Publications by authors named "Imran Farooq"

39 Publications

Synergistic effect of graphene oxide/calcium phosphate nanofiller in a dentin adhesive on its dentin bond integrity and degree of conversion. A scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, micro-Raman, and bond strength study.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University; Research Chair for Biological Research in Dental Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The objective was to formulate and analyze a dentin adhesive incorporated with graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticle and calcium phosphate (CaP) composite. Methods comprising of scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-Raman spectroscopy, shear bond strength (SBS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize nanoparticle composite, dentin bond toughness, degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive-dentin interaction. Postsynthesis of GO nanoparticles, they were functionalized with CaP using standard process. The GO-CaP composite was not added to experimental adhesive (negative control group, GO-CaP-0%), and added at 2.5 and 5 wt% to yield GO-CaP-2.5% and GO-CaP 5% groups, respectively. Teeth were set to form bonded samples utilizing adhesives in three groups for SBS testing, with and without thermocycling. The homogenous diffusion of GO-CaP composite was verified in the adhesive. Resin tags having standard penetrations were observed on SEM micrographs. The EDX analysis confirmed the occurrence of calcium, phosphorus, and carbon ions in the composite containing adhesives. The SBS test revealed highest mean values for GO-CaP-5% followed by GO-CaP-2.5%. The FTIR spectra verified the presence of apatite peaks and the micro-Raman spectra showed characteristic D and G bands for GO nanoparticles. GO-CaP composite in dentin adhesive may improve its bond strength. The addition of 5 wt% resulted in a bond strength that was superior to all other groups. GO-CaP-5% group demonstrated lower DC (to control), uniform distribution of GO and CaP composite within adhesive, appropriate dentin interaction, and resin tag formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23764DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of propolis in remineralising artificially induced demineralisation of human enamel - An in-vitro study.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021 Apr 14;16(2):283-287. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, KSA.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to analyse the enamel-remineralisation potential of propolis.

Materials And Methods: Twenty enamel blocks (N = 20) were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). In group 1 (control), enamel blocks were brushed with artificial saliva (AS). In group 2, they were brushed with propolis oil. All the blocks were demineralised by exposing them to 6 wt% citric acid (pH: 2.2) for 5 min. Brushing was performed inside a tooth brushing simulation machine with manual toothbrushes. Each sample received 5,000 linear strokes. Surface microhardness analysis was performed for each sample at three time intervals (pre-demineralisation or baseline, post-demineralisation, and post-remineralisation) to obtain the Vickers hardness numbers (VHNs).

Results: An enhancement in the microhardness of the enamel samples was observed after brushing with propolis oil when compared with brushing using AS alone. In group 1 (control group), the mean baseline VHN was 583.66. It decreased to 116.23 after demineralisation and increased to 184.02 after remineralisation. The mean baseline VHN of group 2 was 506.91. It decreased to 317.60 after demineralisation and increased to 435.19 after remineralisation. The VHN values of both the groups revealed statistically significant differences ( < 0.05) in inter-group and intra-group comparisons.

Conclusion: Brushing of enamel blocks with propolis led to a greater enhancement in their microhardness levels when compared with the control group. Future studies are essential to validate the exact mechanism of the beneficial effects of propolis on enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046825PMC
April 2021

Dentin Bond Integrity of Filled and Unfilled Resin Adhesive Enhanced with Silica Nanoparticles-An SEM, EDX, Micro-Raman, FTIR and Micro-Tensile Bond Strength Study.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.

The objective of this study was to synthesize and assess unfilled and filled (silica nanoparticles) dentin adhesive polymer. Methods encompassing scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-namely, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopy-were utilized to investigate Si particles' shape and incorporation, dentin bond toughness, degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive-dentin interaction. The Si particles were incorporated in the experimental adhesive (EA) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt. % to yield Si-EA-0% (negative control group), Si-EA-5%, Si-EA-10%, and Si-EA-15% groups, respectively. Teeth were set to form bonded samples using adhesives in four groups for µTBS testing, with and without aging. Si particles were spherical shaped and resin tags having standard penetrations were detected on SEM micrographs. The EDX analysis confirmed the occurrence of Si in the adhesive groups (maximum in the Si-EA-15% group). Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of characteristic peaks at 638, 802, and 1300 cm for the Si particles. The µTBS test revealed the highest mean values for Si-EA-15% followed by Si-EA-10%. The greatest DC was appreciated for the control group trailed by the Si-EA-5% group. The addition of Si particles of 15 and 10 wt. % in dentin adhesive showed improved bond strength. The addition of 15 wt. % resulted in a bond strength that was superior to all other groups. The Si-EA-15% group demonstrated acceptable DC, suitable dentin interaction, and resin tag formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037508PMC
March 2021

The Impact of Tick-Borne Diseases on the Bone.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 23;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1G6, Canada.

