, suggesting that continuous feeding increases insulin requirements to maintain euglycemia. This raises the possibility that hepatic insulin sensitivity is impaired to a greater extent with continuous versus intermittent feeding during bed rest. To attenuate endocrine and metabolic changes with enteral feeding, an intermittent feeding strategy may, therefore, be preferable to continuous provision of nutrition. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02521025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04431-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419443PMC
September 2020

During Hospitalization, Older Patients at Risk for Malnutrition Consume <0.65 Grams of Protein per Kilogram Body Weight per Day.

Nutr Clin Pract 2020 Aug 24;35(4):655-663. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Human Biology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Malnutrition is prevalent in hospitalized patients. To support muscle maintenance in older and chronically ill patients, a protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg/d has been recommended during hospitalization. We assessed daily protein intake levels and distribution in older patients at risk for malnutrition during hospitalization.

Methods: In this prospective, observational study, we measured actual food and food supplement consumption in patients (n = 102; age, 68 ± 14 years; hospital stay, 14 [8-28] days) at risk of malnutrition during hospitalization. Food provided by hospital meals, ONS, and snacks and the actual amount of food (not) consumed were weighed and recorded for all patients.

Results: Hospital meals provided 1.03 [0.77-1.26] protein, whereas actual protein consumption was only 0.65 [0.37-0.93] g/kg/d. Protein intake at breakfast, lunch, and dinner was 10 [6-15], 9 [5-14], and 13 [9-18] g, respectively. The use of ONS (n = 62) resulted in greater energy (1.26 [0.40-1.79] MJ/d, 300 [100-430] kcal/d) and protein intake levels (11 [4-16] g/d), without changing the macronutrient composition of the diet.

Conclusion: Despite protein provision of ∼1.0 g/kg/d, protein intake remains well below these values (∼0.65 g/kg/d), as 30%-40% of the provided food and supplements is not consumed. Provision of ONS may increase energy and protein intake but does not change the macronutrient composition of the diet. Current nutrition strategies to achieve the recommended daily protein intake in older patients during their hospitalization are not as effective as generally assumed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384011PMC
August 2020

Protein Type, Protein Dose, and Age Modulate Dietary Protein Digestion and Phenylalanine Absorption Kinetics and Plasma Phenylalanine Availability in Humans.

J Nutr 2020 08;150(8):2041-2050

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+), Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Dietary protein ingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis by providing amino acids to the muscle. The magnitude and duration of the postprandial increase in muscle protein synthesis rates are largely determined by dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics.

Objective: We assessed the impact of protein type, protein dose, and age on dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics in vivo in humans.

Methods: We included data from 18 randomized controlled trials with a total of 602 participants [age: 53 ± 23 y; BMI (kg/m2): 24.8 ± 3.3] who consumed various quantities of intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled whey (n = 137), casein (n = 393), or milk (n = 72) protein and received intravenous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, which allowed us to assess protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics and the postprandial release of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine into the circulation. The effect of aging on these processes was assessed in a subset of 82 young (aged 22 ± 3 y) and 83 older (aged 71 ± 5 y) individuals.

Results: A total of 50% ± 14% of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation over a 5-h postprandial period. Casein ingestion resulted in a smaller (45% ± 11%), whey protein ingestion in an intermediate (57% ± 10%), and milk protein ingestion in a greater (65% ± 13%) fraction of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation (P < 0.001). The postprandial availability of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine in the circulation increased with the ingestion of greater protein doses (P < 0.05). Protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics were attenuated in older when compared with young individuals, with 45% ± 10% vs. 51% ± 14% of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation, respectively (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Protein type, protein dose, and age modulate dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics and subsequent postprandial plasma amino acid availability in vivo in humans. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00557388, NCT00936039, NCT00991523, NCT01317511, NCT01473576, NCT01576848, NCT01578590, NCT01615276, NCT01680146, NCT01820975, NCT01986842, and NCT02596542, and at http://www.trialregister.nl as NTR3638, NTR3885, NTR4060, NTR4429, and NTR4492.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398787PMC
August 2020

Postexercise cooling impairs muscle protein synthesis rates in recreational athletes.

