Publications by authors named "Imane Chakroun"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-wide association between Six4, MyoD, and the histone demethylase Utx during myogenesis.

FASEB J 2015 Nov 30;29(11):4738-55. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

*Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; and Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Adult skeletal muscles can regenerate after injury, due to the presence of satellite cells, a quiescent population of myogenic progenitor cells. Once activated, satellite cells repair the muscle damage by undergoing myogenic differentiation. The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) coordinate the process of progenitor differentiation in cooperation with other families of transcription factors (TFs). The Six1 and Six4 homeodomain TFs are expressed in developing and adult muscle and Six1 is critical for embryonic and adult myogenesis. However, the lack of a muscle developmental phenotype in Six4-null mice, which has been attributed to compensation by other Six family members, has discouraged further assessment of the role of Six4 during adult muscle regeneration. By employing genome-wide approaches to address the function of Six4 during adult skeletal myogenesis, we have identified a core set of muscle genes coordinately regulated in adult muscle precursors by Six4 and the MRF MyoD. Throughout the genome of differentiating adult myoblasts, the cooperation between Six4 and MyoD is associated with chromatin repressive mark removal by Utx, a demethylase of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27. Among the genes coordinately regulated by Six4 and MyoD are several genes critical for proper in vivo muscle regeneration, implicating a role of Six4 in this process. Using in vivo RNA interference of Six4, we expose an uncompensated function of this TF during muscle regeneration. Together, our results reveal a role for Six4 during adult muscle regeneration and suggest a widespread mechanism of cooperation between Six4 and MyoD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.15-277053DOI Listing
November 2015

Six1 regulates MyoD expression in adult muscle progenitor cells.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(6):e67762. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Quiescent satellite cells are myogenic progenitors that enable regeneration of skeletal muscle. One of the early events of satellite cell activation following myotrauma is the induction of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, which eventually induces terminal differentiation and muscle function gene expression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which MyoD is induced during activation of satellite cells in mouse muscle undergoing regeneration. We show that Six1, a transcription factor essential for embryonic myogenesis, also regulates MyoD expression in muscle progenitor cells. Six1 knock-down by RNA interference leads to decreased expression of MyoD in myoblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that Six1 binds the Core Enhancer Region of MyoD. Further, transcriptional reporter assays demonstrate that Core Enhancer Region reporter gene activity in myoblasts and in regenerating muscle depends on the expression of Six1 and on Six1 binding sites. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that Six1 is required for the proper chromatin structure at the Core Enhancer Region, as well as for MyoD binding at its own enhancer. Together, our results reveal that MyoD expression in satellite cells depends on Six1, supporting the idea that Six1 plays an important role in adult myogenesis, in addition to its role in embryonic muscle formation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067762PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3695946PMC
April 2014

Cooperation between myogenic regulatory factors and SIX family transcription factors is important for myoblast differentiation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2010 Nov 2;38(20):6857-71. Epub 2010 Jul 2.

Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada.

Precise regulation of gene expression is crucial to myogenesis and is thought to require the cooperation of various transcription factors. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis of gene regulatory sequences, we hypothesized that myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), key regulators of skeletal myogenesis, cooperate with members of the SIX family of transcription factors, known to play important roles during embryonic skeletal myogenesis. To this day little is known regarding the exact molecular mechanism by which SIX factors regulate muscle development. We have conducted a functional genomic study of the role played by SIX1 and SIX4 during the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts, a model of adult muscle regeneration. We report that SIX factors cooperate with the members of the MRF family to activate gene expression during myogenic differentiation, and that their function is essential to this process. Our findings also support a model where SIX factors function not only 'upstream' of the MRFs during embryogenesis, but also 'in parallel' to them during myoblast differentiation. We have identified new essential nodes that depend on SIX factor function, in the myogenesis regulatory network, and have uncovered a novel way by which MRF function is modulated during differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkq585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2978361PMC
November 2010

Stage-specific effect of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide on cell growth in squamous cell carcinogenesis.

Mol Carcinog 2004 May;40(1):12-23

Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent form of epithelial cancer. SCC results when normal epithelial cells undergo multiple neoplastic changes that culminate in the evolution of an invasive cancer. Retinoids are commonly used as chemopreventive and treatment agents in skin cancer; however, SCC progression is accompanied by a gradual loss of retinoid responsiveness. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR) has shown promising anti-neoplastic activity in a variety of tumor cells, including those that are resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA). We investigated the effect of HPR on growth and apoptosis of squamous cells at different stages of carcinogenesis. We then determined if retinoic acid receptor (RAR) overexpression affected the outcome of HPR treatment. To model SCC malignant progression, we used a panel of murine keratinocytes representing different stages of squamous cell carcinogenesis. This panel consisted of primary keratinocytes, SP1 and 308 papilloma cell lines, the PAM-212 squamous carcinoma cell line, and the spindle I7 cell line. With the exception of the primary keratinocytes, all cells were unresponsive to t-RA treatment. Pharmacological concentrations of HPR were non-cytotoxic to all keratinocytes tested and HPR sensitivity was stage-dependent, with the papilloma cell lines being the most sensitive, and the spindle cells being the most resistant. Overexpression of RARgamma in SP1 papilloma cells enhanced growth suppression and apoptosis induction by HPR. HPR-induced growth suppression was accompanied by a simultaneous block in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle in RAR-transduced and control SP1 cells and differential regulation of cell cycle and apoptotic mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20016DOI Listing
May 2004