Tick-borne infectious diseases can affect many tissues and organs including bone, one of the most multifunctional structures in the human body. There is a scarcity of data regarding the impact of tick-borne pathogens on bone. The aim of this review was to survey existing research literature on this topic. The search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. From our search, we were able to find evidence of eight tick-borne diseases (Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichiosis, Babesiosis, Lyme disease, Bourbon virus disease, Colorado tick fever disease, Tick-borne encephalitis, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) affecting the bone. Pathological bone effects most commonly associated with tick-borne infections were disruption of bone marrow function and bone loss. Most research to date on the effects of tick-borne pathogen infections on bone has been quite preliminary. Further investigation of this topic is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005031PMC
March 2021

Dental 3D-Printing: Transferring Art from the Laboratories to the Clinics.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 4;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

McGill Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, 3640 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0C7, Canada.

The rise of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has changed the face of dentistry over the past decade. 3D printing is a versatile technique that allows the fabrication of fully automated, tailor-made treatment plans, thereby delivering personalized dental devices and aids to the patients. It is highly efficient, reproducible, and provides fast and accurate results in an affordable manner. With persistent efforts among dentists for refining their practice, dental clinics are now acclimatizing from conventional treatment methods to a fully digital workflow to treat their patients. Apart from its clinical success, 3D printing techniques are now employed in developing haptic simulators, precise models for dental education, including patient awareness. In this narrative review, we discuss the evolution and current trends in 3D printing applications among various areas of dentistry. We aim to focus on the process of the digital workflow used in the clinical diagnosis of different dental conditions and how they are transferred from laboratories to clinics. A brief outlook on the most recent manufacturing methods of 3D printed objects and their current and future implications are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13010157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795531PMC
January 2021

Dentin Bond Integrity of Hydroxyapatite Containing Resin Adhesive Enhanced with Graphene Oxide Nano-Particles-An SEM, EDX, Micro-Raman, and Microtensile Bond Strength Study.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 14;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.

The aim was to synthesize and characterize an adhesive incorporating HA and GO nanoparticles. Techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate bond durability, presence of nanoparticles inside adhesive, and dentin interaction. Control experimental adhesive (CEA) was synthesized with 5 wt% HA. GO particles were fabricated and added to CEA at 0.5 wt% (HA-GO-0.5%) and 2 wt% GO (HA-GO-2%). Teeth were prepared to produce bonded specimens using the three adhesive bonding agents for assessment of μTBS, with and without thermocycling (TC). The adhesives were applied twice on the dentin with a micro-brush followed by air thinning and photo-polymerization. The HA and GO nanoparticles demonstrated uniform dispersion inside adhesive. Resin tags with varying depths were observed on SEM micrographs. The EDX mapping revealed the presence of carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) in the two GO adhesives. For both TC and NTC samples, HA-GO-2% had higher μTBS and durability, followed by HA-GO-0.5%. The representative micro-Raman spectra demonstrated D and G bands for nano-GO particles containing adhesives. HA-GO-2% group demonstrated uniform diffusion in adhesive, higher μTBS, adequate durability, and comparable resin tag development to controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764838PMC
December 2020

Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nanospheres in Dentin Adhesive on the Dentin Bond Integrity and Degree of Conversion: A Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR), and Microtensile Study.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.

An experimental adhesive incorporated with different nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) particle concentrations was synthesized and analyzed for dentin interaction, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and degree of conversion (DC). n-HA powder (5 wt % and 10 wt %) were added in adhesive to yield three groups; gp-1: control experimental adhesive (CEA, 0 wt % HA), gp-2: 5 wt % n-HA (HAA-5%), and gp-3: 10 wt % n-HA (HAA-10%). The morphology of n-HA spheres was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Their interaction in the adhesives was identified with SEM, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Teeth were sectioned, divided in study groups, and assessed for μTBS and failure mode. Employing Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the DC of the adhesives was assessed. EDX mapping revealed the occurrence of oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the HAA-5% and HAA-10% groups. HAA-5% had the greatest μTBS values followed by HAA-10%. The presence of apatite was shown by FTIR spectra and Micro-Raman demonstrated phosphate and carbonate groups for n-HA spheres. The highest DC was observed for the CEA group followed by HAA-5%. n-HA spheres exhibited dentin interaction and formed a hybrid layer with resin tags. HAA-5% demonstrated superior μTBS compared with HAA-10% and control adhesive. The DC for HAA-5% was comparable to control adhesive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764663PMC
December 2020