J Physiol 2020 02 29;598(4):755-772. Epub 2019 Dec 29.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Key Points: Protein ingestion and cooling are strategies employed by athletes to improve postexercise recovery and, as such, to facilitate muscle conditioning. However, whether cooling affects postprandial protein handling and subsequent muscle protein synthesis rates during recovery from exercise has not been assessed. We investigated the effect of postexercise cooling on the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into muscle protein and acute postprandial (hourly) as well as prolonged (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during recovery from resistance-type exercise over 2 weeks. Cold-water immersion during recovery from resistance-type exercise lowers the capacity of the muscle to take up and/or direct dietary protein-derived amino acids towards de novo myofibrillar protein accretion. In addition, cold-water immersion during recovery from resistance-type exercise lowers myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Individuals aiming to improve skeletal muscle conditioning should reconsider applying cooling as a part of their postexercise recovery strategy.

Abstract: We measured the impact of postexercise cooling on acute postprandial (hourly) as well as prolonged (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during adaptation to resistance-type exercise over 2 weeks. Twelve healthy males (aged 21 ± 2 years) performed a single resistance-type exercise session followed by water immersion of both legs for 20 min. One leg was immersed in cold water (8°C: CWI), whereas the other leg was immersed in thermoneutral water (30°C: CON). After water immersion, a beverage was ingested containing 20 g of intrinsically (l-[1- C]-phenylalanine and l-[1- C]-leucine) labelled milk protein with 45 g of carbohydrates. In addition, primed continuous l-[ring- H ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- C]-leucine infusions were applied, with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples to assess myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in vivo over a 5 h recovery period. In addition, deuterated water ( H O) was applied with the collection of saliva, blood and muscle biopsies over 2 weeks to assess the effects of postexercise cooling with protein intake on myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during more prolonged resistance-type exercise training (thereby reflecting short-term training adaptation). Incorporation of dietary protein-derived l-[1- C]-phenylalanine into myofibrillar protein was significantly lower in CWI compared to CON (0.016 ± 0.006 vs. 0.021 ± 0.007 MPE; P = 0.016). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were lower in CWI compared to CON based upon l-[1- C]-leucine (0.058 ± 0.011 vs. 0.072 ± 0.017% h , respectively; P = 0.024) and l-[ring- H ]-phenylalanine (0.042 ± 0.009 vs. 0.053 ± 0.013% h , respectively; P = 0.025). Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates assessed over 2 weeks were significantly lower in CWI compared to CON (1.48 ± 0.17 vs. 1.67 ± 0.36% day , respectively; P = 0.042). Cold-water immersion during recovery from resistance-type exercise reduces myofibrillar protein synthesis rates and, as such, probably impairs muscle conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP278996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028023PMC
February 2020

Basal and Postprandial Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates Do Not Differ between Lean and Obese Middle-Aged Men.

J Nutr 2019 09;149(9):1533-1542

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Excess lipid availability has been associated with the development of anabolic resistance. As such, obesity may be accompanied by impairments in muscle protein metabolism.

Objective: We hypothesized that basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates are lower in obese than in lean men.

Methods: Twelve obese men [mean ± SEM age: 48 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 37.0 ± 1.5; body fat: 32 ± 2%] and 12 age-matched lean controls (age: 43 ± 3 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.4; body fat: 21 ± 1%) received primed continuous L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and L-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine labeled whey protein. Repeated blood and muscle samples were obtained to assess protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, and basal and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates.

Results: Exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion in both groups (P < 0.001), with a total of 53 ± 1% and 53 ± 2% of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation over the 5-h postprandial period in lean and obese men, respectively (P = 0.82). After protein ingestion, whole-body protein synthesis and oxidation rates increased to a greater extent in lean men than in the obese (P-interaction < 0.05), resulting in a higher whole-body protein net balance in the lean than in the obese (7.1 ± 0.2 and 4.6 ± 0.4 µmol phenylalanine · h-1 · kg-1, respectively; P-interaction < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates increased from 0.030 ± 0.002 and 0.028 ± 0.003%/h in the postabsorptive period to 0.034 ± 0.002 and 0.035 ± 0.003%.h-1 in the 5-h postprandial period (P = 0.03) in lean and obese men, respectively, with no differences between groups (P-interaction = 0.58).

