Publications by authors named "Imran Khan"

855 Publications

Efficient Synthesis and Characterization of [email protected] Metal-Organic Frameworks Nanocomposite and Its Application for Zn(II) Ion Sensing.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

A new class of conductive metal-organic framework (MOF), polyaniline- aluminum succinate ([email protected]) nanocomposite was prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer using potassium persulfate as an oxidant. Several analytical techniques such as FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, XPS and TGA-DTA were utilized to characterize the obtained MOFs nanocomposite. DC electrical conductivity of polymer-MOFs was determined by four probe method. A bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by nafion/[email protected], and examined for Zn (II) ion detection. Modified electrode showed improved efficiency by 91.9%. The modified electrode ([email protected]/nafion/GCE) exhibited good catalytic property and highly selectivity towards Zn(II) ion. A linear dynamic range of 2.8-228.6 µM was obtained with detection limit of LOD 0.59 µM and excellent sensitivity of 7.14 µA µM cm. The designed procedure for Zn (II) ion detection in real sample exhibited good stability in terms of repeatability, reproducibility and not affected by likely interferents. Therefore, the developed procedure is promising for quantification of Zn(II) ion in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13193383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512637PMC
September 2021

[email protected] metal-organic framework composite as an immunosensing platform for determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 10 6;188(11):365. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

TERI-Deakin Nanobiotechnology Centre, The Energy and Resources Institute, Gwal Pahari, Gurugram, Haryana, 122003, India.

An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor has been prepared using an immunofunctionalized zirconium (Zr)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with gold (Au) decoration [email protected](NH) composite-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the determination of infectious hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We fabricated GCE with specific composite via immune-functionalization using anti-HBsAg with Au nanoparticles embedded in UiO-66(NH). The electrochemical sensing performance of the immunofunctionalized [email protected](NH)/GCE with HBsAg was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, there was a linear dynamic relationship in the buffer system between the electrical signal and HBsAg levels over the range 1.13 fg mL-100 ng mL (R = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.13 fg mL. The total analysis time was 15 min per sample. Further validations were performed with HBsAg-spiked human serum samples, and similar detection limits as in the buffer system were observed with reduced signal intensities at lower concentrations of HBsAg (1, 10, and 100 fg mL) and minimal interference. The HBsAg electrochemical immunosensing assay had good selectivity and excellent reproducibility, thereby indicating its significant potential in the super-fast diagnosis of hepatitis B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-05022-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Environmental quality and the asymmetrical nonlinear consequences of energy consumption, trade openness and economic development: prospects for environmental management and carbon neutrality.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Economic expansion gives rise to modern and energy-efficient technologies and, thus, contributes to a decline in energy usage. Developing countries, including Pakistan, require tremendous efforts to sustain economic growth. However, to attain economic growth, these countries have to cope with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental problems. This research focuses primarily on the asymmetric impacts of energy consumption and economic growth on Pakistan's environmental quality. Accordingly, secondary data spanning from 1971 to 2018 was used, and carbon dioxide emission (CO) was considered a target variable (a proxy for environmental quality), whereas energy consumption (E) and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic growth, and trade accessibility (TR) and foreign direct investment (FDI) as control variables. The nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) approach is used to verify the asymmetric co-integration between the variables selected. Moreover, to examine data stationarity and nonlinearity, we used the Zivot-Andrews structural break unit root and BDS tests, respectively. The findings confirmed the asymmetric and symmetric co-integrations among the considered variables. In addition, the causality analysis reveals that only negative shocks to TR have an effect on CO emissions. Similarly, negative shocks to FDI asymmetrically cause CO emissions. Meanwhile, GDP symmetrically affects CO emissions. Finally, a neutral causal response was observed between E and CO emissions. These findings have policy implications in terms of environmental management and carbon neutrality, and they serve as a baseline for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16612-5DOI Listing
October 2021

: A Potential Candidate for Drug Development to Cure Cardiovascular Ailments.

Molecules 2021 Sep 18;26(18). Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore 54770, Pakistan.

(L.) is a South Asian folkloric medicinal plant that has traditionally been used to treat cardiovascular problems. The current investigation was meticulously organized to explore the pharmacological foundation for the medicinal uses of pertaining to cardiovascular ailments and to investigate the core mechanisms. Mechanistic investigation revealed that crude leaf extract of produced ex-vivo vasorelaxant effects in endotheliumintact aorta ring preparation and hypotensive effect was recorded via pressure and force transducers coupled to the Power Lab Data Acquisition System. Moreover; showed cardioprotective effects against adrenaline -induced left ventricular hypertrophy in rabbits observed hemodynamic. CK-MB, LDH, troponin, CRP, ALT, AST, ALP levels were shown to be lower in the myocardial infarction model, as were necrosis, oedema, and inflammatory cell recruitment in comparison to control. has shown good antioxidant potential as well as prolonged the noradrenaline induced platelet adhesion. The vasorelaxant and cardioprotective effects in both in vivo and ex vivo experiments, which are enabled by activation of muscarinic receptor and/or releasing the nitric oxide and by reducing the adrenaline, induced oxidative stress, justifying its usage in cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471681PMC
September 2021