COVID-19 outbreak, disruption of dental education, and the role of teledentistry.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 Nov-Dec;36(7):1726-1731

Jehan AlHumaid, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the whole world and has now been declared a Pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although the mortality rate of this virus is low, it is especially potent against people with underlying systemic conditions. Dentistry is a profession where the doctor, as well as the dental staff, works in close vicinity to the patient's mouth. Dental education has two core components; didactic and clinical training (including patient care). Dental education has been interrupted in the past due to certain events (Arab Spring and SARS outbreak). Currently, the pandemic of COVID-19 has disrupted dental education globally as most of the dental schools and universities in the world have closed amidst the COVID-19 outbreak. Teledentistry is a subspecialty of telemedicine that helps in the provision of educational activities, advice, and diagnosis about treatment over a distance with the help of technology like video conferencing. The current overview summarizes the potential role of teledentistry in continuing the dental educational process in terms of delivery of didactic components, clinical training, and patient care. It can be concluded that with modern updated devices and tools, teledentistry can be an effective way to prevent disruption of dental education and it can be utilized in continuing the dental educational process in this critical time of the COVID-19 outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.7.3125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674864PMC
November 2020

Preparation of a toothpaste containing theobromine and fluoridated bioactive glass and its effect on surface micro-hardness and roughness of enamel.

Dent Mater J 2021 Mar 19;40(2):393-398. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.

The aim was to synthesize a toothpaste and analyze its effect on surface micro-hardness and roughness of enamel. Basic paste was prepared by using basic ingredients. Theobromine (0.2 wt%) and laboratory synthesized fluoridated-bioactive glass (F-BG, 4 wt%) were added to it. Post-demineralization, 36 enamel blocks were divided into six groups that were brushed with their respective toothpaste+artificial saliva (AS): group 1 (control): basic paste; group 2: basic paste+theobromine; group 3: commercial theobromine toothpaste; group 4: commercial BG toothpaste; group 5: basic paste+F-BG; and group 6: basic paste+theobromine+F-BG. On micro-hardness analysis, group 6 performed best, followed by group 4. Surface roughness results showed the maximum decrease in roughness values for group 6, followed by group 5. Treatment with toothpaste composition containing theobromine+F-BG resulted in the enamel's increased micro-hardness and decreased surface roughness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2020-078DOI Listing
March 2021

Current Clinical Dental Practice Guidelines and the Financial Impact of COVID-19 on Dental Care Providers.

Eur J Dent 2020 Dec 3;14(S 01):S140-S145. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been acknowledged as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this study was to review guidelines issued by different health regulatory bodies amid the COVID-19 outbreak and financial constraints faced by dentists globally. Relevant papers and news articles were identified in Google Scholar and PubMed. The search was made using the keywords "COVID-19," "COVID-19 and dentistry," and "the financial impact of COVID-19 on dentistry." Studies and news articles published in languages other than English were excluded and a final selection of 53 relevant studies, guideline documents, and news articles were made. The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected all businesses including general dental practices, which are suffering huge financial losses as they have been advised to provide only emergency dental care. These recommendations should be appreciated as a positive step but they have caused serious financial implications for dental practices. It can be concluded that current dental practice globally is limited to the provision of emergency treatments only. This step is appreciative, but has resulted in huge financial losses sustained by dental care providers (DCPs) worldwide. The governments and health regulatory bodies of developed countries are trying to help dental practices to evolve from this troublesome situation, but there is no visible policy from the underdeveloped world that could help the DCPs to save their practices from closing down due to the financial constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1716307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775203PMC
December 2020

Acid Effects on the Physical Properties of Different CAD/CAM Ceramic Materials: An in Vitro Analysis.

J Prosthodont 2021 Feb 19;30(2):135-141. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To evaluate the flexural strength, elastic modulus, microhardness, and surface roughness of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate ceramics, and feldspathic ceramics after being exposed to different acidic solutions.