Conclusions: Basal, postabsorptive myofibrillar protein synthesis rates do not differ between lean and obese middle-aged men. Postprandial protein handling, including protein digestion and amino acid absorption, and the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein are not impaired in obese men. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR4060.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736155PMC
September 2019

The Impact of Pre-sleep Protein Ingestion on the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise in Humans: An Update.

Front Nutr 2019 6;6:17. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht, Netherlands.

This review provides an update on recent research assessing the effect of pre-sleep protein ingestion on muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight sleep and the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed during overnight sleep, thereby increasing overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Protein consumption prior to sleep does not appear to reduce appetite during breakfast the following day and does not change resting energy expenditure. When applied over a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, pre-sleep protein supplementation has a beneficial effect on the increase in muscle mass and strength. Protein ingestion before sleep is hypothesized to represent an effective nutritional strategy to preserve muscle mass in the elderly, especially when combined with physical activity or muscle contraction by means of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. In conclusion, protein ingestion prior to sleep is an effective interventional strategy to increase muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight sleep and can be applied to support the skeletal muscle adaptive response to resistance-type exercise training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415027PMC
March 2019

Dietary feeding pattern does not modulate the loss of muscle mass or the decline in metabolic health during short-term bed rest.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 03 15;316(3):E536-E545. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ , The Netherlands.

Short periods of bed rest lead to the loss of muscle mass and quality. It has been speculated that dietary feeding pattern may have an impact upon muscle protein synthesis rates and, therefore, modulate the loss of muscle mass and quality. We subjected 20 healthy men (age: 25 ± 1 yr, body mass index: 23.8 ± 0.8 kg/m) to 1 wk of strict bed rest with intermittent (4 meals/day) or continuous (24 h/day) enteral tube feeding. Participants consumed deuterium oxide for 7 days before bed rest and throughout the 7-day bed rest period. Prior to and immediately after bed rest, lean body mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA; CT), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (V̇o), and whole body insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) were assessed. Muscle biopsies were collected 7 days before, 1 day before, and immediately after bed rest to assess muscle tracer incorporation. Bed rest resulted in 0.3 ± 0.3 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 kg lean tissue loss and a 1.1 ± 0.6 vs. 0.8 ± 0.5% decline in quadriceps CSA in the intermittent vs. continuous feeding group, respectively (both P < 0.05), with no differences between groups (both P > 0.05). Moreover, feeding pattern did not modulate the bed rest-induced decline in insulin sensitivity (-46 ± 3% vs. 39 ± 3%; P < 0.001) or V̇o (-2.5 ± 2.2 vs. -8.6 ± 2.2%; P < 0.010) (both P > 0.05). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during bed rest did not differ between the intermittent and continuous feeding group (1.33 ± 0.07 vs. 1.50 ± 0.13%/day, respectively; P > 0.05). In conclusion, dietary feeding pattern does not modulate the loss of muscle mass or the decline in metabolic health during 1 wk of bed rest in healthy men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00378.2018DOI Listing
March 2019

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater in Middle-Aged Women Compared With Men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 04;104(4):994-1004

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Rationale: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by the postprandial rise in muscle protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether postprandial protein handling differs between women and men.

Methods: Healthy men (43 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.4 ± 0.4 kg/m2; n = 12) and women (46 ± 2 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2; n = 12) received primed continuous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled whey protein. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics as well as basal and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates.

Results: Plasma phenylalanine and leucine concentrations rapidly increased after protein ingestion (both P < 0.001), with no differences between middle-aged women and men (Time × Sex, P = 0.307 and 0.529, respectively). The fraction of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine that appeared in the circulation over the 5-hour postprandial period averaged 56 ± 1% and 53 ± 1% in women and men, respectively (P = 0.145). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates increased (Time, P = 0.010) from 0.035 ± 0.004%/h and 0.030 ± 0.002%/h in the postabsorptive state (t test, P = 0.319) to 0.045 ± 0.002%/h and 0.034 ± 0.002%/h in the 5-hour postprandial phase in middle-aged women and men, respectively, with higher postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in women compared with men (t test, P = 0.005). Middle-aged women showed a greater increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during the early (0 to 2 hours) postprandial period compared with men (Time × Sex, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: There are no differences in postabsorptive myofibrillar protein synthesis rates between middle-aged women and men. The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 25 g whey protein is greater in women than in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-01734DOI Listing
April 2019