Partners in crime: The Lewis Y antigen and fucosyltransferase IV in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 24:107994. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 30 Pildong-ro 1-gil, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative agent of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a crucial role in the development of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is associated with glycosylation alterations in glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface. H. pylori cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the progression of gastric cancer through post-translation modification of fucosylation to develop gastric cancer. The involvement of a variety of sugar antigens in the progression and development of gastric cancer has been investigated, including type II blood group antigens. Lewis Y (LeY) is overexpressed on the tumor cell surface either as a glycoprotein or glycolipid. LeY is a difucosylated oligosaccharide, which is catalyzed by fucosyltransferases such as FUT4 (α1,3). FUT4/LeY overexpression may serve as potential correlative biomarkers for the prognosis of gastric cancer. We discuss the various aspects of H. pylori in relation to fucosyltransferases (FUT1-FUT9) and its fucosylated Lewis antigens (LeY, LeX, LeA, and LeB) and gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the carcinogenic effect of H. pylori CagA in association with Le and its synthesis enzyme FUT4 in the development of gastric cancer as well as discuss its importance in the prognosis and its inhibition by combination therapy of anti-Le antibody and celecoxib through MAPK signaling pathway preventing gastric carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107994DOI Listing
September 2021

The Bnapus50K array: a quick and versatile genotyping tool for Brassica napus genomic breeding and research.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep;11(10)

College of plant science and technology; National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement; Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, 430070.

Rapeseed is a globally cultivated commercial crop, primarily grown for its oil. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are widely used as a standard genotyping tool for rapeseed research, including for gene mapping, genome-wide association studies, germplasm resource analysis, and cluster analysis. Although considerable rapeseed genome sequencing data have been released, DNA arrays are still an attractive choice for providing additional genetic data in an era of high-throughput whole-genome sequencing. Here, we integrated re-sequencing DNA array data (32,216, 304 SNPs) from 505 inbred rapeseed lines, allowing us to develop a sensitive and efficient genotyping DNA array, Bnapus50K, with a more consistent genetic and physical distribution of probes. A total of 42,090 high-quality probes were filtered and synthesized, with an average distance between adjacent SNPs of 8 kb. To improve the practical application potential of this array in rapeseed breeding, we also added 1,618 functional probes related to important agronomic traits such as oil content, disease resistance, male sterility, and flowering time. The additional probes also included those specifically for detecting genetically modified material. These probes show a good detection efficiency and are therefore useful for gene mapping, along with crop variety improvement and identification. The novel Bnapus50K DNA array developed in this study could prove to be a quick and versatile genotyping tool for B. napus genomic breeding and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/g3journal/jkab241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473974PMC
September 2021

A non-inferiority trial comparing two recombinant vaccines (Hepa-B vs. Engerix-B) for hepatitis B among adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2021 Oct 22;39(43):6385-6390. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Worldwide Hepatitis B is known as one of the imperative causes of mortality and morbidity as well as occupational health hazard among health workers. Bangladesh is intermediate endemic country for Hepatitis B infection for which the government has introduced hepatitis B vaccination into the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) nationwide since 2009 for new born children. However, the people who were born before 2009, was dependent on imported hepatitis B vaccine as there was no locally manufactured hepatitis B vaccine in Bangladesh. Hence, we conducted a randomized observer blinded non-inferiority clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the locally manufactured Hepa-B vaccine in comparison with World Health Organization prequalified Engerix-B vaccine. Total 158 eligible adult participants were enrolled in this study with mean age of 30 and 29 years old in Hepa-B and Engerix-B groups, respectively. Both the vaccines were administered intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months schedule. Baseline and post vaccination anti-HBs titers were measure at different time points. Seroconversion rate post three doses of Hepa-B vaccine was 98.67% similar to the comparator Engerix-B vaccine which was 100%. The geometric mean test ratios of both vaccines at all analysis time points were found > 0.5 predefined non-inferiority margin. Soreness at the injection site was the most common symptom for both the vaccines which resolved without any complication. No serious adverse event was reported throughout the study period. These results suggest that locally manufactured hepatitis B vaccine 'Hepa-B' vaccine is non-inferior to the well-known licensed 'Engerix-B' vaccine. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03627507.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.031DOI Listing
October 2021