Materials And Methods: Rectangular specimens (n = 180) were prepared from three different ceramic materials: lithium disilicate, monolithic zirconia, and feldspathic porcelain. Initial Surface roughness of ninety specimens (n = 30/material) was evaluated using an optical noncontact profilometer. Thirty specimens of each material were immersed in one of the following solutions (n = 10/group): citric acid; acidic beverage; and artificial saliva, which served as the control. Post immersion surface roughness, flexural strength, and elastic modulus were determined using an optical noncontact profilometer and three-point bending test. Another thirty specimens of each material were immersed in the aqueous solutions (n = 10/group) following the same protocol and subjected to microhardness test using a Vickers diamond microhardness tester. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface characteristics changes. ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey's Kramer tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05).

Results: Immersion in different solutions did not affect the flexural strength and elastic modulus of lithium disilicate or zirconia. Microhardness and surface roughness were significantly affected in all groups (p < 0.05). For feldspathic porcelain groups, the flexural strength and elastic modulus were significantly decreased in the citric acid group (p = 0.045 and p = 0.019). Also, there were significant differences among all feldspathic porcelain groups (p = 0.001) in terms of microhardness and surface roughness values.

Conclusions: The tested acidic agents significantly affected the flexural strength, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and microhardness of feldspathic porcelain. However, the flexural strength and elastic modulus of evaluated lithium disilicate and zirconia did not change significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.13232DOI Listing
February 2021

The psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and coping with them in Saudi Arabia.

Psychol Trauma 2020 Jul 25;12(5):505-507. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences.

This commentary summarizes the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the people's response to the steps taken by the Saudi government to decrease the impact of this psychological trauma and stress. It is concluded that people are responding well to the threat of psychological trauma imposed by this disease and are following the instructions of their government and health regulatory body. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000623DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk Assessment of Healthcare Workers at the Frontline against COVID-19.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 May;36(COVID19-S4):S99-S103

Prof. Fahim Vohra Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the frontline of treating patients infected with COVID-19. However, data related to its infection rate among HCWs are limited. The aim was to present evidence associated with the number of HCWs being infected with COVID-19 from most viral affected countries (Italy, China, United States, Spain, and France). Furthermore, we looked into the reasons for HCWs COVID 19 infections and strategies to overcome this problem. Early available evidence suggested that HCWs are being increasingly infected with the novel infection ranging from 15% to 18% and in some cases up to 20% of the infected population. Major factors for infection among HCWs include lack of understanding of the disease, inadequate use and availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), uncertain diagnostic criteria, unavailability of diagnostic tests and psychological stress. Therefore the protection of HCWs by authorities should be prioritized through education and training, the readiness of staff, incentives, availability of PPEs, and psychological support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306961PMC
May 2020

Comparative evaluation of two chelating agents in collagen fiber network modification over dentinal tubules: An in vitro analysis.

Saudi Pharm J 2020 Jun 28;28(6):657-661. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To compare effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid in removing collagen fiber network covering dentinal tubules of human teeth.

Materials And Methods: Eighteen dentin discs were divided in three groups; Gp 1: discs received no treatment (control), Gp 2: discs etched with 17% EDTA (pH = 7.1), and Gp 3: discs etched with 6 wt% citric acid (pH = 4.0). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess collagen fiber removal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was implemented to analyse crystal peaks of discs.

Results: The SEM analysis demonstrated more collagen removal with EDTA treatment compared to citric acid treated specimens. Grade 6 (81% to 100% fiber removal) was mostly achieved for Gp 2 samples whereas grade 2 (1% to 20% fiber removal) was mostly achieved for Gp 3 samples and inter-group comparisons between these groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). X-ray diffractogram of control and experimental samples demonstrated absence of calcite phase in experimental groups. The change in peak shapes and intensities were observed and citric acid treated samples revealed more intense peaks than EDTA group.

Conclusion: Our study found 17% EDTA to be more effective in removing collagen fibers when matched with 6% citric acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292877PMC
June 2020

Oral squamous cell carcinoma: metastasis, potentially associated malignant disorders, etiology and recent advancements in diagnosis.

F1000Res 2020 2;9:229. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441, Saudi Arabia.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a commonly occurring head and neck cancer. It has a high prevalence in certain parts of the world, and is associated with a high mortality rate. In this review, we describe metastasis related to OSCC, and disorders that could lead to OSCC with common etiological factors. In addition, a brief account of the diagnosis of OSCC and role of salivary biomarkers in its early detection has also been highlighted. Google Scholar and PubMed search engines were searched with keywords including "oral squamous cell carcinoma", "OSCC", "oral cancer", "potentially malignant disorders in oral cavity", "etiological factors of OSCC",  "diagnosis of OSCC", and "salivary biomarkers and OSCC" to gather the literature for this review. The review concludes that OSCC has the potential for regional as well as distant metastasis, and many potentially malignant diseases can transform into OSCC with the help of various etiological factors. Diagnosis of OSCC involves traditional biopsy, but salivary biomarkers could also be utilized for early recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.22941.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194458PMC
March 2021

The role of salivary contents and modern technologies in the remineralization of dental enamel: a narrative review.