One Week of Hospitalization Following Elective Hip Surgery Induces Substantial Muscle Atrophy in Older Patients.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 01 11;20(1):35-42. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Human Biology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre+, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: Short successive periods of skeletal muscle disuse have been suggested to substantially contribute to the observed loss of skeletal muscle mass over the life span. Hospitalization of older individuals due to acute illness, injury, or major surgery generally results in a mean hospital stay of 5 to 7 days, during which the level of physical activity is strongly reduced. We hypothesized that hospitalization following elective total hip arthroplasty is accompanied by substantial leg muscle atrophy in older men and women.

Design And Participants: Twenty-six older patients (75 ± 1 years) undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty participated in this observational study.

Measurements: On hospital admission and on the day of discharge, computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed to assess muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of both legs. During surgery and on the day of hospital discharge, a skeletal muscle biopsy was taken from the m. vastus lateralis of the operated leg to assess muscle fiber type-specific CSA.

Results: An average of 5.6 ± 0.3 days of hospitalization resulted in a significant decline in quadriceps (-3.4% ± 1.0%) and thigh muscle CSA (-4.2% ± 1.1%) in the nonoperated leg (P < .05). Edema resulted in a 10.3% ± 1.7% increase in leg CSA in the operated leg (P < .05). At hospital admission, muscle fiber CSA was smaller in the type II vs type I fibers (3326 ± 253 μm vs 4075 ± 279 μm, respectively; P < .05). During hospitalization, type I and II muscle fiber CSA tended to increase, likely due to edema in the operated leg (P = .10).

Conclusions: Six days of hospitalization following elective total hip arthroplasty leads to substantial leg muscle atrophy in older patients. Effective intervention strategies are warranted to prevent the loss of muscle mass induced by short periods of muscle disuse during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.06.018DOI Listing
January 2019

Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 Sep 29;123(3):637-644. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands; and

Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m; means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect < 0.001) compared with PLA (treatment effect < 0.05). In conclusion, basal [Formula: see text] concentrations are substantially higher in human skeletal muscle tissue compared with plasma. Ingestion of a bolus of dietary [Formula: see text] increases both plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] contents in humans. Literature of the pharmacokinetics following dietary nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes observed in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations. The present investigation assessed the skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans during the postabsorptive state, as well as following dietary nitrate ingestion. We show that basal nitrate content is higher in skeletal muscle tissue than in plasma and that ingestion of a dietary nitrate bolus strongly increases both plasma and muscle nitrate concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01036.2016DOI Listing
September 2017

Presleep dietary protein-derived amino acids are incorporated in myofibrillar protein during postexercise overnight recovery.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 05 23;314(5):E457-E467. Epub 2017 May 23.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre , Maastricht , The Netherlands.

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ingesting 30 g casein protein with and without 2 g free leucine before sleep on myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during postexercise overnight recovery. Thirty-six healthy young men performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (1945) after a full day of dietary standardization. Thirty minutes before sleep (2330), subjects ingested 30 g intrinsically l-[1-C]phenylalanine-labeled protein with (PRO+leu, n = 12) or without (PRO, n = 12) 2 g free leucine, or a noncaloric placebo (PLA, n = 12). Continuous intravenous l-[ ring-H]phenylalanine, l-[1-C]leucine, and l-[ ring-H]tyrosine infusions were applied. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to assess whole body protein net balance, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates, and overnight incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into myofibrillar protein. Protein ingestion before sleep improved overnight whole body protein net balance ( P < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ significantly between treatments as assessed by l-[ ring-H]phenylalanine (0.057 ± 0.002, 0.055 ± 0.002, and 0.055 ± 0.004%/h for PLA, PRO, and PRO+leu, respectively; means ± SE; P = 0.850) or l-[1-C]leucine (0.080 ± 0.004, 0.073 ± 0.004, and 0.083 ± 0.006%/h, respectively; P = 0.328). Myofibrillar l-[1-C]phenylalanine enrichments increased following protein ingestion but did not differ between the PRO and PRO+leu treatments. In conclusion, protein ingestion before sleep improves whole body protein net balance and provides amino acids that are incorporated into myofibrillar protein during sleep. However, the ingestion of 30 g casein protein with or without additional free leucine before sleep does not increase muscle protein synthesis rates during postexercise overnight recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00273.2016DOI Listing
May 2018

Both basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates, following the ingestion of a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement, are not impaired in sarcopenic older males.