Neuroprotective effect of sumatriptan in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure is mediated through N-methyl-D-aspartate/nitric oxide and cAMP response element-binding protein signaling pathway.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Seizure occurs as a result of uncontrolled electrical disturbances within the brain. Various biomolecules such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), nitric oxide (NO), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of seizure. Sumatriptan is a specific 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D receptor agonist and has neuroprotective effects in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we tried to investigate the possible interaction of sumatriptan with NMDA/NO and CREB signaling pathway in PTZ induced seizure. For this purpose, various agonist and antagonist of NMDA such as MK-801 and Ketamine, NO precursor L-ARG, and NOS inhibitors L-NAME and 7-NI were co-administered with sumatriptan in PTZ induced seizure model. The level of nitrite in mice hippocampus was determined by Griess reaction. The gene expression of NR1, NR2A, NR2B, and CREB were quantified by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the involved neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein expression was examined via western blot analysis. Effective dose of sumatriptan (1.2 mg/kg) alone and subeffective dose of sumatriptan (0.3 mg/kg) in combination with NMDA and/or NO antagonist showed significant (P < 0.001) anticonvulsant activity in mice. Furthermore, sumatriptan significantly inhibited the PTZ-induced mRNA expression of NR2A (P < 0.0001), NR2B (P < 0.05), and CREB (P < 0.01). Also, the expression of nNOS protein in PTZ treated group was reversed by sumatriptan (P < 0.01). Hence, current findings suggest that the anticonvulsant effect of sumatriptan was due to down regulation of NMDA/NO and CREB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12728DOI Listing
September 2021

Current status of novel pyridine fused derivatives as anticancer agents: An insight into future perspectives and structure activity relationship (SAR).

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Life sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062. India.

Cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by an abnormal and uncontrolled division of the cells leading to tumors that invade the adjacent normal tissues. After cardiovascular diseases, it is the second most prevalent disease accounting for one in every six deaths worldwide. This alarming rate thus, demands an urgent need to investigate more effective drugs to combat the said disease. Oxygen and nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds have shown remarkable therapeutic activity towards several diseases, including cancer. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the work done in the last decade (2009-2019), highlighting the anticancer activity of pyrido fused five-membered heterocyclic ring derivatives. Additionally, we have focused on seven heterocyclic pyridine fused rings: Imidazopyridine, Triazolopyridine, Pyrrolopyridine, Pyrazolopyridines, Thienopyridine, and Isoxazolopyridine. A total of forty-nine compounds have been studied based on their in-vitro cytotoxic activity and their structure-activity relationship, underlining the anticancer activity of their various pharmacophores and substituents. This review, therefore, aims to draw the attention of the researchers worldwide towards the enormous scope of development of heterocyclic drug compounds, focussing mainly on pyrido fused five-membered heterocyclic rings as anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026621666210916171015DOI Listing
September 2021

Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Studies Revealed Impact of Fe and P Crosstalk on Root Development in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Agricultural Statistics, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Mineral stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by crop plants. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of mineral stress (iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P)) on various morphological and biochemical responses of the shoot and root tissues and root architecture of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study also leads us to the identification of P stress responsive proteins. The study was conducted under in vitro conditions, in which seeds of Shalimar French Bean-1 (SFB-1) variety were cultured on four different MGRL medium (control (PFe), iron deficient (PFe), phosphorus deficient (PFe), and phosphorus and iron deficient (PFe)). Chlorophyll content of leaves, Fe/P content of root tissues, total sugars, proline, length, and weight of shoot and root tissues were assessed and compared within and between the treatments. The analyzed data revealed significant difference between control and other three treatments. Chlorophyll content of shoots was found significantly decreased under mineral stress treatments PFe, PFe, and PFe than control. Length and weight of shoot and root were also observed significantly decreased under PFe, PFe, and PFe as compared to control. Total sugar was significantly higher in PFe of roots in comparison to control. Proline content was significantly higher in both tissues of shoots and roots of plants grown under PFe, PFe, and PFe than control condition. Furthermore, we unexpectedly observed the recovery of roots (mainly primary roots) under PFe as compared to PFe and PFe Interestingly higher concentration of Fe was also observed in PFe compared to other treatments and also higher concentration of P was observed in PFe. These findings suggested that there is a crosstalk between Fe and P and also revealed that there is a disruption in the ability of PR (primary root) to sense local P deficiency in the absence of Fe. Furthermore, proteomics analysis (SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI MS) helped in identification of defensive proteins in P stress condition compared to control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03662-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Automated machine learning for endemic active tuberculosis prediction from multiplex serological data.

Sci Rep 2021 09 9;11(1):17900. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Davis, 4400 V Street, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Serological diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) is enhanced by detection of multiple antibodies due to variable immune responses among patients. Clinical interpretation of these complex datasets requires development of suitable algorithms, a time consuming and tedious undertaking addressed by the automated machine learning platform MILO (Machine Intelligence Learning Optimizer). MILO seamlessly integrates data processing, feature selection, model training, and model validation to simultaneously generate and evaluate thousands of models. These models were then further tested for generalizability on out-of-sample secondary and tertiary datasets. Out of 31 antigens evaluated, a 23-antigen model was the most robust on both the secondary dataset (TB vs healthy) and the tertiary dataset (TB vs COPD) with sensitivity of 90.5% and respective specificities of 100.0% and 74.6%. MILO represents a user-friendly, end-to-end solution for automated generation and deployment of optimized models, ideal for applications where rapid clinical implementation is critical such as emerging infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97453-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429671PMC
September 2021