F1000Res 2020 9;9:171. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441, Saudi Arabia.

Human enamel once formed cannot be biologically repaired or replaced. Saliva has a significant role in remineralization of dental enamel. It not only has a buffering capacity to neutralize the oral cavity's low pH generated after acidic encounters, but also acts as a carrier of essential ions, such as fluoride, calcium and phosphate, which have a positive role in enamel's remineralization. This review discusses how salivary contents, like proteins and enzymes, have a natural role in enamel's mineralization. In addition, the presence of ions, such as fluoride, calcium and phosphate, in saliva further enhances its capability to remineralize the demineralized enamel surface. The review further examines modern innovative technologies, based on biomimetic regeneration systems, including dentin phosphoproteins, aspartate-serine-serine, recombinant porcine amelogenin, leucine-rich amelogenin peptide and nano-hydroxyapatite, that promote enamel remineralization. Fluoride boosters like calcium phosphates, polyphosphates, and certain natural products can also play an important role in enamel remineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.22499.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076334PMC
February 2021

Salivary gland tissue engineering to attain clinical benefits: a special report.

Regen Med 2020 03 7;15(3):1455-1461. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The salivary glands produce saliva, which helps in mediating the oral colonization of microbes, the repair of mucosa, the remineralization of teeth, lubrication and gustation. However, certain medications, therapeutic radiation and certain autoimmune diseases can cause a reduction in the salivary flow. The aim of this report was to review and highlight the indications and techniques of salivary gland engineering to counter hyposalivation. This report concludes that in the literature, numerous strategies have been suggested and discussed pertaining to the engineering of salivary gland, however, challenges remain in terms of its production and accurate function. Dedicated efforts are required from researchers all over the world to obtain the maximum benefits from salivary gland engineering techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/rme-2019-0079DOI Listing
March 2020

COVID-19 outbreak and its monetary implications for dental practices, hospitals and healthcare workers.

Postgrad Med J 2020 Dec 3;96(1142):791-792. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The novel COVID-19 came under limelight few months back (December 2019) and has recently been declared a pandemic by WHO. It has resulted in serious financial implications being faced by dental practices, hospitals and healthcare workers. Dental practice currently is restricted to provision of emergency dental care whereas, many hospitals have also cancelled elective procedures to save finances for COVID-19 treatment which is expensive and unpredictable. In addition, healthcare workers are also facing financial challenges in this difficult time. Competent authorities should step in to help dental practices, hospitals and healthcare workers in order to ensure the provision of all types of healthcare efficiently in these testing times and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137781DOI Listing
December 2020

Dentin Tubule Occlusion Potential of Novel Dentifrices Having Fluoride Containing Bioactive Glass and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

Med Princ Pract 2020 5;29(4):338-346. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To compare the in vitro potential of dentin tubule occlusion of two novel experimental dentifrices consisting of fluoride containing bioactive glass (BG) with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight dentin discs (n = 48) were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), based on their brushing dentifrices: Group 1 = artificial saliva (AS; control); Group 2 = fluoride dentifrice (Colgate Palmolive©, UK); Group 3 = experimental nonactive agent dentifrice; Group 4 = experimental dentifrice with 1.5% BG; Group 5 = experimental dentifrice with 4% BG; and Group 6 = BioMinF© dentifrice. Postbrushing, the discs were subjected to acidic challenge with 6% wt citric acid (pH = 4.0) for 1 min. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were performed pre- and post-citric acid challenges, and percentages of tubule occlusion assessed.

Results: SEM micrographs of group 1 (AS) show no tubule occlusion (0%), whereas those of groups 2 and 3 show partial tubule occlusion (25 to <50% of tubules occluded). The SEM micrographs of dentifrices containing fluoride-BG (groups 4, 5, and 6) show that most of the tubules (>50 and <100%) were occluded. For all the groups (excluding group 1), pre- and post-citric acid challenge values are statistically significant (p < 0.05). EDX analysis reveals the presence of zinc in experimental dentifrices only.