Clin Nutr 2017 10 29;36(5):1440-1449. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population.

Objective: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men.

Design: A total of 15 healthy (69 ± 1 y) and 15 sarcopenic (81 ± 1 y) older men ingested a leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement containing 21 g of protein, 9 g of carbohydrate, and 3 g of fat. Stable isotope methodology combined with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples was applied to assess basal and post-prandial muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Handgrip strength, muscle mass, and gait speed were assessed to identify sarcopenia, according to international criteria.

Results: Basal mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) averaged 0.040 ± 0.005 and 0.032 ± 0.003%/h (mean ± SEM) in the sarcopenic and healthy group, respectively (P = 0.14). Following protein ingestion, FSR increased significantly to 0.055 ± 0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.004%/h in the post-prandial period in the sarcopenic (P = 0.003) and healthy groups (P < 0.001), respectively, with no differences between groups (P = 0.45). Furthermore, no differences were observed between groups in muscle protein synthesis rates during the early (0.058 ± 0.007 vs 0.060 ± 0.008%/h, sarcopenic vs healthy, respectively) and late (0.052 ± 0.004 vs 0.048 ± 0.003%/h) stages of the post-prandial period (P = 0.93 and P = 0.34, respectively).

Conclusions: Basal muscle protein synthesis rates are not lower in sarcopenic older men compared to healthy older men. The ingestion of 21 g of a leucine-enriched whey protein effectively increases muscle protein synthesis rates in both sarcopenic and healthy older men. Public trial registry number: NTR3047.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.09.023DOI Listing
October 2017

Diurnal Rhythm of Cardiac Troponin: Consequences for the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Clin Chem 2016 Dec 5;62(12):1602-1611. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht, the Netherlands;

Background: Interpretation of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) measurements for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) assumes random fluctuation of hs-cTn around an individual's homeostatic set point. The aim of this study was to challenge this diagnostic concept.

Methods: Study 1 examined the presence of a diurnal hs-cTn rhythm by hourly blood sampling, day and night, in 24 individuals without a recent history of AMI. Study 2 assessed morning vs evening diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in a prospective multicenter diagnostic study of 2782 unselected patients, presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain.

Results: In study 1, hs-cTnT, but not hs-cTnI, exhibited a diurnal rhythm, characterized by gradually decreasing concentrations throughout daytime, rising concentrations during nighttime, to peak concentrations in the morning (mean 16.2 ng/L at 8:30 AM and 12.1 ng/L at 7:30 PM). In study 2, the hs-cTnT rhythm was confirmed by higher hs-cTnT concentrations in early-morning presenters compared to evening presenters with an adjudicated diagnosis of noncardiac disease. The diagnostic accuracy [area under the receiver-operation characteristics curve (AUC)] of hs-cTnT at presentation, 1 h, and for the combination of absolute changes with presenting concentration, were very high and comparable among patients presenting early morning as compared to evening (all AUC >0.93). hs-cTnI exhibited no diurnal rhythm with no differences in AUC among early-morning and evening presenters.

Conclusions: Rhythmic diurnal variation of hs-cTnT is a general phenomenon that is not seen with hs-cTnI. While the diurnal hs-cTnT rhythm does not seem to affect the diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT for AMI, it should be considered when using hs-cTnT for screening purposes.

Clinical Trial Registration: 1. Circadian Variation of Cardiac Troponin, NCT02091427, www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02091427. 2. Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation (APACE) Study, NCT00470587, www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2016.257485DOI Listing
December 2016

Resistance Exercise Augments Postprandial Overnight Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016 12;48(12):2517-2525

1NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, THE NETHERLANDS; 2Top Institute Food and Nutrition (TIFN), Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS; 3AIS Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, AUSTRALIA; and 4Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Leicester, UNITED KINGDOM.