Histotripsy Ablation in Preclinical Animal Models of Cancer and Spontaneous Tumors in Veterinary Patients: A Review.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Sep 3;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

New therapeutic strategies are direly needed in the fight against cancer. Over the last decade, several tumor ablation strategies have emerged as stand-alone or combination therapies. Histotripsy is the first completely non-invasive, non-thermal, and non-ionizing tumor ablation method. Histotripsy can produce consistent and rapid ablations, even near critical structures. Additional benefits include real-time image-guidance, high precision, and the ability to treat tumors of any predetermined size and shape. Unfortunately, the lack of clinically and physiologically relevant pre-clinical cancer models is often a significant limitation with all focal tumor ablation strategies. The majority of studies testing histotripsy for cancer treatment have focused on small animal models, which have been critical in moving this field forward and will continue to be essential for providing mechanistic insight. While these small animal models have notable translational value, there are significant limitations in terms of scale and anatomical relevance. To address these limitations, a diverse range of large animal models and spontaneous tumor studies in veterinary patients have emerged to complement existing rodent models. These models and veterinary patients are excellent at providing realistic avenues for developing and testing histotripsy devices and techniques designed for future use in human patients. Here, we provide a review of animal models used in preclinical histotripsy studies and compare histotripsy ablation in these models using a series of original case reports across a broad spectrum of preclinical animal models and spontaneous tumors in veterinary patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3110083DOI Listing
September 2021

Gravity-driven hydromagnetic flow of couple stress hybrid nanofluid with homogenous-heterogeneous reactions.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 1;11(1):17498. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center of Excellence in Theoretical and Computational Science (TaCS-CoE), Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok, 10140, Thailand.

This investigation describes the hydromagnetic flow of gravity-driven couple stress hybrid nanofluid past a heated plate. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used to characterize the hybrid nanofluid. The heated plate is placed vertically with an application of homogenous-heterogeneous reactions to the assumed flow system. The homogeneous reaction governs by isothermal cubic autocatalytic kinetics while the heterogeneous reaction governs by the first order kinetics. For current study the couple stress hybrid nanofluid is presumed to be conducted electrically with impact of non-uniform magnetic effects. An appropriate set of dimensionless quantities has employed to governing equations and then has solved by homotopy analysis method. The influence of emerging parameters encountered in this work has discussed in detail with the help of graphs. In this study it has examined that, flow of fluid reduces with upsurge in magnetic parameter and volumetric concentrations, whereas thermal and concentration characteristics augment with increase in volumetric concentrations. Moreover, growth in Prandtl number leads to a reduction in thermal characteristics and growth in Schmidt number result a reduction in concentration profile. The impact of various emerging parameters has also studied numerically upon physical quantities. It has established that, with augmentation in values of buoyancy parameter there is a growth in the values of skin friction. A comparison has also carried out between current and established results with a fine agreement in both results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97045-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410815PMC
September 2021

Preparation, characterization, and antibiofilm activity of cinnamic acid conjugated hydroxypropyl chitosan derivatives.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Oct 26;189:657-667. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, cinnamic acid (CA) conjugated hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS) derivatives (HPCS-CA) with different degrees of substitution (DS) were successfully synthesized. The reaction was divided into two steps: the first step was to modify chitosan (CS) to HPCS, and the second step was to graft CA onto HPCS. Structural characterization and properties were carried out employing elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The solubility test revealed the better water solubility of derivatives than CS. In addition, in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm tests were performed. As expected, HPCS-CA derivatives exhibited good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The MIC and MBC of HPCS-CA derivatives could reach 256 μg/mL and 512 μg/mL, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis proved the inhibitory effect of HPCS-CA derivatives on S. aureus and E. coli biofilms by disrupting the formation of biofilms, reducing the thickness of biofilms, and the number of live bacteria. These results suggest the potential applicability of HPCS-CA derivatives in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections and provide a practical strategy for the design of novel CS-based antibacterial materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.164DOI Listing
October 2021

Discovery of Amide-Functionalized Benzimidazolium Salts as Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitors.

Molecules 2021 Aug 6;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh 11623, Saudi Arabia.

α-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are used as medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The α-Glucosidase enzyme is present in the small intestine and is responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugars. The process results in an increase in blood sugar levels. AGIs slow down the digestion of carbohydrates that is helpful in controlling the sugar levels in the blood after meals. Among heterocyclic compounds, benzimidazole moiety is recognized as a potent bioactive scaffold for its wide range of biologically active derivatives. The aim of this study is to explore the α-glucosidase inhibition ability of benzimidazolium salts. In this study, two novel series of benzimidazolium salts, i.e., 1-benzyl-3-{2-(substituted) amino-2-oxoethyl}-1-benzo[]imidazol-3-ium bromide - and 1-benzyl-3-{2-substituted) amino-2-oxoethyl}-2-methyl-1-benzo[] imidazol-3-ium bromide - were screened for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. These compounds were synthesized through a multistep procedure and were characterized by -NMR, C-NMR, and EI-MS techniques. Compound was identified as the potent α-glucosidase inhibitor among the series with an IC value of 14 ± 0.013 μM, which is 4-fold higher than the standard drug, acarbose. In addition, compounds , , , , , , and also exhibited pronounced potential for α-glucosidase inhibition with IC value ranging from 15 ± 0.037 to 32.27 ± 0.050 µM when compared with the reference drug acarbose (IC = 58.8 ± 0.12 μM). A molecular docking study was performed to rationalize the binding interactions of potent inhibitors with the active site of the α-glucosidase enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400806PMC
August 2021

Overexpressing 7-Hydroxymethyl Chlorophyll Reductase Alleviates Non-Programmed Cell Death during Dark-Induced Senescence in Intact Plants.