Conclusion: The results of novel experimental dentifrices are comparable to those of the BioMinF©, in terms of tubule occlusion. Dentifrices containing BG could serve as an alternative in dentin sensitivity management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445664PMC
November 2019

Influence of Thymoquinone Exposure on the Micro-Hardness of Dental Enamel: An In Vitro Study.

Eur J Dent 2019 Jul 16;13(3):318-322. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess changes in micro-hardness level of enamel after it was exposed to thymoquinone (TQ).

Materials And Methods: Sixteen enamel blocks were prepared and divided into two groups (each group received eight blocks, = 8); Gp 1 (control): enamel blocks kept in 100 mL artificial saliva (AS) for 24 hours and Gp 2: enamel blocks kept in a mixture of TQ powder (1 g) and AS (100 mL) for 24 hours. Post-immersion they were subjected to simulated brushing with each sample receiving 8,000 linear strokes. For brushing, 3 mL of AS and TQ oil was used for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Enamel surfaces were analyzed for changes in values of surface micro-hardness (pre-immersion, post-immersion, and post-brushing) by obtaining Vickers hardness number (VHN).

Results: The present study indicated improvement in micro-hardness levels for both groups although experimental group showed more enhancement. The mean baseline VHN for control group was 498.6, 500.4 for post-immersion, and 503.5 for post-brushing. The mean baseline VHN for experimental group was 448.7, 531 for post-immersion, and 610.3 for post-brushing. Statistically significant differences ( < 0.05) were observed when post-brushing VHN values of both groups were compared and also within the experimental group when post-brushing values were compared with baseline values.

Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied for the evaluation of pre- and post-exposure hardness values. Level of significance was ≤0.05.

Conclusion: The exposure of enamel to TQ led to an improvement in its micro-hardness levels. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of action of TQ on human tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1697117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6890481PMC
July 2019

An in-vitro evaluation of fluoride content and enamel remineralization potential of two toothpastes containing different bioactive glasses.

Biomed Mater Eng 2020 ;30(5-6):487-496

Departamento de Odontología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, C/Del Pozos/n, Alfara del Patriarca, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Many novel biomaterials have been incorporated in toothpastes to promote remineralization of tooth structure.

Objectives: This study was carried out to compare the discrepancies between declared and actual total fluoride (TF) or total soluble fluoride (TSF) concentration of two modern toothpastes containing bioactive glasses; these were also assessed for their remineralization potential.

Materials And Methods: The TF and TSF concentration were assessed using a fluoride ion selective electrode. Enamel remineralization was evaluated through micro-hardness analysis. Eighteen enamel blocks were divided into three groups: 1 (n = 6; control), 2 (n = 6; Novamin® toothpaste), and 3 (n = 6; BiominF® toothpaste). The specimens were demineralized by 6 wt% citric acid (pH = 2.2). Subsequently, the specimens in group 1 were kept in artificial saliva (AS), while the specimens in groups 2 and 3 were stored in AS + Novamin® and AS + Biomin®, respectively.

Results: Both Novamin® or BiominF® showed less TF concentration than their label claims. BiominF® had more TF and TSF compared to Novamin® (p < 0.05). The BiominF® toothpaste presented higher micro-hardness values on remineralization.

Conclusion: BiominF® toothpaste demonstrated more fluoride content and greater potential to promote remineralization of demineralized human enamel compared to Novamin®.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-191069DOI Listing
November 2020

A Review of the Role of Amelogenin Protein in Enamel Formation and Novel Experimental Techniques to Study its Function.

Protein Pept Lett 2019 ;26(12):880-886

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Amelognein protein plays a vital role in the formation and mineralization of enamel matrix. Amelogenin structure is complex in nature and researchers have studied it with different experimental techniques. Considering its important role, there is a need to understand this important protein, which has been discussed in detail in this review. In addition, various experimental techniques to study amelogenin protein used previously have been tackled along with their advantages and disadvantages. A selection of 67 relevant articles/book chapters was included in this study. The review concluded that amelogenins act as nanospheres or spacers for the growth of enamel crystals. Various experimental techniques can be used to study amelogenins, however, their advantages and drawbacks should be kept in mind before performing analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866526666190731120018DOI Listing
January 2020

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Medical and Dental Applications: A Comprehensive Review.

Eur J Dent 2019 Feb 6;13(1):124-128. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most significant analytical techniques that has been developed in the past few decades. A broad range of biological and nonbiological applications ranging from an individual cell to organs and tissues has been investigated through NMR. Various aspects of this technique are still under research, and many functions of the NMR are still pending a better understanding and acknowledgment. Therefore, this review is aimed at providing a general overview of the main principles, types of this technique, and the advantages and disadvantages of NMR spectroscopy. In addition, an insight into the current uses of NMR in the field of medicine and dentistry and ongoing developments of NMR spectroscopy for future applications has been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1688654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635960PMC
February 2019

Remineralization of artificial carious lesions using a novel fluoride incorporated bioactive glass dentifrice.