Introduction: We have previously shown that protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Whether prior exercise further augments the muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion remains to be established.

Objective: This study aimed to assess whether resistance-type exercise performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion.

Methods: Twenty-four healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g intrinsically L-[1-C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-C]-leucine-labeled casein protein before going to sleep with (PRO + EX, n = 12) or without (PRO, n = 12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening. Continuous intravenous L-[ring-H5]-phenylalanine, L-[1-C]-leucine, and L-[ring-H2]-tyrosine infusions were applied. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to assess whole-body protein balance, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates, and overnight incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein.

Results: A total of 57% ± 1% of the ingested protein-derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation during overnight sleep. Overnight myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 37% (0.055%·h ± 0.002%·h vs. 0.040%·h ± 0.003%·h, P < 0.001, based on L-[ring- H5]-phenylalanine) and 31% (0.073%·h ± 0.004%·h vs. 0.055%·h ± 0.006%·h, P = 0.024, based on L-[1-C]-leucine) higher in PRO + EX compared with PRO. Substantially more of the dietary protein-derived amino acids were incorporated into de novo myofibrillar protein during overnight sleep in PRO + EX compared with PRO (0.026 ± 0.003 vs. 0.015 ± 0.003 molar percent excess, P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Resistance-type exercise performed in the evening augments the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion and allows more of the ingested protein-derived amino acids to be used for de novo myofibrillar protein synthesis during overnight sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001045DOI Listing
December 2016

Sodium nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not augment postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in older, type 2 diabetes patients.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016 08 24;311(2):E325-34. Epub 2016 May 24.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands

The age-related anabolic resistance to protein ingestion is suggested to be associated with impairments in insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and postprandial muscle tissue perfusion. The present study investigated whether dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein improves muscle protein synthesis in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Twenty-four men with type 2 diabetes (72 ± 1 yr, 26.7 ± 1.4 m/kg(2) body mass index, 7.3 ± 0.4% HbA1C) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine and ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled protein with (PRONO3) or without (PRO) sodium nitrate (0.15 mmol/kg). Blood and muscle samples were collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Upon protein ingestion, exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased in both groups (P < 0.001), resulting in 55 ± 2% and 53 ± 2% of dietary protein-derived amino acids becoming available in the circulation over the 5h postprandial period in the PRO and PRONO3 groups, respectively. Postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates based on l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine did not differ between groups (0.025 ± 0.004 and 0.021 ± 0.007%/h over 0-2 h and 0.032 ± 0.004 and 0.030 ± 0.003%/h over 2-5 h in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.7). No differences in incorporation of dietary protein-derived l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine into de novo myofibrillar protein were observed at 5 h (0.016 ± 0.002 and 0.014 ± 0.002 mole percent excess in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.8). Dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not modulate protein digestion and absorption kinetics, nor does it further increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates or the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein in older, type 2 diabetes patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00122.2016DOI Listing
August 2016

Impact of the Macronutrient Composition of a Nutritional Supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Older Men: A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Nov 26;100(11):4124-32. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (I.F.K., L.B.V., H.M.H., I.W.K.K., J.M.S., J.v.K., A.P.G., M.P., L.J.C.v.L.), Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands; Nutricia Research (S.V., Y.L.), Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands; and Department of Surgery (I.F.K., M.P.), Division of Trauma Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Context: An impaired muscle protein synthetic response to feeding likely contributes to muscle loss with aging. There are few data available on the effect of the macronutrient composition of clinical supplements on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response in older subjects.

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the macronutrient composition of a nutritional supplement on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response in older men.

Methods: A total of 45 nonsarcopenic older men (aged 69 ± 1 y; body mass index 25.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to ingest 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein with carbohydrate (9 g) and fat (3 g) (Pro-En), an isonitrogenous amount of 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein without carbohydrate and fat (Pro), or an isocaloric mixture (628 kJ) containing carbohydrate and fat only (En). Stable isotope tracer methodology was applied to assess the basal as well as the postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in the three groups.