Biomolecules 2021 08 3;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Leaf senescence, the last stage of leaf development, is a well-regulated and complex process for investigation. For simplification, dark-induced leaf senescence has frequently been used to mimic the natural senescence of leaves because many typical senescence symptoms, such as chlorophyll (Chl) and protein degradation, also occur under darkness. In this study, we compared the phenotypes of leaf senescence that occurred when detached leaves or intact plants were incubated in darkness to induce senescence. We found that the symptoms of non-programmed cell death (non-PCD) with remaining green coloration occurred more heavily in the senescent leaves of whole plants than in the detached leaves. The pheophorbide (Pheide ) content was also shown to be much higher in senescent leaves when whole plants were incubated in darkness by analyses of leaf Chl and its metabolic intermediates. In addition, more serious non-PCD occurred and more Pheide accumulated in senescent leaves during dark incubation if the soil used for plant growth contained more water. Under similar conditions, the non-PCD phenotype was alleviated and the accumulation of Pheide was reduced by overexpressing 7-hydroxymethyl Chl (HMChl ) reductase (HCAR). Taken together, we conclude that a high soil water content induced non-PCD by decreasing HCAR activity when whole plants were incubated in darkness to induce senescence; thus, the investigation of the fundamental aspects of biochemistry and the regulation of leaf senescence are affected by using dark-induced leaf senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11081143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394709PMC
August 2021

Research and Development Journey and Future Trends of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Purification Applications (1970-2020): A Bibliometric Analysis.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Aug 7;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia.

Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) technology has received significant attention due to its broad range separation and purification applications in the industry. In the current study, we applied bibliometric analysis to evaluate the global research trends on key applications of HFMs by evaluating the global publication outputs. Results obtained from 5626 published articles (1970-2020) from the Scopus database were further manipulated using VOSviewer software through cartography analysis. The study emphasizes the performance of most influential annual publications covering mainstream journals, leading countries, institutions, leading authors and author's keywords, as well as future research trends. The study found that 62% of the global HFM publications were contributed by China, USA, Singapore, Japan and Malaysia, followed by 77 other countries. This study will stimulate the researchers by showing the future-minded research directions when they select new research areas, particularly in those related to water treatment, biomedical and gas separation applications of HFM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400483PMC
August 2021

Optimizing the Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation conditions in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum: A step forward to unravel the functions of pathogenicity arsenals.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Plant Virology and Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Division of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India, 190 025.

Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes bean anthracnose and it is rated among the top 10 important diseases infecting beans. Currently our knowledge on molecular mechanisms underlying C. lindemuthianum pathogenesis is limited. About five pathogenicity genes have been identified in C. lindemuthianum using Restricted Enzyme Mediated Integration (REMI) and the transformation using Agroinfection has not been optimized. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to optimize the key parameters affecting the Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation (ATMT) for C. lindemuthianum. The transformation efficiency increased with increase in spore concentration and co-cultivation time. However, the optimum conditions that yielded significant number of transformants were 10 ml spore concentration, co-cultivation time of 72 h, incubation at 25ºC and using a cellulose membrane filter for the co-cultivation. The optimized protocol resulted in establishment of large mutant library (2400). A few mutants were melanin deficient and a few were unable to produce conidia. To determine the altered pathogenicity, two new approaches such as detached leaf and twig techniques proved reliable and require fewer resources to screen the large mutant libraries in a short time. Among the 1200 transformants tested for virulence, 90% transformants were pathogenically similar to wild type (race 2047), 96 and 24 were reduced and impaired, respectively. The altered avirulent transformants can prove vital for understanding the missing link between growth and developmental stages of pathogen with virulence. This platform will help to develop strategies to determine the potential pathogenicity genes and to decipher molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in more detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lam.13552DOI Listing
August 2021

Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples in a hospital-based study.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Dec;20(4):1617-1623

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box-10219, Riyadh-11433, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a deadly infectious disease. India contributes to one-third of the global TB burden. However, no studies have been carried out in the Telangana (Hyderabad) population using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Therefore, the current study evaluated the role of RT-PCR as a rapid and non-invasive test to diagnose TB by testing for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).