Dent Med Probl 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):379-382

Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Remineralization potential of dentifrices with novel compositions that can restore minerals back into incipient carious lesions has not been extensively studied so far.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a dentifrice based on novel fluoride incorporated bioactive glass in remineralizing artificial carious lesions in human enamel, and compare it with a standard fluoride-containing dentifrice.

Material And Methods: Twenty-four human extracted teeth were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction to obtain enamel blocks. These blocks (n = 24) were randomly divided into 3 groups, with each group containing 8 specimens: group 1 (negative control group; distilled water), group 2 (positive control group; fluoride toothpaste) and group 3 (test group; BioMinTM F toothpaste). Artificial carious lesions were produced in the enamel surfaces by exposing them to a demineralization solution (6% citric acid, pH 2.2) for 96 h. After demineralization, the specimens were brushed with manual toothbrushes in a toothbrush simulation machine (each sample received 800 strokes). For brushing the specimens from group 1, 20 mL of distilled water was used, for group 2 - 20 mL of slurry of toothpaste mixed with artificial saliva, and for group 3 - 20 mL of slurry of toothpaste (BioMin F) mixed with artificial saliva. The micro-hardness data (VHN - Vickers hardness number) was collected at baseline (sound enamel), post-demineralization and post-remineralization.

Results: The biggest difference between the post-remineralization and post-demineralization values was observed in group 3 (mean VHN = 118.73), followed by group 2 (mean VHN = 60.54) and group 1 (mean VHN = 47.44). All the groups revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) when the post-demineralization and post-remineralization values were compared to baseline values within each group.

Conclusions: The BioMin F group outperformed the other 2 groups in terms of remineralizing the demineralized enamel structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/dmp/97311DOI Listing
September 2019

Total and soluble fluoride concentration present in various commercial brands of children toothpastes available in Saudi Arabia - A pilot study.

Saudi Dent J 2018 Apr 31;30(2):161-165. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to perform chemical analysis and investigate the total and soluble fluoride concentrations in various brands of children toothpastes.

Materials And Methods: Three samples of five different commercial brands of children toothpastes were collected and divided into five groups; group A - Biorepair Oral Care toothpaste containing no fluoride (control), group B - Signal Kids Strawberry toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, group C - Aquafresh Milk Teeth toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, group D - Aquafresh Little Teeth toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, and group E - Siwak F Junior having 400 ppm F. The total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) concentration of the toothpastes was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode. Data were analysed using Paired sample -test.

Results: The measured TF values were inconsistent with that of the declared concentrations by the manufacturers. Mean TF found in the toothpastes ranged between 2.37 and 515.74 ppm whereas, the mean TSF ranged between 2.00 and 503.4 ppm. For two groups, TF was more than the declared TF whereas for the other three groups, it was less than the declared concentration. All the differences between the declared and observed TF concentration were statistically significant (p < .05) except for one group. All the toothpastes demonstrated mean TSF slightly lower than their respective observed mean TF concentrations.

Conclusion: The analysis of TF and TSF concentrations revealed variations from the labelled claims. Therefore, some of the toothpastes may have doubtful anti-caries effectiveness owing to deficiency of total and soluble fluoride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884239PMC
April 2018

Pharyngeal pack placement in minor oral surgery: A prospective, randomized, controlled study.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 03;97(3):E18-E21

Department of Biomedical Dental Science, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia.

We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to investigate the influence of pharyngeal pack placement on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and throat pain after minor oral surgery. Our study group was made up of 80 patients-45 men and 35 women, aged 19 to 52 years (mean: 27.3)-who underwent a minor oral surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 20 patients who received a pharyngeal pack under videolaryngoscopic guidance (video guidance group), 20 who had a pack placed blindly (blind insertion group), and 40 patients who received no pack at all (control group). Postoperative nausea occurred in only 4 patients (20%) in the blind insertion group (p < 0.007). No patient experienced postoperative vomiting. Postoperative throat pain occurred in all 20 video guidance patients (100%), in 17 of the blind insertion patients (85%), and in 20 of the controls (50%). The difference between the controls and each of the two pack groups was statistically significant (p < 0.006); the difference between the two pack groups was not significant.
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March 2018

Cutting efficiency of different dental materials utilized in an air abrasion system.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017 Sep-Oct;11(4):23-27

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test cutting efficiency of different materials against conventional alumina in an air abrasion system.