Results: Ingestion of protein in the Pro-En and Pro groups significantly increased muscle protein synthesis rates when compared with the basal rates (from 0.032 ± 0.003%/h to 0.05%/h 3 ± 0.004%/h and 0.040%/h ± 0.003%/h to 0.049%/h ± 0.003%/h, respectively; P < .05), whereas ingestion of carbohydrate and fat did not increase muscle protein synthesis rates in the En group (from 0.039%/h ± 0.004%/h to 0.040%/h ± 0.003%/h; P = .60). Despite the greater postprandial rise in circulating insulin concentration in the Pro-En group, no significant differences were observed in postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates between the Pro-En and Pro groups (P = .32). Postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates were higher in the Pro-En vs En group (P = .01).

Conclusion: The ingestion of a nutritional supplement containing 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein significantly raises muscle protein synthesis rates in nonsarcopenic older men, but coingestion of carbohydrate and fat does not modulate the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion in older men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-2352DOI Listing
November 2015

A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nutr Res 2015 Aug 1;35(8):674-80. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2015.05.017DOI Listing
August 2015

Postprandial Protein Handling Is Not Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes Patients When Compared With Normoglycemic Controls.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Aug 2;100(8):3103-11. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Context: The progressive loss of muscle mass with aging is accelerated in type 2 diabetes patients. It has been suggested that this is attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake.

Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion is impaired in older type 2 diabetes patients when compared with healthy, normoglycemic controls.

Design: A clinical intervention study with two parallel groups was conducted between August 2011 and July 2012.

Setting: The study was conducted at the research unit of Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Intervention, Participants, and Main Outcome Measures: Eleven older type 2 diabetes males [diabetes; age 71 ± 1 y, body mass index (BMI) 26.2 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)] and 12 age- and BMI-matched normoglycemic controls (control; age 74 ± 1 y, BMI 24.8 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) participated in an experiment in which they ingested 20 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled protein. Continuous iv L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine infusion was applied, and blood and muscle samples were obtained to assess amino acid kinetics and muscle protein synthesis rates in the postabsorptive and postprandial state.

Results: Plasma insulin concentrations increased after protein ingestion in both groups, with a greater rise in the diabetes group. Postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ between groups and averaged 0.029 ± 0.003 vs 0.029 ± 0.003%/h(1) and 0.031 ± 0.002 vs 0.033 ± 0.002%/h(1) in the diabetes versus control group, respectively. Postprandial L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine incorporation into muscle protein did not differ between groups (0.018 ± 0.001 vs 0.019 ± 0.002 mole percent excess, respectively).

Conclusions: Postabsorptive muscle protein synthesis and postprandial protein handling is not impaired in older individuals with type 2 diabetes when compared with age-matched, normoglycemic controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1234DOI Listing
August 2015

The use of doubly labeled milk protein to measure postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2014 Dec 2;117(11):1363-70. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

We aimed to determine the impact of precursor pool dilution on the assessment of postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (MPS). A Holstein dairy cow was infused with large amounts of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]leucine, and the milk was collected and fractionated. The enrichment levels in the casein were 38.7 and 9.3 mole percent excess, respectively. In a subsequent human experiment, 11 older men (age: 71 ± 1 y, body mass index: 26 ± 0.1 kg·m(-2)) received a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]leucine. Blood and muscle samples were collected before and after the ingestion of 20-g doubly labeled casein to assess postprandial MPS based on the 1) constant tracer infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine, 2) ingestion of intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein, and 3) constant infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine in combination with the ingestion of intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled casein. Postprandial MPS was increased (P < 0.05) after protein ingestion (∼70% above postabsorptive values) based on the L-[1-(13)C]leucine tracer. There was no significant stimulation of postprandial MPS (∼27% above postabsorptive values) when the calculated fractional synthesis rate was based on the L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (P = 0.2). Comparisons of postprandial MPS based on the primed continuous infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine or the ingestion of intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein protein demonstrated differences compared with the primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that the postprandial MPS assessed using the primed continuous tracer infusion approach may differ if tracer steady-state conditions in the precursor pools are perturbed. The use of intrinsically doubly labeled protein provides a method to study the metabolic fate of the ingested protein and the subsequent postprandial MPS response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00411.2014DOI Listing
December 2014
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