Materials And Methods: This hospital-based study examined 1670 samples (900 EPTB; 770 PTB) comprising tissue (n = 537), peritoneal fluid (n = 420), sputum (n = 166), bronchial fluid (n = 126), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 145), ascetic fluid (n = 76), sputum pus (n = 78), urine (n = 79), and bronchoalveolar fluid (n = 43) samples. DNA from samples was separated using specific isolation kits and subjected to RT-PCR.

Results: In this study, we enrolled 1670 subjects and categorized 54.4% as females and 45.6% as males. The collected samples were categorized as 48.5% of fluid samples, followed by tissue (32.2%), sputum (9.9%), urine (4.7%), and pus-swab (4.6%). RT-PCR analysis revealed that 4.7% patients were positive for Mtb. Our results revealed that 61% of the affected patients were male and 39% were female. Among the specimen types, tissue samples gave the highest proportion of positive results (36.3%).

Conclusion: The results showed that RT-PCR should be implemented and given top priority in TB diagnosis to save time and facilitate a definitive diagnosis. Tissue samples are highly recommended to screen the Mtb through the technique RTPCR. Future studies should extend the technique to the global population and exome sequencing analysis should be performed to identify TB risk markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i4.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351870PMC
December 2020

Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate Priming Ameliorates Seed Germination via Involvement in Hormonal Changes, Osmotic Adjustment, and Dehydrins Accumulation in White Clover Under Drought Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2021 29;12:709187. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Drought is a serious outcome of climate change reducing the productivity of forage species under arid and semi-arid conditions worldwide. Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6), a novel plant growth regulator, has proven to be involved in the amelioration of critical physiological functions in many agricultural crops under various abiotic stresses, but the role of the DA-6 in improving seed germination has never been investigated under drought stress. The present study was carried out to elucidate the impact of the DA-6 priming on seeds germination of white clover under drought stress. Results showed that seed priming with the DA-6 significantly mitigated the drought-induced reduction in germination percentage, germination vigor, germination index, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, and fresh weight after 7 days of seed germination. The DA-6 significantly increased the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin, and cytokinin content with marked reduction in abscisic acid content in seedlings under drought stress. In addition, the DA-6 significantly accelerated starch catabolism by enhancing the activities of hydrolases contributing toward enhanced soluble sugars, proline content and ameliorated the antioxidant defense system to enhance the ability of reactive oxygen species scavenging under drought stress. Furthermore, exogenous DA-6 application significantly increased dehydrins accumulation and upregulated transcript levels of genes encoding dehydrins () during seeds germination under water deficient condition. These findings suggested that the DA-6 mediated seeds germination and drought tolerance associated with changes in endogenous phytohormones resulting in increased starch degradation, osmotic adjustment, antioxidants activity, and dehydrins accumulation during seed germination under water deficient condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.709187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358406PMC
July 2021

Antioxidants Isolated from (Thunb.) Protect against Bacterial Infections and Diabetes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model.

Molecules 2021 Jul 24;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Basic Science Department, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia.

The increase in resistance of microbes against conventional drugs is currently a hot issue, whereas diabetes is another main cause of mortalities encountered throughout the world after cancer and heart attacks. New drug sources in the form of plants are investigated to get effective drugs for the mentioned diseases with minimum side effects. Thunb. is a medicinal plant used for the management of stress related disorders like diabetes and other health complications. The active constituents of the chloroform extract derived from berries was isolated by silica gel column chromatography which were identified as morin, phloroglucinol, and 1-hexyl benzene through various spectroscopic techniques (electron ionization mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy). The possible protective effects (antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic activity) of isolated compounds were evaluated using reported methods. Morin exhibited strong in vitro antiradical potential against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals along with prominent antibacterial activities against selected bacterial strains (, , , , and ). Among the isolated compounds the more potent one (morin) was assessed for its in vivo antidiabetic potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The in vivo effects observed were further confirmed in ex vivo experiments where the effect of isolated compound on antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total content of reduced glutathione (GSH), % DPPH inhibition, and the lipid peroxidation MDA (Malondialdehyde) level in pancreatic tissues homogenates were evaluated. In vivo morin at tested doses (2, 10, 15, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight) significantly restored the alterations in the levels of fasting blood glucose level and body weight loss along with significant decrease in levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c level, and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein in diabetic rats. Morin also effectively ameliorated the hepatic enzymes, and renal functions like serum creatinine. Morin significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme like GPx activity, GSH content, and % DPPH inhibition activity, while reduced the lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) level in pancreatic tissues homogenates, and modification of histopathological changes in diabetic rats. Morin exhibited high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potentials as compared to phloroglucinol and 1-hexyl benzene, that could, therefore, be considered as a promising therapeutic agent to treat diabetes mellitus and bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348310PMC
July 2021