Materials And Methods: The powder samples were divided into three groups: Group 1 - alumina (control), Group 2 - 45S5 bioactive glass, and Group 3 - hydroxyapatite. 30 microscope glass slides of 0.5 mm thickness were used as an alternative of human enamel and were also divided randomly into these three groups. The time taken by the abrasive particles to cut a hole through the microscope glass slide was recorded with a stop watch. In addition, morphology of the particles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A -test was used to compare the times taken to cut a hole through the microscope glass slides, and the level of significance was set at < 0.05.

Results: The mean time taken to cut a hole through the microscope glass slide was 2.96 s and 23.01s for Groups 1 and 2, respectively, whereas powder of Group 3 did not cut after 120 s. The differences between cutting times of Groups 1 and 2 were statistically significant ( < 0.05). The SEM micrographs revealed coarse angular shape for particles of Groups 1 and 2 but Group 3 particles were with round ends and presence of smaller particles was also observed in Groups 2 and 3.

Conclusion: The alumina particles demonstrated excellent cutting efficiency followed by 45S5 particles. The use of bioactive glass particles should be encouraged for cutting purposes whenever a shortage of time for practitioners is not a concern.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5654181PMC
November 2017

Effect of software facilitated teaching on final grades of dental students in a dental morphology course.

Saudi Med J 2017 Feb;38(2):192-195

Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives:   To evaluate differences in students' performance in a dental morphology course after the introduction of a 3D software-teaching program.  Methods: This retrospective study took place at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from Augst 2013 to January 2016. The study included 3 groups of students taking the course during 3 different academic years: group 1, 2013-14 control; group 2, 2014-2015; and group 3, 2015-2016. The total sample size was 294 (n = 294; group 1 = 94; group 2 = 100; and group 3 = 100). Group 1 =students did not receive teaching facilitated by a software program, but groups 2 and 3 students were provided with the program's CDs. The final examination grades of the students were statistically analyzed, retrospectively  Results: The results demonstrated that the students who received software-facilitated teaching (groups 2 and 3) performed better than the students who did not receive it (group 1). Within the same year for groups 2 and 3, the number of students achieving good grades (greater than 80%) was significantly higher than the students who achieved average grades (less than 79%), with p-values of 0.012 for group 2 and 0.009 for group 3.  Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between the use of a teaching software program for students and their performance in final examinations. The addition of computer-based learning, as one of the teaching methods, could demonstrably boost students' learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2017.2.15627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329632PMC
February 2017

A Micro-Computed Tomography Study of the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Premolars in an Emirati Population.

Med Princ Pract 2017 3;26(2):118-124. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Boston University Institute for Dental Research and Education, Dubai Health Care City, Dubai, UAE.

Objective: To investigate variations in the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars in a population from the United Arab Emirates using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and conventional radiography.

Materials And Methods: Three-dimensional images of 50 extracted human mandibular first premolars were produced using a micro-CT scanner, and conventional radiography was also used to record the number of roots, the root canal system configuration, the presence of a C-shaped canal system and lateral canals, intercanal communications, and the number and location of apical foramina. The interpretations of micro-CT and conventional radiography were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test.

Results: Variable root canal configurations based on Vertucci's classification were observed in the teeth (i.e., types I, III, IV, V, and VII). The examined teeth exhibited the following 2 additional root canal configurations, which did not fit Vertucci's classification: type 1-2-3 and type 1-3. A C-shaped canal configuration was present in 14 (28%) cases, and lateral canals were present in 22 (44%) cases. Apical deltas were found in 25 (50%) cases, intercanal communications were seen in 6 (12%) cases, and apical loops were seen in 2 (4%) of the samples. Micro-CT and X-ray imaging identified 39 (78%) and 34 (68%) apical foramina, respectively. A single apical foramen was detected in 33 (66%) samples, and 2 or 3 apical foramina were detected in 14 (28 %) and 3 (6%) samples, respectively. In 18.5 (37%) samples the apical foramina were located centrally, and in 31 (62%) they were located laterally.

Conclusion: A complex morphology of the mandibular first premolars was observed with a high prevalence of multiple root canal systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000453039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588359PMC
October 2017

Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2015 Dec;25(12):891-6

Oral and Dental Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Western Cape, South Africa.

Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/12.2015/JCPSP.891896DOI Listing
December 2015