Generation of Tumor-activated T cells Using Electroporation.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Dec 13;142:107886. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 325 Stanger Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Goodwin Hall, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences, Virginia Tech, Kelly Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a crucial step in almost all cancer immunotherapeutic methods. Current techniques for expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs present major limitations. This study introduces a novel method to effectively produce and expand tumor-activated CTLs using high-voltage pulsed electric fields. We hypothesize that utilizing high-voltage pulsed electric fields may be an ideal method to activate and expand CTLs due to their non-thermal celldeath mechanism. Tumor cells were subjected to high-frequency irreversible electroporation (HFIRE) with various electric field magnitudes (1250, 2500 V/cm) and pulse widths (1, 5, and 10 µs), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) at 1250 V/cm. The treated tumor cells were subsequently cocultured with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells along with antigen-presenting cells. We show that tumor-activated CTLs can be produced and expanded when exposed to treated tumor cells. Our results suggest that CTLs are more effectively expanded when pulsed with HFIRE conditions that induce significant cell death (longer pulse widths and higher voltages). Activated CD8+ T cells demonstrate cytotoxicity to untreated tumor cells suggesting effector function of the activated CTLs. The activated CTLs produced with our technique could be used for clinical applications with the goal of targeting and eliminating the tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2021.107886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504467PMC
December 2021

Stigmasterol can be new steroidal drug for neurological disorders: Evidence of the GABAergic mechanism via receptor modulation.

Phytomedicine 2021 Sep 30;90:153646. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, P.O. Box 33, Birkat Al Mauz 616, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Electronic address:

Background: Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA) receptors have been implicated in anxiety and epileptic disorders.

Hypothesis/purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of stigmasterol, a plant sterol (phytosterol) isolated from Artemisia indica Linn on neurological disorders.

Methods: Stigmasterol was evaluated on various recombinant GABA receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and its anxiolytic and anticonvulsant potential was assessed using the elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) test, and pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ-) induced seizure paradigms. Furthermore, computational modeling of α2β2γ2L, α4β3δ, and α4β3 subtypes was performed to gain insights into the GABAergic mechanism of stigmasterol. For the first time, a model of GABAδ subtype was generated. Stigmasterol was targeted to all the binding sites (neurotransmitters, positive and negative modulator binding sites) of GABA α2β2γ2L, α4β3, and α4β3δ complexes by in silico docking.

Results: Stigmasterol enhanced GABA-induced currents at ternary α2β2γ2L, α4β3δ, and binary α4β3 GABAR subtypes. The potentiation of GABA-induced currents at extrasynaptic α4β3δ was significantly higher compared to the binary α4β3 subtype, indicating that the δ subunit is important for efficacy. Stigmasterol was found to be a potent positive modulator of the extrasynaptic α4β3δ subtype, which was also confirmed by computational analysis. The computational analysis reveals that stigmasterol preferentially binds at the transmembrane region shared by positive modulators or a binding site constituted by the M2-M3 region of α4 and M1-M2 of β3 at α4β3δ complex. In in vivo studies, Stigmasterol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) exerted significant anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects in an identical manner of allopregnanolone, indicating the involvement of a GABAergic mechanism.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the positive modulation of GABA receptors, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant potential of stigmasterol. Thus, stigmasterol is considered to be a candidate steroidal drug for the treatment of neurological disorders due to its positive modulation of GABA receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153646DOI Listing
September 2021

Spray dried nanoemulsions loaded with curcumin, resveratrol, and borage seed oil: The role of two different modified starches as encapsulating materials.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 16;186:820-828. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Engineering, INSTM RU, University of Rome "Niccolò Cusano", Via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 300166 Rome, Italy.

Recently, food industries are directing on the promotion of innovative food matrices fortified with bioactive compounds in order to enhance the consumer's health. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-MS) such as Hi-cap100 (HCP) and purity gum 2000 (PUG) were used to fabricate emulsions co-entrapped with borage seed oil (BSO), resveratrol (RES) and curcumin (CUR), which were further spray dried to obtain powders. The fabricated microcapsules loaded with BSO, RES, and CUR displayed excellent dissolution performance, high encapsulation efficiency (≈93.05%) as well as semi-spherical shape, revealed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also evaluated the impact of storage time (4 weeks) and temperature (40 °C) on the physicochemical characterization of OSA-MS coated microcapsules. Microcapsules coated with HCP exhibited greater oxidative stability, lower water activity and moisture contents rather than PUG coated microcapsules during storage because of its good film-forming properties. Addition of CUR enhanced the oxidative stability and retention of bioactive compounds. HCP microcapsules loaded with BSO + RES + CUR presented supreme retention of RES (70.32%), CUR 81.6% and γ-linolenic acid (≈ 96%). Our findings showed that CUR acted as an antioxidant agent; also, lower molecular weight OSA-MS as wall material could be used for the entrapment of bioactive compounds and promotion of innovative food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.076DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of silicon on heavy metal uptake at the soil-plant interphase: A review.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 14;222:112510. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Silicon (Si) is the second richest element in the soil and surface of earth crust with a variety of positive roles in soils and plants. Different soil factors influence the Si bioavailability in soil-plant system. The Si involves in the mitigation of various biotic (insect pests and pathogenic diseases) and abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, and heavy metals etc.) in plants by improving plant tolerance mechanism at various levels. However, Si-mediated restrictions in heavy metals uptake and translocation from soil to plants and within plants require deep understandings. Recently, Si-based improvements in plant defense system, cell damage repair, cell homeostasis, and regulation of metabolism under heavy metal stress are getting more attention. However, limited knowledge is available on the molecular mechanisms by which Si can reduce the toxicity of heavy metals, their uptake and transfer from soil to plant roots. Thus, this review is focused the following facets in greater detail to provide better understandings about the role of Si at molecular level; (i) how Si improves tolerance in plants to variable environmental conditions, (ii) how biological factors affect Si pools in the soil (iii) how soil properties impact the release and capability of Si to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and their accumulation in plant roots; (iv) how Si influences the plant root system with respect to heavy metals uptake or sequestration, root Fe/Mn plaque, root cell wall and compartment; (v) how Si makes complexes with heavy metals and restricts their translocation/transfer in root cell and influences the plant hormonal regulation; (vi) the competition of uptake between Si and heavy metals such as arsenic, aluminum, and cadmium due to similar membrane transporters, and (vii) how Si-mediated regulation of gene expression involves in the uptake, transportation and accumulation of heavy metals by plants and their possible detoxification mechanisms. Furthermore, future research work with respect to mitigation of heavy metal toxicity in plants is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112510DOI Listing
October 2021

Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in water: Effect of experimental factors on COD removal.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):119-128

Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Brunei Darussalam.

An alternative method of electrochemical oxidation was employed to degrade persistent compounds in the form of antibiotics using strong oxidizing agents such as hydroxyl ions. A 24 factorial design was employed to check the effect of four factors namely pH, current density, electrolysis time and electrolyte concentration set at their high (+) and low (-) levels on the antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin) degradation in water. The response was obtained in the form of COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. A prediction model was developed to predict the values of COD removal. Later the main effect, contribution and interactions were studied with Design Expert Software 7.0. About 89.5% COD removal was obtained when pH and time were set at their high level and the other two factors at their low level. It was determined that the pH when set at high level (pH 9) had the most effect (24.68) and contribution (43.6) in the degradation process and hence the removal of COD. This technology of electrochemical oxidation can be employed in industries to efficiently remove pharmaceuticals, paints, dyes and other organic compounds.
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January 2021

Immune response dynamics in COVID-19 patients to SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254367. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, United States of America.

COVID-19 serological test must have high sensitivity as well as specificity to rule out cross-reactivity with common coronaviruses (HCoVs). We have developed a quantitative multiplex test, measuring antibodies against spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and common human coronavirus strains (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1), and nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV viruses. Receptor binding domain of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 (S-RBD), and N protein, demonstrated sensitivity (94% and 92.5%, respectively) in COVID-19 patients (n = 53), with 98% specificity in non-COVID-19 respiratory-disease (n = 98), and healthy-controls (n = 129). Anti S-RBD and N antibodies appeared five to ten days post-onset of symptoms, peaking at approximately four weeks. The appearance of IgG and IgM coincided while IgG subtypes, IgG1 and IgG3 appeared soon after the total IgG; IgG2 and IgG4 remained undetectable. Several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were found to be elevated in many COVID-19 patients (e.g., Eotaxin, Gro-α, CXCL-10 (IP-10), RANTES (CCL5), IL-2Rα, MCP-1, and SCGF-b); CXCL-10 was elevated in all. In contrast to antibody titers, levels of CXCL-10 decreased with the improvement in patient health suggesting it as a candidate for disease resolution. Importantly, anti-N antibodies appear before S-RBD and differentiate between vaccinated and infected people-current vaccines (and several in the pipeline) are S protein-based.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254367PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270414PMC
July 2021

Baseline Knowledge Attitudes Satisfaction and Aspirations With Advance Care Planning: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2021 Jul 6:10499091211030447. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Background: Studies have consistently demonstrated low rates of adoption of Advance Care Planning in the community.

Methods: We studied Medicare enrollees age 65 and over and non-Medicare patients using a cross-sectional survey undertaken in February and March 2019 using questionnaires completed by out-patients attending a teaching hospital clinic in East Tennessee USA. We evaluated patient knowledge, attitudes, satisfaction and aspirations towards Advance Care Planning.

Results: 141 properly completed questionnaires were used. All Medicare enrollees were aware of Advanced Care Planning compared to 43% in the non-Medicare group. 70% of the Medicare enrollees and 94% of non-Medicare group were not ready to complete a written Advanced Care Plan. Of the respondents, 46% had appointed spouses, 24% adult children, 11% siblings, 10% parents, 3.6% friends and 1.2% aunts as their surrogate medical decision makers. 41% agreed that they were satisfied with their current advance care planning arrangements. This research identified that individual's knowledge, attitudes and aspirations influenced the adoption of Advance Care.

Conclusions: Patients have adopted the Advance Care Plan concept but have modified it to reduce their concerns by using family and loved ones to convey their wishes instead of filling the required legal documents. Clinicians could improve this informal system and increase the observability of the treatment choices including the use of video and web-based tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10499091211030447DOI Listing
July 2021
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